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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821876/transcriptomic-biochemical-and-physio-anatomical-investigations-shed-more-light-on-responses-to-drought-stress-in-two-contrasting-sesame-genotypes
#1
Komivi Dossa, Donghua Li, Linhai Wang, Xiaomin Zheng, Aili Liu, Jingyin Yu, Xin Wei, Rong Zhou, Daniel Fonceka, Diaga Diouf, Boshou Liao, Ndiaga Cissé, Xiurong Zhang
Sesame is an important oilseed crop with a high oil quality. It is prone to drought stress in the arid and semi-arid areas where it is widely grown. This study aims to decipher the response of tolerant (DT) and sensitive (DS) genotypes to progressive drought based on transcriptome, biochemical and physio-anatomical characterizations. Results indicated that under severe stress, DT relied on a well-functioning taproot while DS displayed a disintegrated root due to collapsed cortical cells. This was attributed to a higher accumulation of osmoprotectants and strong activity of antioxidant enzymes especially peroxidases in DT...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821232/genomic-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-approaches-towards-understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-salt-tolerance-in-frankia-strains-isolated-from-casuarina-trees
#2
Rediet Oshone, Mariama Ngom, Feixia Chu, Samira Mansour, Mame Ourèye Sy, Antony Champion, Louis S Tisa
BACKGROUND: Soil salinization is a worldwide problem that is intensifying because of the effects of climate change. An effective method for the reclamation of salt-affected soils involves initiating plant succession using fast growing, nitrogen fixing actinorhizal trees such as the Casuarina. The salt tolerance of Casuarina is enhanced by the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis that they form with the actinobacterium Frankia. Identification and molecular characterization of salt-tolerant Casuarina species and associated Frankia is imperative for the successful utilization of Casuarina trees in saline soil reclamation efforts...
August 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819049/a-comparison-of-protein-stability-in-prefillable-syringes-made-of-glass-and-plastic
#3
Lloyd Waxman, Vinod D Vilivalam
The development of protein therapeutics requires stabilization of these labile molecules during shipment and storage. Biologics, particularly monoclonal antibodies, are frequently packaged at high concentration in prefillable syringes traditionally made of glass. However, some biologics are unstable in glass due to sensitivity to silicone oil, tungsten, glue or metal ions. Syringes made from the plastic cyclic olefin polymer, Daikyo Crystal Zenith® (CZ), with a Flurotec-laminated piston have none of these issues...
August 17, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816097/meltblown-polymer-fabrics-as-candidate-scaffolds-for-rotator-cuff-tendon-tissue-engineering
#4
Thomas Jenkins, Sean Meehan, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Dianne Little
Various biomaterial technologies are promising for tissue engineering, including electrospinning, but commercial scale-up of throughput is difficult. The goal of the study was to evaluate meltblown fabrics as candidate scaffolds for rotator cuff tendon tissue engineering. Meltblown poly(lactic acid) fabrics were produced with several polymer crystallinities and airflow velocities (500(low), 900(medium) or 1400(high) m<sup>3</sup>air/hour/m fabric). Fiber diameter, alignment, and baseline bi-directional tensile mechanical properties were evaluated...
August 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813504/effect-of-co2-induced-seawater-acidification-on-growth-photosynthesis-and-inorganic-carbon-acquisition-of-the-harmful-bloom-forming-marine-microalga-karenia-mikimotoi
#5
Shunxin Hu, Bin Zhou, You Wang, Ying Wang, Xinxin Zhang, Yan Zhao, Xinyu Zhao, Xuexi Tang
Karenia mikimotoi is a widespread, toxic and non-calcifying dinoflagellate, which can release and produce ichthyotoxins and hemolytic toxins affecting the food web within the area of its bloom. Shifts in the physiological characteristics of K. mikimotoi due to CO2-induced seawater acidification could alter the occurrence, severity and impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 on the physiology of K. mikimotoi. Using semi-continuous cultures under controlled laboratory conditions, growth, photosynthesis and inorganic carbon acquisition were determined over 4-6 week incubations at ambient (390ppmv) and elevated pCO2 levels (1000 ppmv and 2000 ppmv)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812868/light-and-strong-hierarchical-porous-sic-foam-for-efficient-electromagnetic-interference-shielding-and-thermal-insulation-at-elevated-temperatures
#6
Caiyun Liang, Zhenfeng Wang, Lina Wu, Xiaochen Zhang, Huan Wang, Zhijiang Wang
A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture are fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization and followed carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso and nano pores in micro-sized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI), thermal insulation and mechanical properties. The micro-sized skeleton withstands the high stress. The meso- and nano-sized pores enhance the multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811302/effects-of-temperature-and-uvr-on-organic-matter-fluxes-and-the-metabolic-activity-of-acropora-muricata
#7
Lucile Courtial, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Stéphan Jacquet, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Stéphanie Reynaud, Cécile Rottier, Fanny Houlbrèque
Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR), the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810231/cr-induced-cellular-injury-and-necrosis-in-glycine-max-l-biochemical-mechanism-of-oxidative-damage-in-chloroplast
#8
Kalimuthu Balasaraswathi, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Janardhanam Sridevi, Dhanasingh Sujatha, Kavati Phebe Aaron, Chellan Rose
Chromium-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death involved in plants are yet to be fully elucidated. To understand the events of these processes, the stress response of the soybean plant using trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds, namely, basic chromium sulphate (BCS) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was investigated. The leaf surface morphology for stomatal aperture, wax deposition and presence of trichomes for chromium accumulation was examined by SEM-EDAX and light microscopy. The leaf mesophyll cell integrity was identified by trypan blue staining; chlorophyll autofluorescence, ROS generation and mitochondrial function were studied by fluorescence microscopy using different dyes...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809835/rgb-and-spectral-root-imaging-for-plant-phenotyping-and-physiological-research-experimental-setup-and-imaging-protocols
#9
Gernot Bodner, Mouhannad Alsalem, Alireza Nakhforoosh, Thomas Arnold, Daniel Leitner
Better understanding of plant root dynamics is essential to improve resource use efficiency of agricultural systems and increase the resistance of crop cultivars against environmental stresses. An experimental protocol is presented for RGB and hyperspectral imaging of root systems. The approach uses rhizoboxes where plants grow in natural soil over a longer time to observe fully developed root systems. Experimental settings are exemplified for assessing rhizobox plants under water stress and studying the role of roots...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808104/interaction-between-photosynthetic-electron-transport-and-chloroplast-sinks-triggers-protection-and-signalling-important-for-plant-productivity
#10
Peter J Gollan, Yugo Lima-Melo, Arjun Tiwari, Mikko Tikkanen, Eva-Mari Aro
The photosynthetic light reactions provide energy that is consumed and stored in electron sinks, the products of photosynthesis. A balance between light reactions and electron consumption in the chloroplast is vital for plants, and is protected by several photosynthetic regulation mechanisms. Photosystem I (PSI) is particularly susceptible to photoinhibition when these factors become unbalanced, which can occur in low temperatures or in high light. In this study we used the pgr5 Arabidopsis mutant that lacks ΔpH-dependent regulation of photosynthetic electron transport as a model to study the consequences of PSI photoinhibition under high light...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808098/overexpression-of-plastid-terminal-oxidase-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-alters-cellular-redox-state
#11
Kathleen Feilke, Ghada Ajlani, Anja Krieger-Liszkay
Cyanobacteria are the most ancient organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis, and they are the ancestors of plant plastids. All plastids contain the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), while only certain cyanobacteria contain PTOX. Many putative functions have been discussed for PTOX in higher plants including a photoprotective role during abiotic stresses like high light, salinity and extreme temperatures. Since PTOX oxidizes PQH2 and reduces oxygen to water, it is thought to protect against photo-oxidative damage by removing excess electrons from the plastoquinone (PQ) pool...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807479/multifactorial-analyses-revealed-optimal-aquaculture-modalities-improving-husbandry-fitness-without-clear-effect-on-stress-and-immune-status-of-pikeperch-sander-lucioperca
#12
Sébastien Baekelandt, Baptiste Redivo, Syaghalirwa N M Mandiki, Thibaut Bournonville, Alexis Houndji, Benoît Bernard, Najlae El Kertaoui, Mélodie Schmitz, Pascal Fontaine, Jean-Noël Gardeur, Yannick Ledoré, Patrick Kestemont
High mortality and impairment in growth rate during pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) ongrowing are among the major bottlenecks for its development in aquaculture. These failures may be related to high stress responsiveness since the rearing conditions are not yet optimized for this species. The objectives were to characterize the stress and immunological responses of pikeperch to major aquaculture modalities, and to identify the optimal aquaculture conditions for improving its welfare status. In a screening experiment, eight factors considered as relevant for the welfare of pikeperch were compared in two modalities using a fractional multifactorial design (2(8-4))...
August 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798298/the-algicidal-mechanism-of-prodigiosin-from-hahella-sp-ka22-against-microcystis-aeruginosa
#13
Ke Yang, Qiuliang Chen, Danyang Zhang, Huajun Zhang, Xueqian Lei, Zhangran Chen, Yi Li, Yaling Hong, Xiaohong Ma, Wei Zheng, Yun Tian, Tianling Zheng, Hong Xu
In recent years, Microcystis aeruginosa blooms have occurred throughout the world, causing huge economic losses and destroying aquatic ecosystems. It is necessary to develop effective and ecofriendly methods to control M. aeruginosa blooms. Here, we report a high algicidal activity of prodigiosin (PG) against M. aeruginosa as well as the algicidal mechanism. PG showed high algicidal activity against M. aeruginosa, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 5.87 μg/mL in 72 h. A combination of methods, including propidium iodide and Annexin V-fluorescein staining assays and light and electron microscopy indicated the existence of two modes of cell death with features similar to those in eukaryotic programmed cell death: necrotic-like and apoptotic-like...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793850/glycation-oxidation-and-glycoxidation-of-igg-a-biophysical-biochemical-immunological-and-hematological-study
#14
Sidra Islam, Moinuddin, Abdul Rouf Mir, Alok Raghav, Safia Habib, Khursheed Alam, Asif Ali
Glycation and oxidation induce structural alterations in the proteins in an inter-dependent manner with consequent pathological implications. The published literature presents wide range of modifications in conformational characteristics of proteins by glycation and oxidation; however, there is little data that could elaborate the cumulative effect of both the processes. This study has analysed the modifications in IgG by methylglyoxal (MG) (glycative stress), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) (oxidative stress) and by their combined action i...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791033/sink-status-and-photosynthetic-rate-of-the-leaflet-galls-induced-by-bystracoccus-mataybae-eriococcidae-on-matayba-guianensis-sapindaceae
#15
Denis C Oliveira, Ana Silvia F P Moreira, Rosy M S Isaias, Vitor Martini, Uiara C Rezende
The galling insect Bystracoccus mataybae (Eriococcidae) induces green and intralaminar galls on leaflets of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae), and promotes a high oxidative stress in host plant tissues. This biotic stress is assumed by the histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), whose production alters gall physiology. Thus, we hypothesize that high levels of nutrients are accumulated during gall development in response to a local maintenance of photosynthesis and to the galling insect activity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783581/high-doses-of-s-methylcysteine-cause-hypoxia-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-accompanied-by-engulfment-of-mitochondaria-by-nucleus
#16
Mohammed A El-Magd, Walied S Abdo, Mustafa El-Maddaway, Nasr M Nasr, Rasha A Gaber, Eman S El-Shetry, Ayman A Saleh, Faisal Abdulrahman Ali Alzahrani, Doaa H Abdelhady
Despite its important role as a medicinal plant, some studies reported a toxic effect for garlic (Allium sativum) when given in higher doses. Herein, we investigated the possible cardiotoxic effects of high doses of S-methylcysteine (SMC), a water soluble organosulfur compound present in garlic. Rats were orally administered SMC at a low dose (50mg), high dose (150mg) and very high dose (300mg)/kg body weight, or saline (control) for 10days. High and very high doses of SMC resulted in a significant increase in serum cardiac injury biomarkers [aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT)], as well as oxidative stress marker nitric oxide (NO) concentration in heart and a significant decrease in cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
August 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773037/bias-stress-and-temperature-impact-on-ingazno-tfts-and-circuits
#17
Jorge Martins, Pydi Bahubalindruni, Ana Rovisco, Asal Kiazadeh, Rodrigo Martins, Elvira Fortunato, Pedro Barquinha
This paper focuses on the analysis of InGaZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) and circuits under the influence of different temperatures and bias stress, shedding light into their robustness when used in real-world applications. For temperature-dependent measurements, a temperature range of 15 to 85 °C was considered. In case of bias stress, both gate and drain bias were applied for 60 min. Though isolated transistors show a variation of drain current as high as 56% and 172% during bias voltage and temperature stress, the employed circuits were able to counteract it...
June 21, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772789/transparent-thin-film-transistors-based-on-sputtered-electric-double-layer
#18
Wensi Cai, Xiaochen Ma, Jiawei Zhang, Aimin Song
Electric-double-layer (EDL) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have attracted much attention due to their low operation voltages. Recently, EDL TFTs gated with radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered SiO₂ have been developed which is compatible to large-area electronics fabrication. In this work, fully transparent Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide-based EDL TFTs on glass substrates have been fabricated at room temperature for the first time. A maximum transmittance of about 80% has been achieved in the visible light range...
April 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771755/pickle-chromatin-remodeling-factor-controls-thermosensory-hypocotyl-growth-of-arabidopsis
#19
Ping Zha, Yanjun Jing, Gang Xu, Rongcheng Lin
Temperature is a major signal that governs plant distribution and shapes plant growth. High ambient temperature promotes plant thermomorphogenesis without significant induction of heat-stress responses. Although much progress of warm temperature-mediated plant growth have been made during recent years, the thermomorphogenic signaling pathway is not well understood. We previously revealed that PICKLE (PKL), an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor, negatively controls photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana...
August 2, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771326/in-plane-anisotropic-molecular-orientation-of-pentafluorene-and-its-application-to-linearly-polarized-electroluminescence
#20
Takeshi Komino, Hiroyuki Kuwae, Akiko Okada, Weixin Fu, Jun Mizuno, Jean-Charles Ribierre, Yuji Oki, Chihaya Adachi
By preparing parallelly aligned 1.9-μm-high SiO2 microfluidic channels on an indium tin oxide substrate surface, the solution flow direction during spin-coating was controlled to be parallel to the grating. Using this technique, a pentafluorene-4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (CBP) binary solution in chloroform was spin-coated to embed a 40-50 nm-thick 10 wt %-pentafluorene:CBP thin film in the channels. In-plane polarized photoluminescence measurements revealed that the pentafluorene molecules tended to orient along the grating, demonstrating that one-dimensional fluid flow can control the in-plane molecular orientation...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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