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malignant, cancer, radiotherapy

Ankita Bansal, M Celeste Simon
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant antioxidant found in living organisms and has multiple functions, most of which maintain cellular redox homeostasis. GSH preserves sufficient levels of cysteine and detoxifies xenobiotics while also conferring therapeutic resistance to cancer cells. However, GSH metabolism plays both beneficial and pathogenic roles in a variety of malignancies. It is crucial to the removal and detoxification of carcinogens, and alterations in this pathway can have a profound effect on cell survival...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Nienke Hoekstra, Emmanuelle Fleury, Tomas Rodrigo Merino Lara, Peter van der Baan, Andy Bahnerth, Gerson Struik, Mischa Hoogeman, Jean-Philippe Pignol
INTRODUCTION: For early stage breast cancer patients, non-breast cancer mortality including secondary cancers and cardiac events can overshadow the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy. This study evaluates the excess risk of secondary cancer for various breast radiotherapy techniques including accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). METHODS: Secondary cancers Lifetime Attributable Risks (LAR) were calculated using a modified BEIR-VII formalism to account for the specific survival of breast cancer patients...
June 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Ioannis Psallidas, Nikolaos I Kanellakis, Stephen Gerry, Marie Laëtitia Thézénas, Philip D Charles, Anastasia Samsonova, Herbert B Schiller, Roman Fischer, Rachelle Asciak, Robert J Hallifax, Rachel Mercer, Melissa Dobson, Tao Dong, Ian D Pavord, Gary S Collins, Benedikt M Kessler, Harvey I Pass, Nick Maskell, Georgios T Stathopoulos, Najib M Rahman
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malignant pleural effusion is increasing worldwide, but prognostic biomarkers to plan treatment and to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain unidentified. The PROMISE study was designed with the objectives to discover, validate, and prospectively assess biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis response in malignant pleural effusion and build a score that predicts survival. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used five separate and independent datasets from randomised controlled trials to investigate potential biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis...
June 13, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Alireza Mohammadkarim, Mohammad Tabatabaei, Azim Parandakh, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad-Mehdi Khani
Radiation therapy has been widely utilized as an effective method to eliminate malignant tumors and cancerous cells. However, subjection of healthy tissues and the related networks of blood vessels adjacent to the tumor area to irradiation is inevitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequent effects of fractionation radiotherapy on the mechanical characteristics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through alterations in cytoskeleton organization and cell and nucleus morphology...
June 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Yan Zhou, Ping He, Xuhua Xie, Changyu Sun
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumors with high recurrence and metastasis rates. Radiotherapy represents a major therapeutic option for HCC patients. However, the efficacy of radiotherapy has been limited due to the development of intrinsic radioresistance of the tumor cells. Small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 pseudogene 3 (SUMO1P3), one member of SUMO pseudogene family, is a novel identified lncRNA that was originally identified to be upregulated in gastric cancer...
June 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Trevor J Royce, Muhammad M Qureshi, Minh Tam Truong
BACKGROUND: The changing use of radiation as a first-line cancer therapy in the United States is poorly characterized. This study aims to report radiotherapy utilization and fractionation patterns during the first course of cancer treatment. METHODS: We extracted all solid tumor cases from 2004 to 2014 in the National Cancer Data Base, which captures only the first course of treatment. Patients were subcategorized by disease site: breast, central nervous system (CNS), gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, head and neck (HN), musculoskeletal, skin, or thoracic...
June 11, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Kanqiu Jiang, Mingjing Shen, Yongbing Chen, Weihua Xu
Lung cancer (LC), as the most common cause of cancer‑related mortality worldwide, is characterized by difficulties in early detection, a high degree of malignancy, poor sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and a low 5‑year survival rate. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small, non‑coding, endogenously expressed RNA that serves vital roles in RNA silencing and post‑transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that abnormal expression of miRNA is relevant to various malignant tumors, including lung cancer...
June 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
Chan-Hun Jung, Ah-Reum Han, Hwa-Jin Chung, In-Hyuk Ha, Hong-Duck Um
Radiotherapy is routinely used in the treatment of lung cancer patients. However, it often causes malignant effects, such as promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Previous studies demonstrated that ionizing radiation (IR) promotes cancer cell invasion by stimulating the β-catenin, IL-6, STAT3, and Bcl-XL signaling pathway or the PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway. Both Bcl-XL and NF-κB stimulate the secretion of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), including MMP-2 and MMP-9. In the present study, linarin isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers significantly decreased the IR-induced cell migration and invasion at a concentration of 5 μM in A549 cells...
June 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Ernestas Janulionis, Vitalija Samerdokiene, Konstantinas Povilas Valuckas, Vydmantas Atkocius, Mark J Rivard
PURPOSE: Second primary malignancies (SPMs) may occur in organs after radiotherapy (RT). This study aimed to determine the rate and distribution of SPMs for photon- or neutron-emitting radiotherapy sources for patients treated for primary endometrial cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The cohort comprised 426 patients with 5334 patient-years of observation. Patients were treated by different methods of RT from 1990 to 2000. Patients received postoperative 60 Co external-beam radiotherapy (43...
June 9, 2018: Brachytherapy
Ufuk Emre, Taskin Gunes, Irem Pinar, Furuzan Kokturk, Esengul Liman, Orhan Yağiz
Background and purpose: In cancer patients, an ischemic stroke can be seen as both a direct effect of cancer and a complication of treatment. This condition can negatively affect the follow-up and treatment of these patients. For this research, we aimed to evaluate the clinical features, stroke types and etiological features of ischemic stroke patients with histories of cancer or found to have cancer during the aetiological investigation. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 100 patients (57 males, 43 females) who were hospitalized with acute stroke and determined to have the presence of cancer or a cancer history during the aetiological investigation between 2011 and 2016...
May 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Harry Kaltsidis, Wasat Mansoor, Jung-Hoon Park, Ho-Young Song, Derek William Edwards, Hans-Ulrich Laasch
Oesophageal stents are widely used for palliating dysphagia from malignant obstruction. They are also used with increasing frequency in the treatment of oesophageal perforation, as well as benign strictures from a variety of causes. Improved oncological treatments have led to prolonged survival of patients treated with palliative intent; as a consequence, stents need to function and last longer in order to avoid repeat procedures. There is also increasing need for meticulous procedure planning, careful selection of the device most appropriate for the individual patient and planned follow-up...
June 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Julian Hlouschek, Christine Hansel, Verena Jendrossek, Johann Matschke
Pronounced resistance of lung cancer cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a major barrier to successful treatment. Herein, both tumor hypoxia and the upregulation of the cellular antioxidant defense systems observed during malignant progression can contribute to radioresistance. We recently found that exposure to chronic cycling severe hypoxia/reoxygenation stress results in glutamine-dependent upregulation of cellular glutathione (GSH) levels and associated radiation resistance opening novel routes for tumor cell-specific radiosensitization...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Junya Peng, Wenqian Wang, Surong Hua, Lulu Liu
Cells can secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) to communicate with neighboring or distant cells by EVs which are composed of a lipid bilayer containing transmembrane proteins and enclosing cytosolic proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Breast Cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy with more than 1 million new cases each year and ranks the leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. In this review, we will discuss recent progresses of the roles and mechanisms of cancer-derived EVs in metastatic breast cancer, with a special attention on tumor microenvironment construction, progression, and chemo/radiotherapy responses...
2018: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Ling-Fang Xia, Shuang Ye, Xu-Xia Shen, Jia Tang, Hui-Juan Yang, Yan Huang
OBJECTIVE: Leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube is a rare malignant gynecologic neoplasm with poor prognosis. It is important to share experience and to collect more cases to improve the understanding of the disease. CASE REPORT: We reported three patients with leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube who were treated in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (Shanghai, China) from 2012 to 2016. Although the three cases shared the same diagnosis, they varied in the presentations, treatments, and outcomes...
June 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Andrzej Wojcik, Simon D Bouffler, M Hauptmann, Preetha Rajaraman
The separate use of the terms "radiosensitivity" and "radiosusceptibility" has been suggested to describe variability in the risk of, respectively, adverse tissue reactions (deterministic effect) following radiotherapy and radiation-induced cancer (stochastic effect). The aim of this note is to present arguments against such distinction. We feel that it is premature to make a concrete final judgement on these definitions because of the limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying individual sensitivity to both radiation-related cancers and radiation-related tissue injury...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Lucie M Turcotte, Joseph P Neglia, Raoul C Reulen, Cecile M Ronckers, Flora E van Leeuwen, Lindsay M Morton, David C Hodgson, Yutaka Yasui, Kevin C Oeffinger, Tara O Henderson
Subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in childhood cancer survivors cause substantial morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes recent literature on SMN epidemiology, risk factors, surveillance, and interventions. Survivors of childhood cancer experience long-term increased SMN risk compared with the general population, with a greater than twofold increased solid tumor risk extending beyond age 40 years. There is a dose-dependent increased risk for solid tumors after radiotherapy, with the highest risks for tumors occurring in or near the treatment field (eg, greater than fivefold increased risk for breast, brain, thyroid, skin, bone, and soft tissue malignancies)...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Navid Moshtaghi-Kashanian, Hanieh Niroomand-Oscuii, Nargess Meghdadi
Glioblastoma is known to be among one of the deadliest brain tumors in the world today. There have been major improvements in the detection of cancerous cells in the twenty-first century. However, the threshold of detection of these cancerous cells varies in different scanning techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). The growth of these tumors and different treatments have been modeled to assist medical experts in better predictions of the related tumor growth and in the selection of more accurate treatments...
June 5, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Jovanna Thielker, Maria Grosheva, Stephan Ihrler, Andrea Wittig, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
To report the standard of care, interesting new findings and controversies about the treatment of parotid tumors. Relevant and actual studies were searched in PubMed and reviewed for diagnostics, treatment and outcome of both benign and malignant tumors. Prospective trials are lacking due to rarity of the disease and high variety of tumor subtypes. The establishment of reliable non-invasive diagnostics tools for the differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is desirable. Prospective studies clarifying the association between different surgical techniques for benign parotid tumors and morbidity are needed...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
Aurash Naser-Tavakolian, Cindy Tran, Marissa Timoteo, Raymond Chiu, Leslie Ballas
Urethral cancer (UC) is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. Since local recurrence is common and associated with morbidity, case series have reported on the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. Radiotherapy treatment setup for malignancies of the penis can be challenging because of variability in anatomic positioning. This variability can lead to lack of reproducibility. We propose a novel external beam radiotherapy technique for the treatment of UC: prone positioning. This technique has been used to treat breast cancers successfully and can be used to treat any variety of penile malignancies...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Dong Chen, Chun-Hui Chen, Li-Lian Zhang, Zhong-Ke Lin, Jing-Wei Zheng, Kevin Phan, Ralph J Mobbs, Yan Lin, Wen-Fei Ni, Xiang-Yang Wang, Yan Michael Li, Ai-Min Wu
STUDY DESIGN: This was a longitudinal cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the outcomes of surgery with or without radiotherapy during treatment of patients with chondrosarcoma of the osseous spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chondrosarcoma is a primary spinal malignant tumor; chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) are generally unsuccessful, and thus, the main treatment of choice is complete en bloc resection...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
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