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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454155/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-approaches-on-special-subgroups-and-unresolved-burning-questions
#1
REVIEW
J Remon, N Vilariño, N Reguart
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been incorporated in the treatment strategy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Beyond the already approved indications in first- and second-line setting of advanced NSCLC, new data has recently emerged demonstrating its efficacy in locally advanced disease as maintenance after chemo-radiotherapy and currently several trials are also exploring its efficacy in earlier stages of the disease to evaluate whether these results could be extrapolated to the adjuvant setting...
February 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453321/inhibition-of-cd95-cd95l-signaling-with-apg101-prevents-invasion-and-enhances-radiation-therapy-for-glioblastoma
#2
Jonas Blaes, Carina M Thomé, Philipp-Niclas Pfenning, Petra Rübmann, Felix Sahm, Antje Wick, Theresa Bunse, Torsten Schmenger, Jaromir Sykora, Andreas von Deimling, Benedikt Wiestler, Christian Merz, Manfred Jugold, Uwe Haberkorn, Amir Abdollahi, Jürgen Debus, Christian Gieffers, Claudia Kunz, Martin Bendszus, Michael Kluge, Michael Platten, Harald Fricke, Wolfgang Wick, Dieter Lemke
CD95 (Fas/APO-1), a death receptor family member, activity has been linked to tumorigenicity in multiple cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A phase II clinical trial on relapsed glioblastoma patients demonstrated that targeted inhibition of CD95 signaling via the CD95 ligand (CD95L) binding and neutralizing Fc-fusion protein APG101 (asunercept) prolonged patient survival. While CD95 signaling may be relevant for multiple aspects of tumor growth, the mechanism of action of APG101 in glioblastoma is not clear...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452716/dental-pulp-status-of-posterior-teeth-in-patients-with-oral-and-oropharyngeal-cancer-treated-with-radiotherapy-1-year-follow-up
#3
Nishtha Gupta, Mandeep S Grewal, Munish Gairola, Stutee Grewal, Parveen Ahlawat
INTRODUCTION: Teeth may react negatively to pulp sensitivity testing in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the pulp sensibility of posterior teeth at 4, 6, and 12 months in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for oral and oropharyngeal malignancies. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with malignant oral and oropharyngeal cancer undergoing radiotherapy underwent cold thermal pulp sensitivity testing and electric pulp testing of 4 teeth, 1 from each quadrant...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448806/endovascular-treatment-for-the-control-of-active-vaginal-bleeding-from-uterine-cervical-cancer-treated-with-radiotherapy
#4
Cheng Shi Chen, Sohee Park, Ji Hoon Shin, Yasir Nouri, Jong-Woo Kim, Hyun-Ki Yoon, Gi-Young Ko
Background Endovascular treatment has become a significant therapeutic option for the management of intractable bleeding in gynecologic malignancies. However, the endovascular treatment types were almost never mentioned when active bleeding from different arteries was identified. Purpose To present angiographic details and evaluate clinical efficacy of endovascular treatments to control active vaginal bleeding in uterine cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Material and Methods In this retrospective study, six, consecutive cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy who underwent endovascular treatment for active vaginal bleeding were included...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444918/immunotherapy-a-new-standard-of-care-in-thoracic-malignancies-a-summary-of-the-european-respiratory-society-research-seminar-of-the-thoracic-oncology-assembly
#5
Adrien Costantini, Marta Grynovska, Francesca Lucibello, Jorge Moisés, Franck Pagès, Ming S Tsao, Frances A Shepherd, Hasna Bouchaab, Marina Garassino, Joachim G J V Aerts, Julien Mazières, Michele Mondini, Thierry Berghmans, Anne-Pascale Meert, Jacques Cadranel
In May 2017, the second European Respiratory Society research seminar of the Thoracic Oncology Assembly entitled "Immunotherapy, a new standard of care in thoracic malignancies?" was held in Paris, France. This seminar provided an opportunity to review the basis of antitumour immunity and to explain how immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) work. The main therapeutic trials that have resulted in marketing authorisations for use of ICIs in lung cancer were reported. A particular focus was on the toxicity of these new molecules in relation to their immune-related adverse events...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443775/primary-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-of-the-thyroid-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Qiang Chen, Qing Huang, Jia-Xin Yan, Chao Li, Jin-Yi Lang
RATIONALE: Primary undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is extremely rare in the thyroid, and can be easily misdiagnosed as anaplastic thyroid cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 71-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly growing painless mass in the neck. DIAGNOSES-INTERVENTIONS-OUTCOMES: Computed tomography showed a large hypointense mass with hyperdense areas involving whole of the right lobe of thyroid gland and fine-needle aspiration cytology found a few atypical cells...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441695/protein-phosphatase-2a-pp2a-inhibitor-cip2a-indicates-resistance-to-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer
#7
Eva-Maria Birkman, Adam Elzagheid, Terhi Jokilehto, Tuulia Avoranta, Eija Korkeila, Jarmo Kulmala, Kari Syrjänen, Jukka Westermarck, Jari Sundström
Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy, (C)RT, is an essential part of the treatment of rectal cancer patients, but tumor response to this therapy among patients is variable. Thus far, there are no clinical biomarkers that could be used to predict response to (C)RT or to stratify patients into different preoperative treatment groups according to their prognosis. Overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) has been demonstrated in several cancers and is frequently associated with reduced survival...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441454/chemotherapy-and-immunotherapy-for-recurrent-and-metastatic-head-and-neck-cancer-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Alessandro Guidi, Carla Codecà, Daris Ferrari
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a fatal malignancy with an overall long-term survival of about 50% for all stages. The diagnosis is not rarely delayed, and the majority of patients present with loco-regionally advanced disease. The rate of second primary tumors after a diagnosis of HNC is about 3-7% per year, the highest rate among solid tumors. Currently, a single-modality or a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CHT), is the standard treatment for stage III-IV HNC. For the recurrent/metastatic setting, in the last 40 years great efforts have been made in order to develop a more effective CHT regimen, from the use of methotrexate alone, to the combination of cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracile (5FU) or paclitaxel...
February 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441104/current-status-of-brachytherapy-in-cancer-treatment-short-overview
#9
REVIEW
Janusz Skowronek
Cancer incidence and mortality depend on a number of factors, including age, socio-economic status and geographical location, and its prevalence is growing around the world. Most of cancer treatments include external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Brachytherapy, a type of radiotherapy with energy from radionuclides inserted directly into the tumor, is increasingly used in cancer treatment. For cervical and skin cancers, it has become a standard therapy for more than 100 years as well as an important part of the treatment guidelines for other malignancies, including head and neck, skin, breast, and prostate cancers...
December 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436307/cancers-of-the-major-salivary-gland
#10
Eugene Son, Aru Panwar, Charles H Mosher, Daniel Lydiatt
Salivary gland malignancies are rare tumors that comprise multiple histologic entities with diverse clinical behavior. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent primary salivary malignancy, followed by adenoid cystic and acinic cell carcinoma. Although most salivary malignancies are asymptomatic, presentation with a rapidly enlarging mass may be accompanied by pain, functional neurologic deficits, soft-tissue invasion, or nodal enlargement. Assessment of clinical behavior and physical exam greatly contributes to diagnostic workup...
February 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435294/therapy-associated-myelodysplastic-syndrome-with-monosomy-7-arising-in-a-muir-torre-syndrome-patient-carrying-setbp1-mutation
#11
David Ullman, Erin Baumgartner, Nicholas Wnukowski, Gabe Koenig, Fady M Mikhail, Peter Pavlidakey, Deniz Peker
Muir-Torre Syndrome (MTS) is a rare hereditary autosomal dominant cancer syndrome and is linked to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma (Lynch Syndrome). Individuals develop various skin neoplasms in addition to colorectal, endometrial and upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Therapy-associated myelodysplastic syndrome (T-MDS) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy and is considered a pre-leukemic phase. T-MDS is associated with prior exposure to chemo- and radiotherapy that potentially results in DNA damage...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435293/a-case-of-peritoneal-malignant-mesothelioma-following-radiation-therapy-for-cervical-cancer
#12
Mitsutake Yano, Yuji Ikeda, Tomomi Kato, Mika Sakaki, Sho Sato, Akira Yabuno, Eito Kozawa, Masanori Yasuda
The present study presents a case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (PMM) following radiation therapy for cervical cancer. A 34-year-old Japanese woman, without asbestos exposure, was referred to the Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center due to a cervical mass, and was diagnosed with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The serum levels of tumor markers, including SCC antigen and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) were 229.0 ng/ml and 54.4 U/ml, respectively...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428789/-re-irradiation-of-head-and-neck-cancers-target-volumes-technical-evolutions-and-prospects
#13
R Kinj, K Bénézery, C Florescu, B Gery, J L Habrand, J Thariat
Malignant tumors of the head and neck have a predominantly regional recurrence pattern, with most deaths resulting from this progression. Optimization of re-radiation in recurrence setting is a major objective for these patients. Extensive research has been carried out with the PubMed search engine to find publications dealing with this topic. The first attempts to reirradiate the ORL sphere date back to the 1980s and the first to be performed by intensity modulation conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) date back to the late 1990s...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428191/-the-biological-rationale-for-immunotherapy-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
J Benzaquen, C-H Marquette, N Glaichenhaus, S Leroy, P Hofman, M Ilié
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy aims to promote the immune system's activity against malignant cells by stimulating the response to several tumor antigens. STATE OF THE ART: Immunosurveillance may adjust the immunogenicity of tumors. To be effective, immunity must induce the specific activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as activation of innate immunity. Activator and inhibitory costimulatory molecules regulate T lymphocyte activation at immunity checkpoints such as PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4...
February 7, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423682/locally-advanced-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients-treated-with-photobiomodulation-for-prevention-of-oral-mucositis-retrospective-outcomes-and-safety-analyses
#15
Thaís Bianca Brandão, Karina Morais-Faria, Ana Carolina Prado Ribeiro, César Rivera, João Victor Salvajoli, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Joel B Epstein, Praveen R Arany, Gilberto de Castro, Cesar Augusto Migliorati, Alan Roger Santos-Silva
PURPOSE: The well-established clinical efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy in management of oral mucositis (OM) is leading to increasing use in oncology care. This protection and enhanced repair of damage to mucosal tissue have led to the question of the potential effects of PBM therapy on pre-malignant and malignant cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of cancer therapy and incidence of tumor recurrence in locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients treated with PBM therapy for OM...
February 8, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419331/-icorg-05-03-prospective-randomized-non-inferiority-phase-iii-trial-comparing-two-radiation-schedules-in-malignant-spinal-cord-compression-not-proceeding-with-surgical-decompression-the-quality-of-life-analysis
#16
K A Lee, M Dunne, C Small, P J Kelly, O McArdle, J O'Sullivan, D Hacking, M Pomeroy, J Armstrong, M Moriarty, A Clayton-Lea, I Parker, C D Collins, P Thirion
BACKGROUND: The optimal primary external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) radiation schedule for malignant epidural spinal cord compression (MSCC) remains to be determined. The ICORG 05-03 trial assessed if a 10 Gy single fraction radiation schedule was not inferior to one with 20 Gray (Gy) in five daily fractions, in terms of functional motor outcome, for the treatment of MSCC in patients not proceeding with surgical decompression. This article reports on two of the secondary endpoints, Quality of life (QoL), assessed according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) version 3...
February 8, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417588/targeting-the-cxcl12-cxcr4-pathway-and-myeloid-cells-to-improve-radiation-treatment-of-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Magali Lecavalier-Barsoum, Naz Chaudary, Kathy Han, Marianne Koritzinsky, Richard Hill, Michael Milosevic
Cervical cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Approximately half of cervical cancer patients present with locally advanced disease, for which surgery is not an option. These cases are nonetheless potentially curable with radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy. Unfortunately, some tumours are resistant to treatment, and lymph node and distant recurrences are major problems in patients with advanced disease at diagnosis. New targeted treatments that can overcome treatment resistance and reduce metastases are urgently needed...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416647/the-dual-pi3k-mtor-inhibitor-dactolisib-elicits-anti-tumor-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Fei Shi, Jinying Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Liangliang Wu, Hongyu Jiang, Qiyan Wu, Tianyi Liu, Meiqing Lou, Hao Wu
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are among the most malignant of all human tumors and have poor prognosis. The current standard of care (SOC) includes maximal surgical tumor resection followed by adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) and concomitant radiotherapy (RT). However, even with this treatment, the 5-year survival rate is less than 10%, and thus, follow-up treatment is required to improve efficacy. In GBMs as well as many other solid cancers, PI3K/mTOR signaling is overactivated. Therefore, multiple tumor-based PI3K inhibitors have been studied in various cancers...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416353/clinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-afatinib-in-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-chinese-patients
#19
REVIEW
Lei-Yun Wang, Jia-Jia Cui, Ao-Xiang Guo, Ji-Ye Yin
Compared with various malignant tumors, lung cancer has high incidence and the highest mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common kind of lung cancer, is still a great threat to the world, including China. Surgery, platinum-based chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are still the primary treatments for NSCLC patients in the clinic, whereas immunotherapy and targeted therapy are gradually playing more important roles. A next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), afatinib, was developed as a targeted reagent for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415822/-anti-tumor-immunotherapy-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#20
REVIEW
A Scherpereel, M-C Willemin, E Wasielewski, X Dhalluin
INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a quite rare cancer, but with increasing incidence, that is usually induced by previous asbestos exposure. Its prognosis is poor and there is no validated curative therapy to date. Surgery of MPM, done only by few expert teams within a multimodal treatment is of limited and still disputed value. The standard treatment of MPM, relying on first-line chemotherapy by combined cisplatin-pemetrexed is often poorly effective, even if combination with bevacizumab anti-VEGF antibodies has slightly improved the results...
February 4, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
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