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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666802/advances-in-radiotherapy-for-esophageal-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Wei Deng, Steven H Lin
Esophageal cancer is a common type of malignancy worldwide and usually requires multidisciplinary care. Radiotherapy plays an important part in management of the disease. During the past few years, researchers have made much progress about radiotherapy for esophageal cancer, which was revealed in every aspect of clinical practice. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy remains the standard treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer, whereas neoadjuvant chemotherapy appears to show less toxicities and non-inferior prognosis...
February 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666782/new-perspectives-on-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#2
REVIEW
Marika Rossini, Paola Rizzo, Ilaria Bononi, Anthony Clementz, Roberto Ferrari, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, but severe form of cancer, with an incidence that varies significantly within and among different countries around the world. It develops in about one to two persons per million of the general population, leading to thousands of deaths every year worldwide. To date, the MPM is mostly associated with occupational asbestos exposure. Asbestos represents the predominant etiological factor, with approximately 70% of cases of MPM with well-documented occupational exposure to asbestos, with the exposure time, on average greater than 40 years...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666441/using-biology-to-guide-the-treatment-of-sarcomas-and-aggressive-connective-tissue-tumours
#3
REVIEW
Armelle Dufresne, Mehdi Brahmi, Marie Karanian, Jean-Yves Blay
Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from cells of a mesenchymal origin. Surgery forms the mainstay of the treatment of most patients with localized sarcoma and might be followed or preceded by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In the metastatic setting, systemic treatments tend to improve survival and control symptoms. However, the adverse events and sometimes disappointing outcomes associated with these empirical approaches to treatment indicate a need for new approaches. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled more targeted treatment of many malignancies based on the presence of specific alterations...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666026/cervical-cancer-state-of-the-science-from-angiogenesis-blockade-to-checkpoint-inhibition
#4
REVIEW
Lindsey E Minion, Krishnansu S Tewari
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as a therapeutic target in several malignancies, including cervical cancer. Chemotherapy doublets combined with the fully humanized monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, now constitute first-line therapy for women struggling with recurrent/metastatic cervical carcinoma. Regulatory approval for this indication was based on the phase III randomized trial, GOG 240, which demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival when bevacizumab was added to chemotherapy: 17...
March 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656501/radiotherapy-complications-another-sub-specialty-area-of-urology
#5
Rod Studd
Radiotherapy (primary, adjunctive or salvage) is a powerful tool in the treatment of pelvic malignancy. Dose escalation has improved cancer outcomes. However it requires accurate targeting in order to limit toxicity. Acute toxicity manifests during and in the first few months after treatment. Late toxicity may occur many years after treatment has been completed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 15, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652946/-impact-of-the-chilean-explicit-guaranties-health-system-ges-on-breast-cancer-treatment
#6
César Del Castillo Sm, M Elena Cabrera C, Lea Derio P, Fancy Gaete V, Gabriel Cavada Ch
Background Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women in the world. In 2005, it was incorporated to the Explicit Guaranties Health System (GES) in Chile. Aim To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients and to determine the effect of incorporating these women to GES. Material and Methods Medical records of 5,119 women with breast cancer aged 59 ± 14 years, attended at six public hospitals between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Median follow up was 87 months (range 1-182)...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651429/therapeutic-potential-of-thymoquinone-in-glioblastoma-treatment-targeting-major-gliomagenesis-signaling-pathways
#7
REVIEW
Fabliha Ahmed Chowdhury, Md Kamal Hossain, A G M Mostofa, Maruf Mohammad Akbor, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most devastating brain tumors with median survival of one year and presents unique challenges to therapy because of its aggressive behavior. Current treatment strategy involves surgery, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy even though optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge of potential complications from both the disease and its treatment. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main bioactive component of Nigella sativa L., has exhibited anticancer effects in numerous preclinical studies...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651368/synchronous-pulmonary-neoplasms-a-chance-occurrence-or-is-there-more-than-meets-the-eye
#8
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Manisha Pant, Gwenalyn Garcia, Marcel Odaimi
Primary bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma comprises 5% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and usually has an indolent course. Synchronous primary lung cancers with BALT lymphoma are seldom seen in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Synchronous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and BALT lymphoma is an extremely rare occurrence. We report an unusual case of stage 4 BALT lymphoma requiring treatment that revealed an underlying ipsilateral mass causing a diagnostic dilemma. An 84-year-old female with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus, deep vein thrombosis, and thrombotic microangiopathy presented to the hospital with cough and dyspnea on exertion...
February 6, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650272/treatment-of-spinal-metastases-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Diego Teyssonneau, Marine Gross-Goupil, Charlotte Domblides, Thibaud Haaser, Vincent Pointillart, Amaury Daste, Olivier Hauger, Alain Ravaud
Kidney cancer is the 9th most common cancer in men and the 14th most common in women worldwide. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes 90% of all malignancies of the kidney. RCC, is known to be highly vascular and relatively radioresistant. Bone metastases are one of the most common metastatic sites and occur in around 30% of RCCs. They significantly impact the quality of life of patients causing pain and pathological fractures. Spinal metastases represent a particular case with regard to symptoms and treatment...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649856/kilovoltage-radiotherapy-for-companion-animals-dosimetric-comparison-of-300-kv-450-kv-and-6-mv-x-ray-beams
#10
Jaehyeon Seo, Jaeman Son, Yeona Cho, Nohwon Park, Dong Wook Kim, Jinsung Kim, Myonggeun Yoon
Radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer in companion animals is currently administered using megavoltage X-ray machines. Because these machines are expensive, most animal hospitals do not perform radiotherapy. This study evaluated the ability of relatively inexpensive kilovoltage X-ray machines to treat companion animals. A simulation study based on a treatment planning system was performed for tumors of the brain (non-infectious meningoencephalitis), nasal cavity (malignant nasal tumors), forefoot (malignant muscular tumors), and abdomen (malignant intestinal tumors)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628997/cancer-metabolism-new-insights-into-classic-characteristics
#11
REVIEW
Yasumasa Kato, Toyonobu Maeda, Atsuko Suzuki, Yuh Baba
Initial studies of cancer metabolism in the early 1920s found that cancer cells were phenotypically characterized by aerobic glycolysis, in that these cells favor glucose uptake and lactate production, even in the presence of oxygen. This property, called the Warburg effect, is considered a hallmark of cancer. The mechanism by which these cells acquire aerobic glycolysis has been uncovered. Acidic extracellular fluid, secreted by cancer cells, induces a malignant phenotype, including invasion and metastasis...
February 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628633/dosimetric-comparison-of-treatment-plans-using-physical-wedge-and-enhanced-dynamic-wedge-for-the-planning-of-breast-radiotherapy
#12
Zhenia Gopalakrishnan, Raghuram K Nair, P Raghukumar, B Sarin
The aim of this study is to compare the physical wedge (PW) with enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) to determine the difference in the dose distribution affecting the treated breast and the contralateral breast, lungs, heart, esophagus, spine, and surrounding skin in the radiotherapy of breast cancer. Computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were selected from the database for the study. The treatment plans which were executed with PW were re-planned with EDW without changing the beam parameters...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624208/gemcitabine-based-chemotherapy-for-advanced-biliary-tract-carcinomas
#13
REVIEW
Omar Abdel-Rahman, Zeinab Elsayed, Hesham Elhalawani
BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancers are a group of rare heterogeneous malignant tumours. They include intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, gallbladder carcinomas, and ampullary carcinomas. Surgery remains the optimal modality of therapy leading to long-term survival for people diagnosed with resectable biliary tract carcinomas. Unfortunately, most people with biliary tract carcinomas are diagnosed with either unresectable locally-advanced or metastatic disease, and they are only suitable for palliative chemotherapy or supportive care...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608744/second-cancer-risk-from-radiation-therapy-for-common-solid-tumors-diagnosed-in-reproductive-aged-females
#14
Michalis Mazonakis, Stefanos Kachris, John Damilakis
This study provided second cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for common solid tumors presented in reproductive-aged females. Three-dimensional treatment plans were generated for 10 patients with cervical, uterine, rectal, lung or breast carcinomas. The organ equivalent dose (OED) and the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for carcinogenesis to organs receiving high doses were estimated for all study participants with a mechanistic model. This model accounts for cell-killing, tissue repair and dose fractionation effects...
March 28, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607237/adjuvant-radiochemotherapy-with-a-23-month-overall-survival-time-in-a-patient-after-a-surgery-due-to-splenic-hemangiosarcoma-rupture-a-case-report-with-the-literature-review
#15
M Bilski, D Surdyka, I Paśnik, M Bilska, P Cisek, P Korona, J Szumiło, L Grzybowska-Szatkowska
Spleen sarcoma is one of the most rare soft tissue malignancies. The annual incidence is 0.14-0.25/1,000,000 and the average age of diagnosis is 50 to 73 years. The incidence of this cancer has been increasing. Treatment of choice is surgical splenectomy, which rarely gives good results due to the aggressive course of the disease as well as the high potential for metastasis. Overall survival in primary spleen sarcomas as described by various authors is between 4 and 14 months. 80% of patients after spleen rupture do not survive 6 months...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605499/significance-of-abnormal-peritoneal-cytology-on-survival-of-women-with-stage-i-ii-endometrioid-endometrial-cancer
#16
Koji Matsuo, Akira Yabuno, Marianne S Hom, Masako Shida, Mamoru Kakuda, Sosuke Adachi, Rachel S Mandelbaum, Yutaka Ueda, Kosei Hasegawa, Takayuki Enomoto, Mikio Mikami, Lynda D Roman
OBJECTIVE: To examine survival of women with stage I-II endometrioid endometrial cancer whose peritoneal cytology showed malignant or atypical cells (abnormal peritoneal cytology). METHODS: This is a multi-center retrospective study examining 1668 women with stage I-II endometrioid endometrial cancer who underwent primary hysterectomy with available peritoneal cytology results between 2000 and 2015. Abnormal peritoneal cytology was correlated to clinico-pathological characteristics and oncological outcome...
March 12, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605048/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-over-time-in-the-treatment-and-mortality-of-women-with-gynecological-malignancies
#17
J Alejandro Rauh-Hain, Alexander Melamed, Diego Schaps, Amy J Bregar, Ryan Spencer, John O Schorge, Laurel W Rice, Marcela G Del Carmen
OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in treatment and survival among black, Asian, Hispanic, and white women diagnosed with endometrial, ovarian, cervical, and vulvar cancer. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database (2004-2014), we identified women diagnosed with endometrial, ovarian, cervical, and vulvar cancer. For each disease site, we analyzed race/ethnicity-specific trends in receipt of evidence-based practices. Professional societies' recommendations were used to define these practices...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602584/stomach-dose-volume-predicts-acute-gastrointestinal-toxicity-in-chemoradiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#18
D L P Holyoake, D R Warren, C Hurt, M Aznar, M Partridge, S Mukherjee, M A Hawkins
AIMS: Gastrointestinal toxicity impedes dose escalation in chemoradiotherapy for hepatobiliary malignancies. Toxicity risk depends on clinical and radiotherapy metrics. We aimed to identify predictive factors using data from two prospective phase II clinical trials of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one patients with available data from the ARCII (59.4 Gy in 33 fractions with gemcitabine, cisplatin and nelfinavir, n = 23) and SCALOP (50...
March 27, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596889/pro-apoptotic-bax-promotes-mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-by-binding-to-respiratory-complex-i-and-antagonizing-the-malignant-actions-of-pro-survival-bcl-2-proteins
#19
Eun Mi Kim, Chan-Hun Jung, Jie-Young Song, Jong Kuk Park, Hong-Duck Um
The plasticity of solid tumors between the epithelial and mesenchymal states critically influences their malignant progression and metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which supports cancer cell invasion and metastasis, is promoted by pro-survival members (e.g., Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL ) of the Bcl-2 protein family, which are well-known key apoptosis regulators. We found that Bcl-w, another pro-survival member, promotes EMT by increasing respiratory complex-I activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels...
March 26, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594059/severe-inflammatory-ophthalmopathy-in-a-euthyroid-patient-during-nivolumab-treatment
#20
Pauline Campredon, Philippe Imbert, Céline Mouly, Solange Grunenwald, Julien Mazières, Philippe Caron
Introduction: Nivolumab is a promising treatment in patients with advanced malignancies. Among immune-related adverse events, autoimmune thyroid disorders are frequently reported. Patient: A 61-year-old male patient had no history of familial or personal thyroid disease. In 2012, this patient, a heavy smoker, presented with non-small-cell lung cancer that was treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In 2015, the cancer progressed with cervical compressive symptoms, and the patient was treated with nivolumab...
March 2018: European Thyroid Journal
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