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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819772/triglycerides-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-outcome-studies-focus-on-omega-3-fatty-acids
#1
Yehuda Handelsman, Michael D Shapiro
Despite improved atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes with statin therapy, residual risk remains. Recent genetic insights provide further compelling evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway for the development of atherosclerosis, thereby renewing interest in targeting triglycerides to improve ASCVD outcomes. Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) are 3 classes of triglyceride-lowering drugs. Outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have been inconsistent...
November 7, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710158/hypertriglyceridemia-the-importance-of-identifying-patients-at-risk
#2
Pamela A Kushner, Michael E Cobble
This review aims to explain risk factors, consequences, and management strategies recommended for patients with hypertriglyceridemia. A search of PubMed was performed: 'Hypertriglyceridemia'[Majr], limited to English-language and published in the 5 years up to April 2016. Abstracts of the 680 results were screened for inclusion. Reference lists of publications included were also screened for inclusion. Approximately 25% of the United States population has elevated (≥150 mg/dL) triglycerides (TG) putting them at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis...
November 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578122/triglyceride-lowering-therapies-reduce-cardiovascular-disease-event-risk-in-subjects-with-hypertriglyceridemia
#3
Kevin C Maki, John R Guyton, Carl E Orringer, Ian Hamilton-Craig, Dominik D Alexander, Michael H Davidson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular outcomes trials of fibrates, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids alone, or added to a statin, have not consistently demonstrated reduced risk, but larger, statistically significant clinical benefits have been reported in subgroups with elevated triglycerides (TG) and/or elevated TG plus low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of the effects of therapies targeting TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with elevated TG or elevated TG paired with low HDL-C...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443326/targeting-apoc-iii-to-reduce-coronary-disease-risk
#4
REVIEW
Sumeet A Khetarpal, Arman Qamar, John S Millar, Daniel J Rader
Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are causal contributors to the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a component of TRLs that elevates plasma triglycerides (TGs) through delaying the lipolysis of TGs and the catabolism of TRL remnants. Recent human genetics approaches have shown that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, the gene encoding apoC-III, lower plasma TGs and protect from CAD. This observation has spawned new interest in therapeutic efforts to target apoC-III...
September 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184174/triglycerides-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins-in-the-causal-pathway-of-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Budoff
Epidemiologic and clinical studies suggest that elevated triglyceride levels are a biomarker of cardiovascular (CV) risk. Consistent with these findings, recent genetic evidence from mutational analyses, genome-wide association studies, and Mendelian randomization studies provide robust evidence that triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic CV disease, indicating that they may play a pathogenic role, much like low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26680666/treatment-of-hypertriglyceridemia-a-review-of-current-options
#6
REVIEW
M Vrablík, R Češka
Hypertriglyceridemia is an important marker of increased levels of highly atherogenic remnant-like particles. The importance of lowering plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) has been called into question many times, but currently it is considered an integral part of residual cardiovascular risk reduction strategies. Lifestyle changes (improved diet and increased physical activity) are effective TG lowering measures. Pharmacological treatment usually starts with statins, although associated TG reductions are typically modest...
2015: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26456868/canine-hyperlipidaemia
#7
REVIEW
P G Xenoulis, J M Steiner
Hyperlipidaemia refers to an increased concentration of lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidaemia is common in dogs and has recently emerged as an important clinical condition that requires a systematic diagnostic approach and appropriate treatment. Hyperlipidaemia can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidaemia is the most common form in dogs, and it can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, as well as other conditions and the use of certain drugs...
October 2015: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412799/nonstatin-therapies-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Karen R Sando, Michelle Knight
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Recently published cholesterol treatment guidelines emphasize the use of statins as the preferred treatment strategy for both primary and secondary prevention of CVD. However, the optimal treatment strategy for patients who cannot tolerate statin therapy or those who need additional lipid-lowering therapy is unclear in light of recent evidence that demonstrates a lack of improved cardiovascular outcomes with combination therapy...
October 1, 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26296750/long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-fibrates-and-niacin-as-therapeutic-options-in-the-treatment-of-hypertriglyceridemia-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Matthew K Ito
Hypertriglyceridemia affects approximately 33% of the US population. Elevated triglyceride levels are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and severe hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Guidelines for the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥5.6 mmol/L [≥500 mg/dL]) recommend immediate use of triglyceride-lowering agents; however, statins remain the first line of therapy for the management of mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia (1.7-5.6 mmol/L [150-499 mg/dL])...
October 2015: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26169307/current-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-evolving-roles-of-non-statin-and-newer-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Richard Kones, Umme Rumana
Since their introduction, statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) drugs have advanced the practice of cardiology to unparalleled levels. Even so, coronary heart disease (CHD) still remains the leading cause of death in developed countries, and is predicted to soon dominate the causes of global mortality and disability as well. The currently available non-statin drugs have had limited success in reversing the burden of heart disease, but new information suggests they have roles in sizeable subpopulations of those affected...
July 2015: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25916076/emergent-triglyceride-lowering-therapy-for-hypertriglyceridemic-pancreatitis
#11
REVIEW
Wenhua He, Nonghua Lu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is recognized as a main cause of acute pancreatitis. The clinical course of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP) is usually severe and often associated with complications. Patients with HTGP need therapeutic strategies aimed at rapidly reducing triglyceride (TG) serum levels. Here we review the effects of Emergent triglyceride-lowering therapies as well as their ad vantages and controversies. METHODOLOGY: PubMed and MEDLINE were searched for articles using the keywords hypertriglyceridemia", "hyperlipidemia and "pancreatitis until September 2012...
March 2015: Hepato-gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25816908/improving-the-odds-ezetimibe-and-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
A Viljoen, A S Wierzbicki
The beauty of science is that well-conducted experiments provide answers to questions which were posed in times of greater ignorance. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and will be for some time. Cholesterol is a critical player which drives the underlying pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis. Statins are the first line treatment for lipids in CVD given their ability to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by up to 50%, and their proven benefits in both primary and secondary intervention ...
April 2015: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25242435/diabetic-dyslipidemia
#13
REVIEW
Liya Wu, Klaus G Parhofer
Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated fasting and postprandial triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, elevated LDL-cholesterol and the predominance of small dense LDL particles. These lipid changes represent the major link between diabetes and the increased cardiovascular risk of diabetic patients. The underlying pathophysiology is only partially understood. Alterations of insulin sensitive pathways, increased concentrations of free fatty acids and low grade inflammation all play a role and result in an overproduction and decreased catabolism of triglyceride rich lipoproteins of intestinal and hepatic origin...
December 2014: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25151024/mechanism-of-action-of-anti-hypercholesterolemia-drugs-and-their-resistance
#14
Vishvanath Tiwari, Manoj Khokhar
Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One of the significant causes of this disease is hypercholesterolemia which is the result of various genetic alterations that are associated with the accumulation of specific classes of lipoprotein particles in plasma. A number of drugs are used to treat hypercholesterolemia like statin, fibrate, bile acid sequestrants, niacin, ezetimibe, omega-3 fatty acids and natural extracts. It has been observed that these drugs show diverse response in different individuals...
October 15, 2014: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24514899/effectiveness-of-combination-therapy-with-statin-and-another-lipid-modifying-agent-compared-with-intensified-statin-monotherapy-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Kimberly A Gudzune, Anne K Monroe, Ritu Sharma, Padmini D Ranasinghe, Yohalakshmi Chelladurai, Karen A Robinson
BACKGROUND: Some patients do not tolerate or respond to high-intensity statin monotherapy. Lower-intensity statin combined with nonstatin medication may be an alternative, but the benefits and risks compared with those of higher-intensity statin monotherapy are unclear. PURPOSE: To compare the clinical benefits, adherence, and harms of lower-intensity statin combination therapy with those of higher-intensity statin monotherapy among adults at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
April 1, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24460800/residual-macrovascular-risk-in-2013-what-have-we-learned
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Fruchart, Jean Davignon, Michel P Hermans, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Pierre Amarenco, Gerd Assmann, Philip Barter, John Betteridge, Eric Bruckert, Ada Cuevas, Michel Farnier, Ele Ferrannini, Paola Fioretto, Jacques Genest, Henry N Ginsberg, Antonio M Gotto, Dayi Hu, Takashi Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Michel Krempf, Yuji Matsuzawa, Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés, Carlos Calvo Monfil, Hisao Ogawa, Jorge Plutzky, Daniel J Rader, Shaukat Sadikot, Raul D Santos, Evgeny Shlyakhto, Piyamitr Sritara, Rody Sy, Alan Tall, Chee Eng Tan, Lale Tokgözoğlu, Peter P Toth, Paul Valensi, Christoph Wanner, Alberto Zambon, Junren Zhu, Paul Zimmet
Cardiovascular disease poses a major challenge for the 21st century, exacerbated by the pandemics of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. While best standards of care, including high-dose statins, can ameliorate the risk of vascular complications, patients remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3i) has previously highlighted atherogenic dyslipidaemia, defined as the imbalance between proatherogenic triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B-containing-lipoproteins and antiatherogenic apolipoprotein A-I-lipoproteins (as in high-density lipoprotein, HDL), as an important modifiable contributor to lipid-related residual cardiovascular risk, especially in insulin-resistant conditions...
2014: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24407538/the-nuances-of-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-in-diabetes-focus-on-triglycerides-and-current-management-strategies
#17
REVIEW
P C Manoria, H K Chopra, S K Parashar, A L Dutta, Brian Pinto, Ajit Mullasari, Samir Prajapati
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic disease and an important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. The atherogenic dyslipidemia in diabetes (ADD) is characterized by high serum triglycerides, high small dense LDL levels, low HDL levels and postprandial lipemia. Insulin resistance is a primary cause for ADD. Though statins are highly effective for CVD prevention in DM but a significant residual CV risk remains even after optimal statin therapy. Fibrates, niacin and omega-3 fatty acids are used in addition to statin for treatment of ADD (specifically hypertriglyceridemia)...
December 2013: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24395391/cardiometabolic-impact-of-non-statin-lipid-lowering-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Parag Goyal, Leon I Igel, Keith LaScalea, William B Borden
Among the range of lipid modifying medications currently available, statins clearly stand as the primary agent capable of reducing cardiovascular risk. While non-statin lipid-lowering drugs improve lipid parameters, their impact on clinical outcomes is less clear, thus necessitating an even closer look at ancillary effects. Recent studies have reported the potential cardiometabolic effects of statins, yet considerably less information has been published about cardiometabolic changes associated with non-statin lipid-lowering agents...
February 2014: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24391388/overview-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-therapies
#19
J Chris Bradberry, Daniel E Hilleman
The triglyceride (TG)-lowering benefits of the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are well documented. Available as prescription formulations and dietary supplements, EPA and DHA are recommended by the American Heart Association for patients with coronary heart disease and hypertriglyceridemia. Dietary supplements are not subject to the same government regulatory standards for safety, efficacy, and purity as prescription drugs are; moreover, supplements may contain variable concentrations of EPA and DHA and possibly other contaminants...
November 2013: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24381869/atherogenic-dyslipidemia
#20
C N Manjunath, Jayesh R Rawal, Paurus Mehelli Irani, K Madhu
Atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) refers to elevated levels of triglycerides (TG) and small-dense low-density lipoprotein and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In addition, elevated levels of large TG rich very low-density lipoproteins, apolipoprotein B and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and reduced levels of small high-density lipoproteins plays a critical role in AD. All three elements of AD per se have been recognised as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has shown excellent risk prediction of coronary heart disease than either of the two risk markers...
2013: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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