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Obesity and Microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#1
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762384/microbial-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gut-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#3
Anne Hall, James Versalovic
Human intestinal microbes participate actively at the interface of diet, nutrition, and overall health status. These biodiverse communities of microorganisms have a broader metabolic repertoire compared with their host, and they are able to synthesize and degrade substrates that would be otherwise unavailable. In recent years, we have recognized that healthy microbial communities are important for energy harvest and the regulation of body systems outside the digestive tract. Microbial dysbiosis, however, has been implicated in a number of human disorders, including obesity and inflammation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762376/microbial-fermentation-of-starch-its-impact-on-the-range-of-acceptable-carbohydrate-intake
#4
Satish C Kalhan
Starch, a major source of carbohydrates in human nutrition, is extensively hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and adults. A small fraction of the ingested starch reaches the cecum and colon where it is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other products. Recent data in humans and in animal models have demonstrated the extensive effects of short-chain fatty acids on whole body energy metabolism, appetite, insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, fat accretion, obesity, and diabetes...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761610/pathways-and-mechanisms-linking-dietary-components-to-cardiometabolic-disease-thinking-beyond-calories
#5
REVIEW
K L Stanhope, M I Goran, A Bosy-Westphal, J C King, L A Schmidt, J-M Schwarz, E Stice, A C Sylvetsky, P J Turnbaugh, G A Bray, C D Gardner, P J Havel, V Malik, A E Mason, E Ravussin, M Rosenbaum, J A Welsh, C Allister-Price, D M Sigala, M R C Greenwood, A Astrup, R M Krauss
Calories from any food have the potential to increase risk for obesity and cardiometabolic disease because all calories can directly contribute to positive energy balance and fat gain. However, various dietary components or patterns may promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease by additional mechanisms that are not mediated solely by caloric content. Researchers explored this topic at the 2017 CrossFit Foundation Academic Conference 'Diet and Cardiometabolic Health - Beyond Calories', and this paper summarizes the presentations and follow-up discussions...
May 14, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738946/tributyltin-exposure-induces-gut-microbiome-dysbiosis-with-increased-body-weight-gain-and-dyslipidemia-in-mice
#6
Hao Guo, Haotian Yan, Dong Cheng, Xinglong Wei, Ruirui Kou, Jiliang Si
Gut microbiome dysbiosis plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of obesity and tributyltin (TBT) has been found as an environmental obesogen. However, whether TBT could disturb gut microbiome and the relationship between obesity induced by TBT exposure and alteration in gut microbiota are still unknown. In order to assess the association between them, mice were exposed to TBTCl (50 μg kg-1 ) once every three days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 54. The results demonstrated that TBT exposure resulted in increased body weight gain, lager visceral fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in male mice on PND 84...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712884/imbalance-of-gut-microbiome-and-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Judith N Lezutekong, Anish Nikhanj, Gavin Y Oudit
The main function of the intestinal barrier is to regulate the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from the lumen into circulation and to prevent the entry of pathogenic microorganisms and toxic luminal substances. To maintain this function, an ideal microbiota balance is required and gut microbiota are critical for the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. There is a demonstrable link between dysbiosis and intestinal dysfunction and diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710519/effects-of-shenling-baizhu-powder-herbal-formula-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-rats
#8
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
April 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697548/bile-acids-and-the-gut-microbiome-as-potential-targets-for-nafld-treatment
#9
Lixin Zhu, Robert D Baker, Ruixin Zhu, Susan S Baker
Semi-synthetic bile acid (BA) obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, exhibited beneficial effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, OCA did not cause a resolution of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we discuss several prominent knowledge gaps in BA/FXR biology. Firstly, although many groups reported elevated serum BA levels, there are reports of decreased or normal serum BA levels in NAFLD, underlining the complexity of BA regulation by environmental and genetic factors...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697017/high-fat-diet-induces-depression-like-behaviour-in-mice-associated-with-changes-in-microbiome-neuropeptide-y-and-brain-metabolome
#10
Ahmed M Hassan, Giulia Mancano, Karl Kashofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Andrija Matak, Raphaela Mayerhofer, Florian Reichmann, Marta Olivares, Audrey M Neyrinck, Nathalie M Delzenne, Sandrine P Claus, Peter Holzer
OBJECTIVES: The biological mechanisms linking diet-related obesity and depression remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) on murine behaviour, intestinal microbiome, brain metabolome, neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity. METHODS: Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed an HFD (60 kJ% from fat) or control diet (12 kJ% from fat) for 8 weeks, followed by behavioural phenotyping. Caecal microbiome was analysed by 16S rDNA sequencing, brain metabolome by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, NPY expression by PCR and immunoassay, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity by enzymatic assay...
April 26, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694348/oral-microbiota-reveals-signs-of-acculturation-in-mexican-american-women
#11
Kristi L Hoffman, Diane S Hutchinson, Jerry Fowler, Daniel P Smith, Nadim J Ajami, Hua Zhao, Paul Scheet, Wong-Ho Chow, Joseph F Petrosino, Carrie R Daniel
The oral microbiome has been linked to a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, including obesity, diabetes, periodontitis, and cancers of the stomach and liver. These conditions disproportionately affect Mexican American women, yet few studies have examined the oral microbiota in this at-risk group. We characterized the 16S rDNA oral microbiome in 369 non-smoking women enrolled in the MD Anderson Mano a Mano Mexican American Cohort Study. Lower bacterial diversity, a potential indicator of oral health, was associated with increased age and length of US residency among recent immigrants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692770/modulation-of-active-gut-microbiota-by-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-murine-model
#12
Yosep Ji, Soyoung Park, Haryung Park, Eunchong Hwang, Hyeunkil Shin, Bruno Pot, Wilhelm H Holzapfel
Gut microbiota play a key role in the development of metabolic disorders. Defining and correlating structural shifts in gut microbial assemblages with conditions related to metabolic syndrome have, however, been proven difficult. Results from 16S genomic DNA and 16S ribosomal RNA analyses of fecal samples may differ widely, leading to controversial information on the whole microbial community and metabolically active microbiota. Using a C57BL/6J murine model, we compared data from 16S genomic DNA and ribosomal RNA of the fecal microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679625/nutrition-therapy-within-and-beyond-gestational-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Teri L Hernandez, Archana Mande, Linda A Barbour
With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth will have far-reaching implications. The conventional focus has been to rigidly limit all types of carbohydrate. While controlling glucose, this approach fosters maternal anxiety and is a primary barrier to adherence. Many mothers substitute fat for carbohydrate, which may unintentionally enhance lipolysis, promote elevated free fatty acids (FFA), and worsen maternal insulin resistance (IR)...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670255/a-combination-of-lactobacillus-mali-aps1-and-dieting-improved-the-efficacy-of-obesity-treatment-via-manipulating-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#15
Yung-Tsung Chen, Ning-Sun Yang, Yu-Chun Lin, Shang-Tse Ho, Kuan-Yi Li, Jin-Seng Lin, Je-Ruei Liu, Ming-Ju Chen
The difficulty of long-term management has produced a high rate of failure for obesity patients. Therefore, improving the efficacy of current obesity treatment is a significant goal. We hypothesized that combining a probiotic Lactobacillus mali APS1 intervention with dieting could improve the efficacy of obesity and hepatic steatosis treatment compared to dieting alone. Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then treated with: saline + normal diet and APS1 + normal diet (NDAPS1) for 3 weeks. NDAPS1 accelerated body weight loss and reduced caloric intake and fat accumulation...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670218/the-impact-of-genome-variation-and-diet-on-the-metabolic-phenotype-and-microbiome-composition-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Lisa Jehrke, Fiona A Stewart, Andrea Droste, Mathias Beller
The metabolic phenotype of an organism depends on a complex regulatory network, which integrates the plethora of intrinsic and external information and prioritizes the flow of nutrients accordingly. Given the rise of metabolic disorders including obesity, a detailed understanding of this regulatory network is in urgent need. Yet, our level of understanding is far from completeness and complicated by the discovery of additional layers in metabolic regulation, such as the impact of the microbial community present in the gut on the hosts' energy storage levels...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669931/targeting-the-gut-microbiome-to-treat-the-osteoarthritis-of-obesity
#17
Eric M Schott, Christopher W Farnsworth, Alex Grier, Jacquelyn A Lillis, Sarah Soniwala, Gregory H Dadourian, Richard D Bell, Madison L Doolittle, David A Villani, Hani Awad, John P Ketz, Fadia Kamal, Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, John M Ashton, Steven R Gill, Robert A Mooney, Michael J Zuscik
Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile in the context of obesity, suggesting a potentially novel approach to treat the OA of obesity. Here, we report that - compared with the lean murine gut - obesity is associated with loss of beneficial Bifidobacteria, while key proinflammatory species gain in abundance...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669589/similarity-of-the-dog-and-human-gut-microbiomes-in-gene-content-and-response-to-diet
#18
Luis Pedro Coelho, Jens Roat Kultima, Paul Igor Costea, Coralie Fournier, Yuanlong Pan, Gail Czarnecki-Maulden, Matthew Robert Hayward, Sofia K Forslund, Thomas Sebastian Benedikt Schmidt, Patrick Descombes, Janet R Jackson, Qinghong Li, Peer Bork
BACKGROUND: Gut microbes influence their hosts in many ways, in particular by modulating the impact of diet. These effects have been studied most extensively in humans and mice. In this work, we used whole genome metagenomics to investigate the relationship between the gut metagenomes of dogs, humans, mice, and pigs. RESULTS: We present a dog gut microbiome gene catalog containing 1,247,405 genes (based on 129 metagenomes and a total of 1.9 terabasepairs of sequencing data)...
April 19, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665619/the-endotoxemia-marker-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-is-reduced-in-overweight-obese-subjects-consuming-pomegranate-extract-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Antonio González-Sarrías, María Romo-Vaquero, Rocío García-Villalba, Adrián Cortés-Martín, María Victoria Selma, Juan Carlos Espín
SCOPE: Gut microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier failure, obesity, metabolic endotoxemia and pro-inflammatory status promote cardiovascular risk. However, the modulation of the gut microbiome to prevent endotoxemia in obesity has been scarcely studied. We investigated the association between gut microbiota modulation and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a surrogate marker of endotoxemia, in overweight-obese individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a randomized trial, 49 overweight-obese subjects (BMI>27 kg/m2 ) with mild hypelipidemia daily consumed, in a cross-over fashion, two doses (D1 and D2, lasting 3 weeks each) of pomegranate extract (PE) or placebo alternating with 3 weeks of wash-out periods...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644507/the-impact-of-obesity-on-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Daniel F Argolo, Clifford A Hudis, Neil M Iyengar
The rates of obesity are increasing worldwide and this condition is now recognized as a leading preventable cause of cancer. Several diseases are directly related to obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, and a diverse range of malignances-such as breast cancer. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and worse cancer-related outcomes for all breast tumor subtypes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the obesity-cancer link, including high levels of circulating and local estrogens, altered amounts of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), disrupted insulin/IGF signaling, modifications within the microbiome, and local and systemic effects of inflammation...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
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