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Obesity and Microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916564/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery
#1
Yan Guo, Zhi-Ping Huang, Chao-Qian Liu, Lin Qi, Yuan Sheng, Da-Jin Zou
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is recommended for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggested a strong connection between gut microbiota and bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: The PubMed and OVID Embase were used and articles concerning bariatric surgery and gut microbiota were screened. The main outcome measures were alterations of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery and correlations between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915970/a-new-proposed-mechanism-of-action-for-gastric-bypass-surgery-air-hypothesis
#2
Hasan Celiker
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the most effective treatments for obesity and type II diabetes. RYGB was originally believed to work by mechanically restricting caloric intake or causing macronutrient malabsorption. However, such mechanical effects play no role in the remarkable efficacy of gastric bypass. Instead, mounting evidence shows that altered neuroendocrine signaling is responsible for the weight reducing effects of RYGB. The exact mechanism of this surgical response is still a mystery...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915922/recent-urbanization-in-china-is-correlated-with-a-westernized-microbiome-encoding-increased-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#3
Kathryn Winglee, Annie Green Howard, Wei Sha, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Jiawu Liu, Donghui Jin, Anthony A Fodor, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Urbanization is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, which all also show associations with the microbiome. While microbial community composition has been shown to vary across continents and in traditional versus Westernized societies, few studies have examined urban-rural differences in neighboring communities within a single country undergoing rapid urbanization. In this study, we compared the gut microbiome, plasma metabolome, dietary habits, and health biomarkers of rural and urban people from a single Chinese province...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889823/epigenetics-and-dohad-from-basics-to-birth-and-beyond
#4
T Bianco-Miotto, J M Craig, Y P Gasser, S J van Dijk, S E Ozanne
Developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is the study of how the early life environment can impact the risk of chronic diseases from childhood to adulthood and the mechanisms involved. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs are involved in mediating how early life environment impacts later health. This review is a summary of the Epigenetics and DOHaD workshop held at the 2016 DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand Conference. Our extensive knowledge of how the early life environment impacts later risk for chronic disease would not have been possible without animal models...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877764/perilipin-2-modulates-dietary-fat-induced-microbial-global-gene-expression-profiles-in-the-mouse-intestine
#5
Xuejian Xiong, Elise S Bales, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, James L McManaman, Daniel N Frank, John Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota are critical determinants of obesity and metabolic disease risk. In previous work, we showed that deletion of the cytoplasmic lipid droplet (CLD) protein perilipin-2 (Plin2) modulates gut microbial community structure and abrogates long-term deleterious effects of a high-fat (HF) diet in mice. However, the impact of Plin2 on microbiome function is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we used metatranscriptomics to identify differences in microbiome transcript expression in WT and Plin2-null mice following acute exposure to high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HF) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LF) diets...
September 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876684/differences-in-microbiome-in-rat-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#6
A Thiba, C A Umar, S Myende, E Nweke, K Rumbold, G Candy
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have underscored the important role the gut metagenome in various human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart and kidney failure, and affects approximately 25% of the world's adult population. The cause of essential hypertension remains unknown. Patients given antibiotics show blood pressure changes and transfer of gut bacteria from hypertensive to normal WKY rats resulted in the latter developing hypertension...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875318/influence-of-gut-microbiota-on-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
REVIEW
Fabiana de Faria Ghetti, Daiane Gonçalves Oliveira, Juliano Machado de Oliveira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira de Castro Ferreira, Dionéia Evangelista Cesar, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, with or without fibrosis. The prevalence of NASH has increased with the obesity epidemic, but its etiology is multifactorial. The current studies suggest the role of gut microbiota in the development and progression of NASH. The aim is to review the studies that investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and NASH. These review also discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms and the influence of diet on the gut-liver axis...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873424/dual-specificity-phosphatase-6-deficiency-is-associated-with-impaired-systemic-glucose-tolerance-and-reversible-weight-retardation-in-mice
#8
Katrin Pfuhlmann, Paul T Pfluger, Sonja C Schriever, Timo D Müller, Matthias H Tschöp, Kerstin Stemmer
Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD) fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD) or HFD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870713/dietary-pomegranate-extract-and-inulin-affect-gut-microbiome-differentially-in-mice-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#9
Song Zhang, Jieping Yang, Susanne M Henning, Rupo Lee, Mark Hsu, Emma Grojean, Rita Pisegna, Austin Ly, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0...
September 13, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868615/mechanisms-of-weight-loss-and-improved-metabolism-following-bariatric-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Christopher M Mulla, Roeland J W Middelbeek, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
Bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized as one of the most effective interventions to help patients achieve significant and sustained weight loss, as well as improved metabolic and overall health. Unfortunately, the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which bariatric surgery achieves weight loss have not been fully elucidated, yet are critical to understanding the central role of the intestinal tract in whole-body metabolism and to developing novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. In this review, we provide an overview of potential mechanisms contributing to weight loss, including effects on regulation of energy balance and both central and peripheral nervous system regulation of appetite and metabolism...
September 3, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862999/innovation-in-microbiome-based-strategies-for-promoting-metabolic-health
#11
Marina Romaní-Pérez, Ana Agusti, Yolanda Sanz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Update on the development of microbiome-based interventions and dietary supplements to combat obesity and related comorbidities, which are leading causes of global mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of intestinal dysbiosis, partly resulting from unhealthy diets, in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, is well documented by recent translational research. Human experimental trials with whole-faecal transplants are ongoing, and their results will be crucial as proof of concept that interventions intended to modulate the microbiome composition and function could be alternatives for the management of obesity and related comorbidities...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845459/moderate-exercise-has-limited-but-distinguishable-effects-on-the-mouse-microbiome
#12
Emily V Lamoureux, Scott A Grandy, Morgan G I Langille
The gut microbiome is known to have a complex yet vital relationship with host health. While both exercise and the gut microbiome have been shown to impact human health independently, the direct effects of moderate exercise on the intestinal microbiota remain unclear. In this study, we compared gut microbial diversity and changes in inflammatory markers associated with exercise over an 8-week period in mice that performed either voluntary exercise (VE) (n = 10) or moderate forced exercise (FE) (n = 11) and mice that did not perform any exercise (n = 21)...
July 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837004/antibiotic-exposure-and-risk-of-weight-gain-and-obesity-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#13
Heidi Dutton, Mary-Anne Doyle, C Arianne Buchan, Shuhiba Mohammad, Kristi B Adamo, Risa Shorr, Dean A Fergusson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, and there is growing interest in better delineating the role of the human gut microbiome in this phenomenon. Obesity-specific gut microbiome features have been observed in both human and animal studies, and these variations appear to play a causative role in increasing body weight. There is evidence that antibiotics can modify the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome and that this may contribute to body weight changes...
August 24, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819768/maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-gut-microbial-metabolic-potential-in-offspring-during-infancy
#14
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruiz, Ruy Jáuregui, Hatim Azaryah, Francisco José Torres-Espínola, Luz García-Valdés, M Teresa Segura, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully understood. Our study aimed to investigate differences in the functions encoded by the microbiome of infants at 18 months of age when the transition from early infant-feeding to solid family foods is established. To investigate the impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index on infants' gut microbiome, faecal samples from infants born to normoweight (n = 21) and obese mothers (n = 18) were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a functional-inference-based microbiome analysis...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813516/correction-salivary-inflammatory-markers-and-microbiome-in-normoglycemic-lean-and-obese-children-compared-to-obese-children-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Waleed F Janem, Frank A Scannapieco, Amarpreet Sabharwal, Maria Tsompana, Harvey A Berman, Elaine M Haase, Jeffrey C Miecznikowski, Lucy D Mastrandrea
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172647.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793322/stool-consistency-is-significantly-associated-with-pain-perception
#16
Yukiko Shiro, Young-Chang Arai, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Kazuhiro Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM) composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the gut-brain axis. We thus hypothesized that the pathogenic bacteria increases pain perception to some extent, which means that there could be an association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791292/the-role-of-supplemental-complex-dietary-carbohydrates-and-gut-microbiota-in-promoting-cardiometabolic-and-immunological-health-in-obesity-lessons-from-healthy-non-obese-individuals
#17
REVIEW
Petra C Vinke, Sahar El Aidy, Gertjan van Dijk
Dietary supplementation with complex carbohydrates is known to alter the composition of gut microbiota, and optimal implementation of the use of these so called "prebiotics" could be of great potential in prevention and possibly treatment of obesity and associated cardiometabolic and inflammatory diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. An alternative to this "microbiocentric view" is the idea that health-promoting effects of certain complex carbohydrates reside in the host, and could secondarily affect the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790923/gut-microbiome-response-to-sucralose-and-its-potential-role-in-inducing-liver-inflammation-in-mice
#18
Xiaoming Bian, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Sucralose is the most widely used artificial sweetener, and its health effects have been highly debated over the years. In particular, previous studies have shown that sucralose consumption can alter the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a key role in processes related to host health, such as food digestion and fermentation, immune cell development, and enteric nervous system regulation. Inflammation is one of the most common effects associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis, which has been linked to a series of human diseases, such as diabetes and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783113/-omics-in-human-colostrum-and-mature-milk-looking-to-old-data-with-new-eyes
#19
REVIEW
Flaminia Bardanzellu, Vassilios Fanos, Alessandra Reali
Human Milk (HM) is the best source for newborn nutrition until at least six months; it exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-infective functions, promotes immune system formation and supports organ development. Breastfeeding could also protect from obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, human colostrum (HC) presents a peculiar role in newborn support as a protective effect against allergic and chronic diseases, in addition to long-term metabolic benefits. In this review, we discuss the recent literature regarding "omics" technologies and growth factors (GF) in HC and the effects of pasteurization on its composition...
August 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782205/microbiota-derived-tryptophan-indoles-increase-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-and-reduce-intestinal-permeability-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
M Jennis, C R Cavanaugh, G C Leo, J R Mabus, J Lenhard, P J Hornby
BACKGROUND: The diet and microbiome contribute to metabolic disease in part due to increased intestinal inflammation and permeability. Dietary tryptophan is metabolized by both mammalian and bacterial enzymes. Using in vitro, in vivo models, and clinical data, we tested whether bacterial tryptophan indole derivatives underlie the positive benefits of microbiota on inflammation that is associated with metabolic disease. METHODS: In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin levels were measured after indole-3-propionic acid (IPA; 20 mg kg(-1) p...
August 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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