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Obesity and Microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323941/the-diverse-metabolic-roles-of-peripheral-serotonin
#1
Alyce M Martin, Richard L Young, Lex Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Nick J Spencer, Claire F Jessup, Damien J Keating
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a multi-functional bioamine with important signaling roles in a range of physiological pathways. Almost all the 5-HT in our body is synthesized in specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells provide all our circulating 5-HT. While we have long appreciated the important roles of 5-HT within the gut including the modulation of GI motility, there is recently emerging evidence of the physiological and clinical significance of gut-derived 5-HT outside of the gut...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318994/more-flavor-for-flavonoid-based-interventions
#2
Nadeem O Kaakoush, Margaret J Morris
Poor diets are associated with obesity and a decline in cognitive function. Flavonoids are plant compounds that have been associated with improved metabolic parameters in obesity and reversal of cognitive decline. Given that microbial flavonoid conversion is important for bioactivity, flavonoid-derived neuroactive compounds may be functionally crucial in the gut microbiome-brain axis.
March 17, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#4
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303750/the-gut-microbiome-obesity-and-weight-control-in-women-s-reproductive-health
#5
K Leigh Greathouse, Mary Ann Faucher, Marie Hastings-Tolsma
The microbes residing in the human gut, referred to as the microbiome, are intricately linked to energy homeostasis and subsequently obesity. Integral to the origins of obesity, the microbiome is believed to affect not only health of the human gut but also overall health. This microbiome-obesity association is mediated through the process of energy extraction, metabolism, and cross talk between the brain and the gut microbiome. Host exposures, including diet, that potentially modify genetic predisposition to obesity and affect weight management are reviewed...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302863/transfer-of-dysbiotic-gut-microbiota-has-beneficial-effects-on-host-liver-metabolism
#6
Simon Nicolas, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Audren Fournel, Jerome Gilleron, Pascale Klopp, Aurelie Waget, Franck Ceppo, Alysson Marlin, Roshan Padmanabhan, Jason S Iacovoni, François Tercé, Patrice D Cani, Jean-François Tanti, Remy Burcelin, Claude Knauf, Mireille Cormont, Matteo Serino
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in a variety of systemic disorders, notably metabolic diseases including obesity and impaired liver function, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate this question, we transferred caecal microbiota from either obese or lean mice to antibiotic-free, conventional wild-type mice. We found that transferring obese-mouse gut microbiota to mice on normal chow (NC) acutely reduces markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis with decreased hepatic PEPCK activity, compared to non-inoculated mice, a phenotypic trait blunted in conventional NOD2 KO mice...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293020/untangling-the-relationship-between-diet-and-visceral-fat-mass-through-blood-metabolomics-and-gut-microbiome-profiling
#7
T Pallister, M A Jackson, T C Martin, C A Glastonbury, A Jennings, M Beaumont, R P Mohney, K S Small, A MacGregor, C J Steves, A Cassidy, T D Spector, C Menni, A M Valdes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Higher visceral fat mass (VFM) is associated with an increased risk for developing cardio-metabolic diseases. The mechanisms by which an unhealthy diet pattern may influence VF development has yet to be examined through cutting-edge multi-omic methods. Therefore, our objective was to examine the dietary influences on VFM and identify gut microbiome and metabolite profiles that link food intakes to VFM. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In 2218 twins with VFM, food intake and metabolomics data available we identified food intakes most strongly associated with VFM in 50% of the sample, then constructed and tested the 'VFM diet score' in the remainder of the sample...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292977/the-host-microbiome-regulates-and-maintains-human-health-a-primer-and-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#8
REVIEW
Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A Sela, Alexander J Muller, James M Mullin, Korin Albert, John P Gilligan, Katherine DiGuilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George C Prendergast
Humans consider themselves discrete autonomous organisms, but recent research is rapidly strengthening the appreciation that associated microorganisms make essential contributions to human health and well being. Each person is inhabited and also surrounded by his/her own signature microbial cloud. A low diversity of microorganisms is associated with a plethora of diseases, including allergy, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, an interaction of microorganisms with the host immune system is required for a healthy body...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292617/obesity-pandemic-causes-consequences-and-solutions-but-do-we-have-the-will
#9
REVIEW
David R Meldrum, Marge A Morris, Joseph C Gambone
Obesity has become pandemic owing to an obesogenic environment (inexpensive calorie dense food, technologies and structure of communities that reduce or replace physical activity, and inexpensive nonphysical entertainment) and excessive emphasis on low fat intake resulting in excessive intake of simple carbohydrates and sugar. Effects are greater for women owing to their smaller size and extra weight gain with each pregnancy, with 38% of American adult women being obese. Women are responsible for more than three-fourths of the more than 400 billion dollars of excess direct health care expenditures due to obesity...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286571/we-are-not-alone-a-case-for-the-human-microbiome-in-extra-intestinal-diseases
#10
EDITORIAL
S Shivaji
BACKGROUND: "Dysbiosis" in the gut microbiome has been implicated in auto-immune diseases, in inflammatory diseases, in some cancers and mental disorders. The challenge is to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of dysbiosis so as to understand the disease manifestation. MAIN BODY: Next generation sequencing and genome enabled technologies have led to the establishment of the composition of gut microbiomes and established that "dysbiosis" is the cause of several diseases...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286339/gut-microbiome-diversity-and-high-fibre-intake-are-related-to-lower-long-term-weight-gain
#11
C Menni, M A Jackson, T Pallister, C J Steves, T D Spector, A M Valdes
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the microbes in the human gut play a role in obesity by influencing the human body's ability to extract and store calories. The aim of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between change in body weight over time and gut microbiome composition. METHODS: We analysed 16S rRNA gene sequence data derived from the faecal samples of 1632 healthy females from TwinsUK to investigate the association between gut microbiome measured cross-sectionally and longitudinal weight gain (adjusted for caloric intake and baseline BMI)...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282253/introduction-to-the-special-focus-issue-on-the-impact-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-and-future-opportunities-for-nutritional-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-to-improve-human-health
#12
Sharon M Donovan
Over the past decade, application of culture-independent, next generation DNA sequencing has dramatically enhanced our understanding of the composition of the gut microbiome and its association with human states of health and disease. Host genetics, age, and environmental factors such as where and who you live with, use of pre-, pro- and antibiotics, exercise and diet influence the short- and long-term composition of the microbiome. Dietary intake is a key determinant of microbiome composition and diversity and studies to date have linked long-term dietary patterns as well as short-term dietary interventions to the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279578/sleeve-gastrectomy-drives-persistent-shifts-in-the-gut-microbiome
#13
Cyrus Jahansouz, Christopher Staley, David A Bernlohr, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Sayeed Ikramuddin
BACKGROUND: Changes in the gut microbiome following bariatric surgery have been causally linked to metabolic benefits. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize and assess the stability of gut microbiome shifts following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). SETTING: University laboratories. METHODS: Diet-induced obese mice were randomized to SG or sham surgery. Mice were housed individually or cohoused such that one SG mouse was housed with one weight-matched, sham-operated mouse...
January 4, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279330/microbes-and-diet-induced-obesity-fast-cheap-and-out-of-control
#14
Peter J Turnbaugh
Here I revisit our early experiments published in Cell Host & Microbe (Turnbaugh et al., 2008) showing that a diet rich in fat and simple sugars alters the gut microbiome in a manner that contributes to host adiposity, and reflect upon the remarkable advances and remaining challenges in this field.
March 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273474/the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-metabolic-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Niv Zmora, Stavros Bashiardes, Maayan Levy, Eran Elinav
In addition to the immune system's traditional roles of conferring anti-infectious and anti-neoplastic protection, it has been recently implicated in the regulation of systemic metabolic homeostasis. This cross-talk between the immune and the metabolic systems is pivotal in promoting "metabolic health" throughout the life of an organism and plays fundamental roles in its adaptation to ever-changing environmental makeups and nutritional availability. Perturbations in this intricate immune-metabolic cross-talk contribute to the tendency to develop altered metabolic states that may culminate in metabolic disorders such as malnutrition, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and other features of the metabolic syndrome...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257583/the-oral-cavity-microbiota-between-health-oral-disease-and-cancers-of-the-aerodigestive-tract
#16
Pierre Le Bars, Sebastien Metamoros, Emmanuel Montassier, Françoise Le Vacon, Gilles Potel, Assem Soueidan, Fabienne Jordana, Marie-France De La Cochétière
Many studies show that the human microbiome plays a critical role in the chronic pathologies of obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. More recently, the interaction between cancer and the microbiome has been highlighted. Most studies have focused on the gut microbiota because it represents the most extensive bacterial community, and the body of evidence correlating it with gut syndromes is increasing. However, in the strict sense, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract begins in the oral cavity, and special attention should be paid to the specific flora of this cavity...
March 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253297/salivary-inflammatory-markers-and-microbiome-in-normoglycemic-lean-and-obese-children-compared-to-obese-children-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Waleed F Janem, Frank A Scannapieco, Amarpeet Sabharwal, Maria Tsompana, Harvey A Berman, Elaine M Haase, Jeffrey C Miecznikowski, Lucy D Mastrandrea
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence linking diabetes with periodontal disease. Diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for periodontal disease. Conversely, pro-inflammatory molecules released by periodontally-diseased tissues may enter the circulation to induce insulin resistance. While this association has been demonstrated in adults, there is little information regarding periodontal status in obese children with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that children with T2D have higher rates of gingivitis, elevated salivary inflammatory markers, and an altered salivary microbiome compared to children without T2D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252966/metabolic-in-vivo-labeling-highlights-differences-of-metabolically-active-microbes-from-the-mucosal-gastrointestinal-microbiome-between-high-fat-and-normal-chow-diet
#18
Andreas Oberbach, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Nadine Schlichting, Marco Heinrich, Stefanie Lehmann, Holger Till, Floor Hugenholtz, Yvonne Kullnick, Hauke Smidt, Karin Frank, Jana Seifert, Nico Jehmlich, Martin von Bergen
The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the microbiome. This became possible by the development of stable isotope probing techniques, which have only sparsely been applied to microbiome research. We applied the in vivo stable isotope approach using (15)N-labeled diet with subsequent identification of metabolically active bacterial species...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249034/the-salivary-microbiome-is-altered-in-the-presence-of-a-high-salivary-glucose-concentration
#19
J Max Goodson, Mor-Li Hartman, Ping Shi, Hatice Hasturk, Tina Yaskell, Jorel Vargas, Xiaoqing Song, Maryann Cugini, Roula Barake, Osama Alsmadi, Sabiha Al-Mutawa, Jitendra Ariga, Pramod Soparkar, Jawad Behbehani, Kazem Behbehani
BACKGROUND: Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. METHODS: We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240736/antibiotic-treatment-at-delivery-shapes-the-initial-oral-microbiome-in-neonates
#20
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Oral microorganisms are important determinants of health and disease. The source of the initial neonatal microbiome and the factors dictating initial human oral microbiota development are unknown. This study aimed to investigate this in placental, oral and gut microbiome profiles from 36 overweight or obese mother-baby dyads as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Expression of five antibiotic resistance genes of the β-lactamase class was analysed in the infant oral microbiota samples by QPCR. The neonatal oral microbiota was 65...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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