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Obesity and Microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528593/polymannuronic-acid-ameliorated-obesity-and-inflammation-associated-with-a-high-fat-and-high-sucrose-diet-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiome-in-a-murine-model
#1
Fang Liu, Xiong Wang, Hongjie Shi, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue, Qing-Juan Tang
Polymannuronic acid (PM), one of numerous alginates isolated from brown seaweeds, is known to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we examined its potential role in reducing body weight gain and attenuating inflammation induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFD) as well as its effect on modulating the gut microbiome in mice. A 30-d PM treatment significantly reduced the diet-induced body weight gain and blood TAG levels (P2·0). PM also had a profound impact on the microbial composition in the gut microbiome and resulted in a distinct microbiome structure...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489647/obesity-bariatric-surgery-and-crohn-s-disease
#3
Burton I Korelitz, Niket Sonpal, Judy Schneider, Arun Swaminath, Joseph Felder, Mitchell Roslin, Jeffrey Aronoff
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) following bariatric surgery has been previously described. It is not clear whether the clinical entity is due to rapid metabolism of fat, change in the bacterial milieu of the bowel, the loss of defense mechanisms of the stomach, or even a coincidence. OBJECTIVES: To present observations which might serve to sort out these various etiologies. DESIGN: We present 5 cases of colitis, ileocolitis or enteritis, some with fistula formation, with clinical onset following bariatric surgery and add these to the 7 cases previously identified as CD reported elsewhere...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460795/obesity-and-associated-comorbidities-in-people-and-companion-animals-a-one-health-perspective
#4
REVIEW
M Chandler, S Cunningham, E M Lund, C Khanna, R Naramore, A Patel, M J Day
This article reviews the biology, prevalence and risks for obesity in people and companion dogs and cats, and explores the links between obesity and diabetes mellitus and cancer across these species. Obesity is a major healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine and there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in people and pets. In people and animals, obesity is a complex disorder involving diet, level of physical activity, behavioural factors, socioeconomic factors, environment exposures, genetics, metabolism and the microbiome...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434881/muramyl-dipeptide-based-postbiotics-mitigate-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-via-irf4
#5
Joseph F Cavallari, Morgan D Fullerton, Brittany M Duggan, Kevin P Foley, Emmanuel Denou, Brennan K Smith, Eric M Desjardins, Brandyn D Henriksbo, Kalvin J Kim, Brian R Tuinema, Jennifer C Stearns, David Prescott, Philip Rosenstiel, Brian K Coombes, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan D Schertzer
Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but intervening with antibiotics, prebiotics, or probiotics can be limited by specificity or sustained changes in microbial composition. Postbiotics include bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, which have been shown to promote insulin resistance during metabolic endotoxemia. We found that bacterial cell wall-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is an insulin-sensitizing postbiotic that requires NOD2. Injecting MDP lowered adipose inflammation and reduced glucose intolerance in obese mice without causing weight loss or altering the composition of the microbiome...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414763/enhanced-offspring-predisposition-to-steatohepatitis-with-maternal-high-fat-diet-is-associated-with-epigenetic-and-microbiome-alterations
#7
Umesh D Wankhade, Ying Zhong, Ping Kang, Maria Alfaro, Sree V Chintapalli, Keshari M Thakali, Kartik Shankar
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important co-morbidity associated with obesity and a precursor to steatohepatitis. However, the contributions of gestational and early life influences on development of NAFLD and NASH remain poorly appreciated. METHODS: Two independent studies were performed to examine whether maternal over-nutrition via exposure to high fat diet (HFD) leads to exacerbated hepatic responses to post-natal HFD and methionine choline deficient (MCD) diets in the offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412308/genistein-prevention-of-hyperglycemia-and-improvement-of-glucose-tolerance-in-adult-non-obese-diabetic-mice-are-associated-with-alterations-of-gut-microbiome-and-immune-homeostasis
#8
Guannan Huang, Joella Xu, Daniel E Lefever, Travis C Glenn, Tamas Nagy, Tai L Guo
Although studies have linked soy phytoestrogen 4,7,4-trihydroxyisoflavone genistein (GEN) to reduced type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk, the mechanism of dietary GEN on T1D remains unknown. In our studies, adult non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model was employed to investigate the effects of GEN exposure on blood glucose level (BGL), glucose tolerance, gut microbiome, and immune responses. Adult male and female NOD mice were fed with either soy-based or casein-based diet, and received GEN at 20mg/kg body weight by gavage daily...
April 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389566/microbial-metabolites-in-health-and-disease-navigating-the-unknown-in-search-of-function
#9
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa A Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of a number of chronic gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. These include inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic (i.e. obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes), and neurological diseases. The advanced understanding of host-microbe interactions has largely been due to new technologies such as 16S rRNA sequencing to identify previously unknown microbial communities and more importantly their functional characteristics through metagenomic sequencing, and other multi-omic technologies such as metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388917/influence-of-diet-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-implications-for-human-health
#10
REVIEW
Rasnik K Singh, Hsin-Wen Chang, Di Yan, Kristina M Lee, Derya Ucmak, Kirsten Wong, Michael Abrouk, Benjamin Farahnik, Mio Nakamura, Tian Hao Zhu, Tina Bhutani, Wilson Liao
Recent studies have suggested that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in modulating risk of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. At the same time, it is now understood that diet plays a significant role in shaping the microbiome, with experiments showing that dietary alterations can induce large, temporary microbial shifts within 24 h. Given this association, there may be significant therapeutic utility in altering microbial composition through diet...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387720/gene-diet-interaction-and-precision-nutrition-in-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Yoriko Heianza, Lu Qi
The rapid rise of obesity during the past decades has coincided with a profound shift of our living environment, including unhealthy dietary patterns, a sedentary lifestyle, and physical inactivity. Genetic predisposition to obesity may have interacted with such an obesogenic environment in determining the obesity epidemic. Growing studies have found that changes in adiposity and metabolic response to low-calorie weight loss diets might be modified by genetic variants related to obesity, metabolic status and preference to nutrients...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381231/exposure-to-household-furry-pets-influences-the-gut-microbiota-of-infant-at-3-4%C3%A2-months-following-various-birth-scenarios
#12
Hein M Tun, Theodore Konya, Tim K Takaro, Jeffrey R Brook, Radha Chari, Catherine J Field, David S Guttman, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to household pets has the capacity to reduce risk for overweight and allergic disease, especially following caesarean delivery. Since there is some evidence that pets also alter the gut microbial composition of infants, changes to the gut microbiome are putative pathways by which pet exposure can reduce these risks to health. To investigate the impact of pre- and postnatal pet exposure on infant gut microbiota following various birth scenarios, this study employed a large subsample of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) cohort, whose mothers were enrolled during pregnancy between 2009 and 2012...
April 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379454/intervention-strategies-for-cesarean-section-induced-alterations-in-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#13
Angela Moya-Pérez, Pauline Luczynski, Ingrid B Renes, Shugui Wang, Yuliya Borre, C Anthony Ryan, Jan Knol, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379213/energy-dense-diet-triggers-changes-in-gut-microbiota-reorganization-of-gut%C3%A2-brain-vagal-communication-and-increases-body-fat-accumulation
#14
Alexandra C Vaughn, Erin M Cooper, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Levi J O'Loughlin, Michael E Konkel, James H Peters, Andras Hajnal, Tanusree Sen, Sun Hye Lee, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet‑induced changes in gut microbiota alter vagal gut-brain communication associated with increased body fat accumulation...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376573/the-gut-microbiome
#15
Mayenaaz Sidhu, David van der Poorten
BACKGROUND: More than a trillion, mostly good, microbes live within our gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for vital metabolic, immune and nutritional functions. Dysbiosis, meaning a maladaptive imbalance of the microbiome, is associated with many common diseases and is a target for therapy. OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of the gut microbiome in health and disease, highlighting conditions such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with which dysbiosis is associated...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374667/effect-of-antibiotic-administration-during-infancy-on-growth-curves-through-young-adulthood-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#16
Heather M Sidener, Byung Park, Lina Gao
Recent human studies indicate a possible correlation between the administration of antibiotics during early life and the risk oflater obesity, potentially due to antibiotic-induced alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiome. In humans, the risk of obesity increases with multiple courses of antibiotics and when fetuses or infants are treated with broad-spectrum and macrolide antibiotics.In addition, the obesity risk in humans seems higher for males than females. We used a retrospective, case-control, matched-pair study design to evaluate health records for 99 control-matched pairs of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from an outdoor breeding colony...
April 3, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364866/being-overweight-or-obese-is-associated-with-harboring-a-gut-microbial-community-not-capable-of-metabolizing-the-soy-isoflavone-daidzein-to-o-desmethylangolensin-in-peri-and-post-menopausal-women
#17
Lindsey M Miller, Johanna W Lampe, Katherine M Newton, Gabrielle Gundersen, Sharon Fuller, Susan D Reed, Cara L Frankenfeld
OBJECTIVE: Obesity can be a considerable health concern for peri- and post-menopausal women. Evidence suggests an association between the gut microbiome and obesity. The study objective was to evaluate the association between being overweight or obese and phenotypic markers of having an overall gut microbial environment not capable of metabolizing the isoflavone daidzein to equol or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 137 peri- and 218 post-menopausal women, aged 44-55 years, who consumed at least three servings per week of soy (source of daidzein)...
May 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360349/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
W H Wilson Tang, Takeshi Kitai, Stanley L Hazen
Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases...
March 31, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346935/dysbiosis-in-the-neonatal-period-role-of-cesarean-section
#19
Josef Neu
From epidemiological studies and studies done evaluating microbiomes in infants, there is a strong signal that the infants born by elective cesarean section (C-section) develop microbiota that differs from those babies born by vaginal delivery. Epidemiological studies show increased odds ratios for the development of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, asthma, allergic diseases as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity in babies born by C-section. These are interesting associations, and if supported by additional studies that rigorously control for confounding factors, they will have major public health implications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346919/the-pregnancy-microbiome
#20
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been correlated with microbial changes, termed dysbiosis. Our microbiomes change in response to our environment, diet, weight, hormones, and other factors. It is, therefore, not surprising that there are also significant changes in the microbiome during pregnancy when dramatic weight gain and metabolic and immunological changes occur...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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