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Obesity and Microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#1
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076766/are-gut-microbes-responsible-for-post-dieting-weight-rebound
#2
Julien Chilloux, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
One of the dieting conundrums in the age of the obesity epidemic is the cycle of weight loss and regain known as the "yo-yo effect." Thaiss et al. (2016) demonstrate that the microbiome plays a key role in this phenomenon and that simple dietary supplementations can reset the weight-rebound clock.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#3
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059614/western-diets-gut-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-diseases-are-they-linked
#4
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#5
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034467/maternal-health-and-the-placental-microbiome
#6
REVIEW
Elise Pelzer, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia...
December 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030376/the-effect-of-obesity-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-on-asthma-inception-and-control
#7
Erick Forno, Juan C Celedón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is ample and growing evidence that obesity increases the risk of asthma and morbidity from asthma. Here, we review recent clinical evidence supporting a causal link between obesity and asthma, and the mechanisms that may lead to 'obese asthma'. RECENT FINDINGS: Although in some children obesity and asthma simply co-occur, those with 'obese asthma' have increased asthma severity, lower quality of life, and reduced medication response. Underlying mechanistic pathways may include anatomical changes of the airways such as obstruction and dysanapsis, systemic inflammation, production of adipokines, impaired glucose-insulin metabolism, altered nutrient levels, genetic and epigenetic changes, and alterations in the airway and/or gut microbiome...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012242/a-12-week-intervention-with-nonivamide-a-trpv1-agonist-prevents-a-dietary-induced-body-fat-gain-and-increases-peripheral-serotonin-in-moderately-overweight-subjects
#8
Christina M Hochkogler, Barbara Lieder, Petra Rust, David Berry, Samuel M Meier, Marc Pignitter, Alessandra Riva, Alina Leitinger, Anne Bruk, Simone Wagner, Joachim Hans, Sabine Widder, Jakob P Ley, Gerhard E Krammer, Veronika Somoza
SCOPE: A bolus administration of 0.15 mg nonivamide has previously been demonstrated to reduce energy intake in moderately overweight men. This 12-week intervention investigated whether a daily consumption of nonivamide in a protein-based product formulation promotes a reduction in body weight in healthy overweight subjects, and affects outcome measures associated with mechanisms regulating food intake, e.g. plasma concentrations of an-/orexigenic hormones, energy substrates as well as changes in fecal microbiota ...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006047/the-microbiome-and-risk-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#9
Anthony L Komaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004036/the-microbial-hypothesis-contributions-of-adenovirus-infection-and-metabolic-endotoxaemia-to-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Amos Tambo, Mohsin H K Roshan, Nikolai P Pace
The global obesity epidemic, dubbed "globesity" by the World Health Organisation, is a pressing public health issue. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial incorporating both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, epidemiological studies have observed an association between microbes and obesity. Obesity-promoting microbiome and resultant gut barrier disintegration have been implicated as key factors facilitating metabolic endotoxaemia. This is an influx of bacterial endotoxins into the systemic circulation, believed to underpin obesity pathogenesis...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997970/the-metabolic-role-of-the-microbiome-implications-for-nafld-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Eamonn M M Quigley, Ahmed Abu-Shanab, Eileen F Murphy, Catherine Stanton, Howard P Monsour
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has rapidly emerged as one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide and is set to achieve virtually epidemic proportions if current trends in obesity continue. A considerable volume of data from animal experiments has revealed the magnitude of the metabolic contribution of the gut microbiome and how a disordered microbial population could contribute to the development of obesity and its complications, including NAFLD. Although considerable progress has been made in developing a role for the microbiome in NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatosis (NASH), there are still many issues to be resolved, including the nature and location of the altered microbiome (i...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994480/combining-pain-therapy-with-lifestyle-the-role-of-personalized-nutrition-and-nutritional-supplements-according-to-the-simpar-feed-your-destiny-approach
#12
REVIEW
Manuela De Gregori, Carolina Muscoli, Michael E Schatman, Tiziana Stallone, Fabio Intelligente, Mariangela Rondanelli, Francesco Franceschi, Laura Isabel Arranz, Silvia Lorente-Cebrián, Maurizio Salamone, Sara Ilari, Inna Belfer, Massimo Allegri
Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: "FYD (Feed Your Destiny): Fighting Pain", held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on "Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology"...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989963/tuning-constitutive-and-pathological-inflammation-in-the-gut-via-the-interaction-of-dietary-nitrate-and-polyphenols-with-host-microbiome
#13
Bárbara Rocha, Carla Nunes, João Laranjinha
Chronic inflammation is currently recognized as a critical process in modern-era epidemics such as diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. However, little attention is paid to the constitutive inflammatory pathways that operate in the gut and that are mandatory for local welfare and the prevention of such multi-organic diseases. Hence, the digestive system, while posing as a barrier between the external environment and the host, is crucial for the balance between constitutive and pathological inflammatory events...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989792/enterosalivary-nitrate-metabolism-and-the-microbiome-intersection-of-microbial-metabolism-nitric-oxide-and-diet-in-cardiac-and-pulmonary-vascular-health
#14
REVIEW
Carl D Koch, Mark T Gladwin, Bruce A Freeman, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg, Alison Morris
Recent insights into the bioactivation and signaling actions of inorganic, dietary nitrate and nitrite now suggest a critical role for the microbiome in the development of cardiac and pulmonary vascular diseases. Once thought to be the inert, end-products of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) heme-oxidation, nitrate and nitrite are now considered major sources of exogenous NO that exhibit enhanced vasoactive signaling activity under conditions of hypoxia and stress. The bioavailability of nitrate and nitrite depend on the enzymatic reduction of nitrate to nitrite by a unique set of bacterial nitrate reductase enzymes possessed by specific bacterial populations in the mammalian mouth and gut...
December 16, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988219/dietary-changes-impact-the-gut-microbe-composition-in-overweight-and-obese-men%C3%A2-with-prostate-cancer-undergoing-radical%C3%A2-prostatectomy
#15
Andrew D Frugé, Travis Ptacek, Yuko Tsuruta, Casey D Morrow, Maria Azrad, Renee A Desmond, Gary R Hunter, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
BACKGROUND: Diet and obesity influence prostate cancer risk and progression-effects that may be mediated through the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore relationships among diet, gut microbes, and Gleason sum in overweight and obese prostate cancer patients enrolled in a presurgical weight-loss trial. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (NCT01886677) secondary analysis. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: In 2013-2014, 40 prostate cancer patients in the southeastern United States were randomized and allocated equally to weight-loss and wait-list control arms while they awaited prostatectomy; stool samples were collected on a subset of 22 patients...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975354/-microbiome-and-winter-flab
#16
Anne Katharina Zschocke
The tendency to increased body fat storage depends on microbiota. Their composition follows a natural annual rhythm, as apparent by hibernating animals and humans living close to nature. Life shaped by "western industrialization", including microbiome shocks such as antibiotics, low-fiber and low-bacteria diets combined with the consumption of industrialized food leads to the loss of bacterial species in the body. This induces deficiency symptoms, diseases and results in lower energy yields from food. It might also result in the loss of intestinal mucous and "leaky gut"...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966366/the-metabolic-phenotype-of-obesity-in-a-saudi-population
#17
Muhammad Saeed Ahmad, Munirah Alsaleh, Torben Kimhofer, Sultan Ahmad, Wisam Jamal, Siraj Omar Wali, Jeremy Kirk Nicholson, Zoheir Abdullah Damanhouri, Elaine Holmes
Metabolic phenotyping of obese populations can shed light on understanding environmental interactions underpinning obesogenesis. Obesity and its comorbidities are a major health and socioeconomic concern globally and are highly prevalent in the Middle East. We employed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to characterise the metabolic signature of urine and blood plasma for a cohort of (n=50) obese compared to non-obese Saudi participants (n=48). The urinary metabolic phenotype of obesity was characterised by higher concentrations of N-acetyl glycoprotein fragment, bile acids, lysine and methylamines and lower concentrations of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, glycine and gut microbial metabolites...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939359/a-story-of-metformin-butyrate-synergism-to-control-various-pathological-conditions-as-a-consequence-of-gut-microbiome-modification-genesis-of-a-wonder-drug
#18
REVIEW
Kunal Maniar, Amal Moideen, Ankur Mittal, Amol Patil, Amitava Chakrabarti, Dibyajyoti Banerjee
The most widely prescribed oral anti-diabetic agent today in the world today is a member of the biguanide class of drugs called metformin. Apart from its use in diabetes, it is currently being investigated for its potential use in many diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, comorbidities of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy to name a few. Numerous in-vitro and in-vivo studies as well as clinical trials have been and are being conducted with a vast amount of literature being published every day...
December 8, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935413/stable-core-virome-despite-variable-microbiome-after-fecal-transfer
#19
Felix Broecker, Giancarlo Russo, Jochen Klumpp, Karin Moelling
We recently described the 4.5-year time course of the enteric bacterial microbiota and virome of a patient cured from recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Here, we extended the virome analyses and found the patient's phage population to exhibit highly donor-similar characteristics following FMT, which remained stable for the whole period tested (up to 7 months). Moreover, the detected viral populations of donor and patient exhibited comparable diversity and richness...
December 9, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925245/helminths-hygiene-hypothesis-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
Karin de Ruiter, Dicky L Tahapary, Erliyani Sartono, Pradana Soewondo, Taniawati Supali, Johannes W A Smit, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Worldwide, there is little overlap between the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Helminth-induced type 2 immune responses and immune regulatory network might modulate the obesity-induced activation of inflammatory pathways that are associated with the development of insulin resistance, a strong predictor of the development of T2D. However, other factors such as helminth-associated changes in adiposity and gut microbiome might also contribute to improved metabolic outcomes. In this review we summarize epidemiological evidence for the link between helminths and T2D and discuss the potential mechanisms, based on findings from experimental studies as well as the limited number of studies in humans...
December 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
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