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Doga Demirel, Alexander Yu, Tansel Halic, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Adam Ryason, David Spindler, Kathryn L Butler, Caroline Cao, Emil Petrusa, Marcos Molina, Dan Jones, Suvranu De, Marc Demoya, Stephanie Jones
This paper presents a simulation of Virtual Airway Skill Trainer (VAST) tasks. The simulated tasks are a part of two main airway management techniques; Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) and Cricothyroidotomy (CCT). ETI is a simple nonsurgical airway management technique, while CCT is the extreme surgical alternative to secure the airway of a patient. We developed identification of Mallampati class, finding the optimal angle for positioning pharyngeal/mouth axes tasks for ETI and identification of anatomical landmarks and incision tasks for CCT...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Doga Demirel, Kathryn L Butler, Tansel Halic, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, David Spindler, Caroline Cao, Emil Petrusa, Marcos Molina, Daniel B Jones, Suvranu De, Marc A deMoya
BACKGROUND: Despite the critical importance of cricothyroidotomy (CCT) for patient in extremis, clinical experience with CCT is infrequent, and current training tools are inadequate. The long-term goal is to develop a virtual airway skills trainer that requires a thorough task analysis to determine the critical procedural steps, learning metrics, and parameters for assessment. METHODS: Hierarchical task analysis is performed to describe major tasks and subtasks for CCT...
September 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Joseph M Dhahbi, Patricia L Mote, Shelley X Cao, Stephen R Spindler
Diabetes induces biochemical, morphological, and functional alterations in the liver. The liver is a major target of insulin action, and plays a critical role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. We investigated the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes (SID) on global hepatic gene expression in mice. We induced SID in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) microarrays containing probe sets for approximately 11,000 murine genes and expressed sequence tags were used to assess the effects of SID on hepatic gene expression in mice...
2003: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Joseph M Dhahbi, Shelley X Cao, Patricia L Mote, Brian C Rowley, John E Wingo, Stephen R Spindler
Molecular chaperones assist in the biosynthesis and processing of proteins. Most chaperones are induced by physiological stresses. We have shown that dietary energy restriction decreases the mRNA and protein levels of many endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in the livers of mice. Here, we have investigated the response of chaperone mRNA to feeding. Control and 50% energy-restricted C3B10RF1 mice were deprived of food for 24 h, fed, and killed 0, 1.5, 5 or 12 h after feeding. Chaperone mRNAs were strongly induced as early as 1...
January 2002: Journal of Nutrition
S X Cao, J M Dhahbi, P L Mote, S R Spindler
We present genome-wide microarray expression analysis of 11,000 genes in an aging potentially mitotic tissue, the liver. This organ has a major impact on health and homeostasis during aging. The effects of life- and health-span-extending caloric restriction (CR) on gene expression among young and old mice and between long-term CR (LT-CR) and short-term CR (ST-CR) were examined. This experimental design allowed us to accurately distinguish the effects of aging from those of CR on gene expression. Aging was accompanied by changes in gene expression associated with increased inflammation, cellular stress, and fibrosis, and reduced capacity for apoptosis, xenobiotic metabolism, normal cell-cycling, and DNA replication...
September 11, 2001: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J M Dhahbi, S X Cao, J B Tillman, P L Mote, M Madore, R L Walford, S R Spindler
Calorie restriction (CR) delays age-related physiological changes, reduces cancer incidence, and increases maximum life span in mammals. Here we show that CR decreased the expression of many hepatic molecular chaperones and concomitantly increased the rate and efficiency of serum protein secretion. Hepatocytes from calorie-restricted mice secreted twice as much albumin, 63% more alpha1-antitrypsin, and 250% more of the 31.5-kDa protein 2 h after their synthesis. A number of trivial explanations for these results, such as differential rates of protein synthesis and cell leakage during the assay, were eliminated...
June 8, 2001: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
J M Dhahbi, P L Mote, J Wingo, B C Rowley, S X Cao, R L Walford, S R Spindler
Differential 'fuel usage' has been proposed as a mechanism for life-span extension by caloric restriction (CR). Here, we report the effects of CR, initiated after weaning, on metabolic enzyme gene expression 0, 1.5, 5, and 12 h after feeding of 24-month-old mice. Plasma glucose and insulin were reduced by approximately 20 and 80%. Therefore, apparent insulin sensitivity, as judged by the glucose to insulin ratio, increased 3.3-fold in CR mice. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA and activity were transiently reduced 1...
July 31, 2001: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
J M Dhahbi, J B Tillman, S Cao, P L Mote, R L Walford, S R Spindler
The free radical theory of aging predicts that calorie restriction, which extends life span, should reduce oxidant damage. In mammals, the oxidative processes centered in the liver are a major source of free radicals. Liver catalase has the dominant role in the intracellular detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. In male rodents, published studies indicate that aging decreases catalase gene transcription and that calorie restriction obviates this effect. In females, published studies are inconsistent, and no molecular mechanisms have been identified...
May 1998: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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