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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#1
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627510/glycogen-controls-caenorhabditis-elegans-lifespan-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#2
Ivan Gusarov, Bibhusita Pani, Laurent Gautier, Olga Smolentseva, Svetlana Eremina, Ilya Shamovsky, Olga Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Alexander Mironov, Evgeny Nudler
A high-sugar diet has been associated with reduced lifespan in organisms ranging from worms to mammals. However, the mechanisms underlying the harmful effects of glucose are poorly understood. Here we establish a causative relationship between endogenous glucose storage in the form of glycogen, resistance to oxidative stress and organismal aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that glycogen accumulated on high dietary glucose limits C. elegans longevity. Glucose released from glycogen and used for NADPH/glutathione reduction renders nematodes and human hepatocytes more resistant against oxidative stress...
June 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627126/consumption-of-obesogenic-foods-in-non-hispanic-black-mother-infant-dyads
#3
Melissa C Kay, Heather Wasser, Linda S Adair, Amanda L Thompson, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Chirayath M Suchindran, Margaret E Bentley
Obesity continues to be a problem in the United States. Of particular concern is the epidemic of early childhood obesity. A significant predictor of child diet is maternal diet, but little is known about this relationship during infancy. This study examined the association between maternal and infant consumption of key food groups from 6 to 18 months using data from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Study, a prospective cohort of 217 non-Hispanic black, low-income, first-time mothers. Using data from 24-hr dietary recalls collected during in-home visits at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, we assessed longitudinal associations between mother and child intake of both energy-dense, nutrient-poor (obesogenic) food groups and fibre-, nutrient-rich food groups using random intercept logistic regression...
June 18, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620482/naturally-occurring-and-added-sugar-in-relation-to-macronutrient-intake-and-food-consumption-results-from-a-population-based-study-in-adults
#4
Niina E Kaartinen, Minna E Similä, Noora Kanerva, Liisa M Valsta, Kennet Harald, Satu Männistö
Associations between sugar intake and the remaining diet are poorly described in modern food environments. We aimed at exploring associations of high naturally occurring and added sugar intakes with sociodemographic characteristics, intake of macronutrients, fibre and selected food groups. Our data comprised 4842 Finnish adults aged 25-74 years, who participated in the population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) study. Diet was assessed by a validated 131-item FFQ...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620111/dietary-fats-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-presidential-advisory-from-the-american-heart-association
#5
REVIEW
Frank M Sacks, Alice H Lichtenstein, Jason H Y Wu, Lawrence J Appel, Mark A Creager, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Michael Miller, Eric B Rimm, Lawrence L Rudel, Jennifer G Robinson, Neil J Stone, Linda V Van Horn
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death, accounting for 17.3 million deaths per year. Preventive treatment that reduces CVD by even a small percentage can substantially reduce, nationally and globally, the number of people who develop CVD and the costs of caring for them. This American Heart Association presidential advisory on dietary fats and CVD reviews and discusses the scientific evidence, including the most recent studies, on the effects of dietary saturated fat intake and its replacement by other types of fats and carbohydrates on CVD...
June 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617536/effects-of-mulberry-leaf-polysaccharide-on-oxidative-stress-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-of-type-2-diabetic-rats
#6
C-G Liu, Y-P Ma, X-J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore and discuss the effects and mechanisms of mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) on oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cells of type 2 diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model of diabetic rats was established by inducing the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with high-sugar and high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then giving them streptozotocin (STZ) by single intraperitoneal injection. The mulberry leaf polysaccharide was administered via gavage daily for 8 weeks, and the tissue morphology was observed through electron microscopy...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615381/yogurt-is-a-low-glycemic-index-food
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Ms Wolever
High yogurt intake is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although several mechanisms could explain this association, this paper addresses the glycemic and insulinemic impact of yogurt. There is evidence that low-glycemic index (GI) and low-glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with a reduced risk of T2DM. The 93 GI values for yogurt in the University of Sydney's GI database have a mean ± SD of 34 ± 13, and 92% of the yogurts are low-GI (≤55). The 43 plain yogurts in the database have a lower GI than the 50 sweetened yogurts, 27 ± 11 compared with 41 ± 11 (P < 0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614474/-food-labeling-in-ecuador-implementation-results-and-pending-actions
#8
Adrián Alberto Díaz, Paula Mariana Veliz, Gabriela Rivas-Mariño, Carina Vance Mafla, Luz María Martínez Altamirano, Cecilia Vaca Jones
Noncommunicable diseases are the world's leading cause of death, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012. This epidemic is primarily associated with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and changes in dietary patterns, characterized by diets high in sugar and saturated fat, typical of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, plus low intake of fruits and vegetables. Ecuador is no exception to this epidemiological profile or to changes in eating patterns. Thus, Ecuador's government designed and implemented an action plan aimed at changing the obesogenic environment, which includes six strategic lines...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612831/abdominal-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-in-asian-indians-dietary-strategies-including-edible-oils-cooking-practices-and-sugar-intake
#9
REVIEW
S Gulati, A Misra
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in rural and urban regions of South Asia including India. Pattern of fat deposition in abdomen, ectopic fat deposition (liver, pancreas) and also low lean mass are contributory to early-onset insulin resistance, dysmetabolic state and diabetes in Asian Indians. These metabolic perturbations are further exacerbated by changing lifestyle, diet urbanization, and mechanization. Important dietary imbalances include increasing use of oils containing high amount of trans fatty acids and saturated fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, palmolein oil) use of deep frying method and reheating of oils for cooking, high intake of saturated fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates, low intake of protein, fiber and increasing intake of processed foods...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608806/targeting-overconsumption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-vs-overall-poor-diet-quality-for-cardiometabolic-diseases-risk-prevention-place-your-bets
#10
REVIEW
Benoit J Arsenault, Benoît Lamarche, Jean-Pierre Després
Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is amongst the dietary factors most consistently found to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in large epidemiological studies. Intervention studies have shown that SSB overconsumption increases intra-abdominal obesity and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver, and also exacerbates cardiometabolic risk. Similar to the prevalence of obesity and T2D, national surveys of food consumption have shown that chronic overconsumption of SSBs is skyrocketing in many parts of the world, yet with marked heterogeneity across countries...
June 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596058/adolescents-unhealthy-eating-habits-are-associated-with-meal-skipping
#11
Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues, Ronir Raggio Luiz, Luana Silva Monteiro, Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves-Silva, Rosangela Alves Pereira
OBJECTIVE: Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile...
April 5, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595659/uses-of-nutrient-profiling-to-address-public-health-needs-from-regulation-to-reformulation
#12
Adam Drewnowski
Nutrient profiling (NP) models rate the nutritional quality of individual foods, based on their nutrient composition. Their goal is to identify nutrient-rich foods, generally defined as those that contain more nutrients than calories and are low in fat, sugar and salt. NP models have provided the scientific basis for evaluating nutrition and health claims and regulating marketing and advertising to children. The food industry has used NP methods to reformulate product portfolios. To help define what we mean by healthy foods, NP models need to be based on published nutrition standards, mandated serving sizes and open-source nutrient composition databases...
June 9, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585690/satisfying-america-s-fruit-gap-summary-of-an-expert-roundtable-on-the-role-of-100-fruit-juice
#13
REVIEW
Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Mario G Ferruzzi, Victor L Fulgoni, Robert Murray, Elizabeth Pivonka, Taylor C Wallace
The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567037/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-by-krill-oil-in-mice-fed-a-high-sugar-high-fat-diet
#14
Chenyang Lu, Tingting Sun, Yanyan Li, Dijun Zhang, Jun Zhou, Xiurong Su
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia. Previous studies have confirmed that krill oil can alleviate hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To discern whether krill oil changes the structure of the gut microbiota during the hyperlipidemia treatment, 72 mice were acclimatized with a standard chow diet for 2 weeks and then randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (control group, n = 12) or a high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF) diet supplemented with a low (100 μg/g·d, HSHF+LD group, n = 12), moderate (200 μg/g·d, HSHF+MD group, n = 12) or high dosage of krill oil (600 μg/g·d, HSHF+HD group, n = 12), simvastatin (HSHF+S group, n = 12) or saline (HSHF group, n = 12) continuously for 12 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561551/sugar-before-bed-a-simple-dietary-risk-factor-for-caries-experience
#15
M Goodwin, D K Patel, A Vyas, A J Khan, M G McGrady, N Boothman, I A Pretty
Clinical care pathways have placed renewed emphasis on caries risk assessment and the ability to predict and prevent further disease. With diet considered a key factor in the development of caries, the level of caries risk posed by dietary habits, such as the frequency of intake and timing of free sugars is questioned. OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable and simple dietary risk factors for caries experience. RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study of a convenience sample with data gained from clinical examinations, questionnaire and a 24 hour dietary-recall interview...
March 2017: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560934/organic-food-consumption-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-different-consumer-profiles-food-patterns-and-intake-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#16
Ana Paula Simões-Wüst, Carolina Moltó-Puigmartí, Martien Cjm van Dongen, Pieter C Dagnelie, Carel Thijs
OBJECTIVE: To find out how the consumption of organic food during pregnancy is associated with consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional description of consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes associated with consumption of organic food during pregnancy. SETTING: Healthy, pregnant women recruited to a prospective cohort study at midwives' practices in the southern part of the Netherlands; to enrich the study with participants adhering to alternative lifestyles, pregnant women were recruited through various specific channels...
May 31, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560114/differentiation-of-bifidobacterium-longum-subspecies-longum-and-infantis-by-quantitative-pcr-using-functional-gene-targets
#17
Blair Lawley, Karen Munro, Alan Hughes, Alison J Hodgkinson, Colin G Prosser, Dianne Lowry, Shao J Zhou, Maria Makrides, Robert A Gibson, Christophe Lay, Charmaine Chew, Pheng Soon Lee, Khai Hong Wong, Gerald W Tannock
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are abundant in the feces of babies during the exclusively-milk-diet period of life. Bifidobacterium longum is reported to be a common member of the infant fecal microbiota. However, B. longum is composed of three subspecies, two of which are represented in the bowel microbiota (B. longum subsp. longum; B. longum subsp. infantis). B. longum subspecies are not differentiated in many studies, so that their prevalence and relative abundances are not accurately known...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557140/diet-quality-of-children-post-liver-transplantation-does-not-differ-from-healthy-children
#18
Abeer S Alzaben, Krista MacDonald, Cheri Robert, Andrea Haqq, Susan M Gilmour, Jason Yap, Diana R Mager
Little has been studied regarding the diets of children following LTX. The study aim was to assess and compare dietary intake and DQ of healthy children and children post-LTX. Children and adolescents (2-18 years) post-LTX (n=27) and healthy children (n=28) were studied. Anthropometric and demographic data and two 24-hour recalls (one weekend; one weekday) were collected. Intake of added sugar, HFCS, fructose, GI, and GL was calculated. DQ was measured using three validated DQ indices: the HEI-C, the DGI-CA, and the DQI-I...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554328/the-role-of-diet-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#19
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, Gema Frühbeck, Maria De Angelis, Ornella De Bari, David Q-H Wang, Frank Lammert, Piero Portincasa
Cholesterol gallstone disease is a major health problem in Westernized countries and depends on a complex interplay between genetic factors, lifestyle and diet, acting on specific pathogenic mechanisms. Overweigh, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and altered cholesterol homeostasis have been linked to increased gallstone occurrence, and several studies point to a number of specific nutrients as risk- or protective factors with respect to gallstone formation in humans, motivating a rising interest in the identification of common and modifiable dietetic factors that put the patients at risk of gallstones or that are able to prevent gallstone formation and growth...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548281/adverse-effects-of-fructose-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-subjects-with-abdominal-obesity
#20
Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Sanni Söderlund, Leonie H Bogl, Antti Hakkarainen, Niina Matikainen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Sari Räsänen, Nina Lundbom, Elias Björnson, Björn Eliasson, Rosellina M Mancina, Stefano Romeo, Natalie Alméras, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Claudia Vetrani, Anna Prinster, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Rivellese, Jean-Pierre Després, Jan Borén
BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or if they are secondary to weight gain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of fructose (75 g/day), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n=71) of abdominally obese men...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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