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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724270/synergistic-effects-of-ad-libitum-low-dose-fructose-drinking-and-low-dose-streptozotocin-treatment-in-wistar-rats-a-mild-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Asie Sadeghi, Maani Beigy, Samira Alizadeh, Hossein Mazloom, Sanaz Vakili, Saideh Ahmadi, Reza Meshkani
To develop a convenient animal model of T2D by pretreatment with low-dose 10% w/v fructose (FRC) solution followed by the injection of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. For this 8-week experimental study; rats were first fed a standard chow ad-libitum diet and either tap water (n=40) or 10% w/v FRC solution (n=40) for 4 weeks. Next, rats in each category were randomly allocated to 4 subgroups (n=10 each) of low-dose STZ (25,35, and 45 mg/kg). The final mean fasting blood sugar (FBG) of FRC+STZ45 (197±55...
May 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718681/partial-substitution-of-glucose-with-xylitol-suppressed-the-glycolysis-and-selectively-inhibited-the-proliferation-of-oral-cancer-cells
#2
Dunyaporn Trachootham, Pimjai Chingsuwanrote, Penkhair Yoosadiang, Duangsamon Mekkriangkrai, Tanapat Ratchawong, Nicha Buraphacheep, Siripa Kijanukul, Sumrit Saekhow, Orawan Pongpitchayadej, Kittituch Vongvachvasin, Paknisa Sittikornpaiboon, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
Suitable diet for cancer survivors remains an unresolved challenge. Increased glucose utilization is a hallmark of various cancers. Therefore, alternative carbohydrate supplying normal tissue but retarding cancer growth is needed. This study investigated the effect of sugar alcohols on the proliferation of oral cancer cells compared to nontransformed cells and explored the mechanism. Six oral squamous cell carcinoma (CAL-27, FaDu, SCC4, SCC9, SCC15, and SCC25) and one nontransformed oral keratinocyte (OKF6/TERT2) lines were cultured in media containing 1 mg/ml glucose and 5...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717381/patterns-and-dynamics-of-neutral-lipid-fatty-acids-in-ants-implications-for-ecological-studies
#3
Félix B Rosumek, Adrian Brückner, Nico Blüthgen, Florian Menzel, Michael Heethoff
BACKGROUND: Trophic interactions are a fundamental aspect of ecosystem functioning, but often difficult to observe directly. Several indirect techniques, such as fatty acid analysis, were developed to assess these interactions. Fatty acid profiles may indicate dietary differences, while individual fatty acids can be used as biomarkers. Ants are among the most important terrestrial animal groups, but little is known about their lipid metabolism, and no study so far used fatty acids to study their trophic ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714425/the-share-of-ultra-processed-foods-determines-the-overall-nutritional-quality-of-diets-in-brazil
#4
Maria Laura da Costa Louzada, Camila Zancheta Ricardo, Euridice Martinez Steele, Renata Bertazzi Levy, Geoffrey Cannon, Carlos Augusto Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and to determine its association with the overall nutritional quality of diets in Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Brazil. SUBJECTS: A representative sample of 32 898 Brazilians aged ≥10 years was studied. Food intake data were collected. We calculated the average dietary content of individual nutrients and compared them across quintiles of energy share of ultra-processed foods...
July 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713285/amiloride-improves-endothelial-function-and-reduces-vascular-stiffness-in-female-mice-fed-a-western-diet
#5
Luis A Martinez-Lemus, Annayya R Aroor, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Guanghong Jia, Javad Habibi, Vincent G DeMarco, Brady Barron, Adam Whaley-Connell, Ravi Nistala, James R Sowers
Obese premenopausal women lose their sex related cardiovascular disease protection and develop greater arterial stiffening than age matched men. In female mice, we have shown that consumption of a Western diet (WD), high in fat and refined sugars, is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffening, which occur via activation of mineralocorticoid receptors and associated increases in epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity on endothelial cells (EnNaC). Herein our aim was to determine the effect that reducing EnNaC activity with a very-low-dose of amiloride would have on decreasing endothelial and arterial stiffness in young female mice consuming a WD...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711416/association-of-carbohydrate-and-fat-intake-with-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Yu-Jin Kwon, Hye-Sun Lee, Ji-Won Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. METHODS: Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females)...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708089/effects-of-consuming-xylitol-on-gut-microbiota-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mice
#8
Takashi Uebanso, Saki Kano, Ayumi Yoshimoto, Chisato Naito, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
The sugar alcohol xylitol inhibits the growth of some bacterial species including Streptococcus mutans. It is used as a food additive to prevent caries. We previously showed that 1.5-4.0 g/kg body weight/day xylitol as part of a high-fat diet (HFD) improved lipid metabolism in rats. However, the effects of lower daily doses of dietary xylitol on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism are unclear. We examined the effect of 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol intake on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in mice...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698480/comparison-of-dietary-intakes-of-7-year-old-children-enrolled-in-observational-birth-cohort-studies-on-the-isle-of-man-and-in-south-west-england
#9
Ellen M Tweney, Pauline M Emmett, Jean Golding, Stephanie Goodfellow, Caroline M Taylor
There is concern regarding the amount of fruit and vegetables consumed and high sugar intakes in children's diets. Regional dietary differences in the British Isles could underlie variations in health outcomes, but little is known about these differences. Our aim was to compare diets of children enrolled in observational birth cohort studies in the Isle of Man (IoM-ELSPAC) and in south-west England (ALSPAC). Dietary intakes were assessed by 3-day food records in IoM and ALSPAC at an age of 7 years. Comparisons of mean daily nutrient, and food and food group intakes were made between the studies and with UK national dietary guidelines...
July 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698350/efficacy-of-nanocurcumin-supplementation-on-insulin-resistance-lipids-inflammatory-factors-and-nesfatin-among-obese-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-a-trial-protocol
#10
Seyed Ali Jazayeri-Tehrani, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Siavash Mansouri, Mostafa Qorbani, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Milad Daneshi-Maskooni, Mohammad-Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
OBJECTIVES: Different studies have been conducted on the role of curcumin in health since having multiple properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Due to the lack of studies regarding curcumin effects on obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), our protocol was designed to assess nanocurcumin impacts on blood sugar, lipids, inflammatory indices, insulin resistance and liver function, especially by nesfatin. SETTING: This trial will be conducted in the Oil Company central hospital of Tehran, Iran with a primary level of care...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693514/disparities-in-dietary-intake-and-physical-activity-patterns-across-the-urbanization-divide-in-the-peruvian-andes
#11
Morgan L McCloskey, Carla E Tarazona-Meza, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Catherine H Miele, Robert H Gilman, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, J Jaime Miranda, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Diet and activity are thought to worsen with urbanization, thereby increasing risk of obesity and chronic diseases. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns across the urbanization divide may help identify pathways, and therefore intervention targets, leading to the epidemic of overweight seen in low- and middle-income populations. Therefore, we sought to characterize diet and activity in a population-based study of urban and rural residents in Puno, Peru. METHODS: We compared diet and activity in 1005 (503 urban, 502 rural) participants via a lifestyle questionnaire...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684345/alterations-in-nociception-and-morphine-antinociception-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Caitlin M Nealon, Chandni Patel, Beth L Worley, Angela N Henderson-Redmond, Daniel J Morgan, Traci A Czyzyk
Currently, more than 78.6 million adults in the United States are obese. A majority of the patient population receiving treatment for pain symptoms is derived from this subpopulation. Environmental factors, including the increased availability of food high in fat and sugar, contribute to the continued rise in the rates of obesity. The focus of this study was to investigate whether long-term exposure to a high-fat, energy-dense diet enhances baseline thermal and inflammatory nociception while reducing sensitivity to morphine-induced antinociception...
July 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674441/a-high-salt-diet-inhibits-obesity-and-delays-puberty-in-the-female-rat
#13
D Pitynski-Miller, M Ross, M Schmill, R Schambow, T Fuller, F W Flynn, D C Skinner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Due to correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669823/biochemical-and-structural-analyses-of-two-cryptic-esterases-in-bacteroides-intestinalis-and-their-synergistic-activities-with-cognate-xylanases
#14
Daniel Wefers, Janaina J V Cavalcante, Rachel R Schendel, Jaigeeth Deveryshetty, Kui Wang, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Roderick I Mackie, Nicole M Koropatkin, Isaac Cann
Arabinoxylans are constituents of the human diet. Although not utilizable by the human host, they can be fermented by colonic bacteria. The arabinoxylan backbone is decorated with arabinose side-chains that may be substituted with ferulic acid, thus limiting depolymerization to fermentable sugars. We investigated the polypeptides encoded by two genes upregulated during growth of the colonic bacterium Bacteroides intestinalis on wheat arabinoxylan. The recombinant proteins, designated BiFae1A and BiFae1B, were functionally assigned esterase activities...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661446/olive-polyphenols-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Bandhita Saibandith, Jeremy P E Spencer, Ian R Rowland, Daniel M Commane
Here, the effects of consuming polyphenol-rich olive products, including olive leaves, their crude extract, and extra virgin olive oil, on aspects of the metabolic syndrome are reviewed. We have sought to summarize the available scientific evidence from dietary intervention trials demonstrating a role for these phytochemicals in ameliorating aberrant glucose metabolism, high blood pressure and elevated blood lipids, and we discuss the potential mechanisms underpinning these observations. Searches for relevant literature published in English were conducted via PubMed and Science Direct...
June 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660452/bamboo-shoots-as-a-nutritive-boon-for-northeast-india-an-overview
#16
Anusriti Basumatary, Sushil Kumar Middha, Talambedu Usha, Amit Kumar Basumatary, Birendra Kumar Brahma, Arvind Kumar Goyal
With about 136 species, India is one among the richest countries in bamboo resources that help mankind in more than 1500 diverse ways. Although the utilization of juvenile shoots of bamboo in tribal diet of Northeast India is a very old observable fact, its numerous health benefits and potentiality remains uncharted. Apart from being delicious, the bamboo shoots are also rich in minerals and nutrient components such as carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and are low in fat and sugar which could be helpful in mitigating the problem of malnutrition...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651972/consumption-of-key-food-groups-during-the-postpartum-period-in-low-income-non-hispanic-black-mothers
#17
Melissa C Kay, Heather Wasser, Linda S Adair, Amanda L Thompson, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Chirayath M Suchindran, Margaret E Bentley
The postpartum period can impact diet quality and subsequently place women at greater risk for overweight or obesity. This study examined consumption of key food groups during the first 2 years postpartum among low income, non-Hispanic black, first-time mothers. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 mother-infant dyads, followed from 3 to 18 months postpartum, collected from 2003 to 2007. At each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months) 24-h dietary recalls were collected...
June 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637899/dietary-salt-exacerbates-experimental-colitis
#18
Alan L Tubbs, Bo Liu, Troy D Rogers, R Balfour Sartor, Edward A Miao
The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#19
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627510/glycogen-controls-caenorhabditis-elegans-lifespan-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#20
Ivan Gusarov, Bibhusita Pani, Laurent Gautier, Olga Smolentseva, Svetlana Eremina, Ilya Shamovsky, Olga Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Alexander Mironov, Evgeny Nudler
A high-sugar diet has been associated with reduced lifespan in organisms ranging from worms to mammals. However, the mechanisms underlying the harmful effects of glucose are poorly understood. Here we establish a causative relationship between endogenous glucose storage in the form of glycogen, resistance to oxidative stress and organismal aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that glycogen accumulated on high dietary glucose limits C. elegans longevity. Glucose released from glycogen and used for NADPH/glutathione reduction renders nematodes and human hepatocytes more resistant against oxidative stress...
June 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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