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low sugar diet

Robin A Wilson, William Deasy, Christos G Stathis, Alan Hayes, Matthew B Cooke
Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT)...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Marcela Nouzova, Veronika Michalkova, Salvador Hernández-Martínez, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Cesar E Ramirez, Francisco Fernandez-Lima, Fernando G Noriega
Juvenile hormone (JH) is a major hormonal regulator in insects. In Aedes aegypti females, JH signals the completion of the ecdysis to the adult stage and initiates reproductive processes. Although the regulation of JH synthesis and titer in Ae. aegypti females has been extensively studied, relatively little is known about changes of JH synthesis and titers in male mosquitoes, as well as on the roles of JH controlling male reproductive biology. A better understanding of male mosquito reproductive biology, including an improved knowledge of the hormonal control of reproduction, could increase the likelihood of success of male-targeting vector control programs...
March 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Katherine L Campbell, Aleksandra Babiarz, Yan Wang, Nicholas A Tilton, Maureen M Black, Erin R Hager
OBJECTIVE: To identify home environment factors associated with toddler dietary behaviours using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). DESIGN: Home environment and toddler's diet were assessed by mothers through EMA (random beeps over ≤8 d and a brief survey). Dietary outcomes were fruit/vegetable consumption, eating episode ('snack' v. 'meal') and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Home environment factors included interacting with mother, eating alone/with others, eating in a high chair/chair at the table, watching television and movement/translocation...
March 12, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Laura A van der Velde, Anh N Nguyen, Josje D Schoufour, Anouk Geelen, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. METHODS: For 4733 children participating in a population-based cohort, we assessed dietary intake using a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a median age of 8.1 years (interquartile range 8.0-8.2) (2011-2014). Based on dietary guidelines, we developed and validated a food-based diet quality score for children consisting of ten components (score 0-10): sufficient intake of vegetables; fruit; whole grains; fish; legumes; nuts; dairy; oils and soft fats; and low intake of sugar-containing-beverages; and high-fat and processed meat...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
F J W C Schaafstra, D A van Doorn, J T Schonewille, E Roelfsema, C M Westermann, O Dansen, M Jacobs, J-Y Lee, E A Spronck, M C Blok, W H Hendriks
Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days...
March 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Tuula Tyry, Amber Salter, Stacey S Cofield, Gary Cutter, Robert J Fox, Ruth Ann Marrie
INTRODUCTION: Dietary approaches to management of MS has been proposed for several decades, yet very little is known concerning dietary composition or adherence to specialized diets in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We conducted a survey of participants in the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) registry assessing diet composition and the prevalence of 19 different diets. We characterized prevalence of different diets and compared diet composition with estimated intakes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) survey respondents and across demographics and MS clinical characteristics...
February 27, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Rimante Ronto, Jason Hy Wu, Gitanjali M Singh
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have increased dramatically in developed and developing countries. Unhealthy diet is one of the major factors contributing to NCD development. Recent evidence has identified deterioration in aspects of dietary quality across many world regions, including low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Most burdens of disease attributable to poor diet can be prevented or delayed as they occur prematurely. Therefore, it is important to identify and target unhealthy dietary behaviours in order to have the greatest impact...
March 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Sunhye Lee, Katherine I Keirsey, Rebecca Kirkland, Zachary I Grunewald, Joan G Fischer, Claire B de La Serre
Background: Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Microbiota manipulation may therefore affect obesity-related comorbidities. Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may alter the gut microbiota. Objective: We hypothesized that blueberry supplementation would alter the gut microbiota, reduce systemic inflammation, and improve insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed rats...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Sophia Rasheeqa Ismail, Siti Khuzaimah Maarof, Syazwani Siedar Ali, Azizan Ali
BACKGROUND: The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. METHODS: We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language...
2018: PloS One
Derrick Ssewanyana, Amina Abubakar, Anneloes van Baar, Patrick N Mwangala, Charles R Newton
Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are among the key modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although such diseases often only appear in adulthood, these behaviors are typically initiated or reinforced already during adolescence. However, knowledge on underlying factors for adolescents' unhealthy dieting and physical inactivity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is poor. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to explore the perceptions of a diverse group of 78 young people of 10-19 years of age, which also included some adolescents living with HIV, as this is an emerging group in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in many parts of SSA...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Romy Lauche, Nicholas R Fuller, Holger Cramer, Jon Wardle, David Sibbritt, Jon Adams
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether the use of complementary medicine (CM) is associated with body satisfaction and weight management methods in Australian women. METHODS: Women aged 34-39 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding satisfaction with their body weight and shape, and the use of weight management methods. Associations with CM use were analysed using logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: Women using CM less likely wanted to lose weight; and were more likely to cut down on fats and/or sugars, use low glycaemic diets, diet books and 'other' methods (OR: 1...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Mirjam E van de Kamp, S Marije Seves, Elisabeth H M Temme
BACKGROUND: The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. METHODS: Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments...
February 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Bigina N R Ginos, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Dongfang Wang, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Mario Kratz, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
OBJECTIVE: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18...
February 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Léa Décarie-Spain, Sandeep Sharma, Cécile Hryhorczuk, Victor Issa Garcia, Philip A Barker, Nathalie Arbour, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Kurt Sartorius, Benn Sartorius, Thandinkosi E Madiba, Cristina Stefan
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to test the association between high and low carbohydrate diets and obesity, and second, to test the link between total carbohydrate intake (as a percentage of total energy intake) and obesity. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: We sought MEDLINE, PubMed and Google Scholar for observation studies published between January 1990 and December 2016 assessing an association between obesity and high-carbohydrate intake. Two independent reviewers selected candidate studies, extracted data and assessed study quality...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael D Kendig, Michelle X Fu, Simone Rehn, Sarah I Martire, Robert A Boakes, Kieron B Rooney
High consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is a risk factor for weight gain and metabolic disease. Whether this risk is reduced by switching to 'diet' beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is controversial. Two experiments modeled whether a switch from SSB to LCS beverages produced positive outcomes on behavioral and metabolic measures. Both experiments consisted of a Stage 1, in which adult female rats received unrestricted access to 10% sucrose solution in addition to chow and water for 4 (Experiment 1) or 8 weeks (Experiment 2)...
February 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Hongyan Ling, Zemei Zhu, Jihua Yang, Jianqin He, Sisi Yang, Di Wu, Shuidong Feng, Duanfang Liao
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to cognitive impairment (CI), but there have been no effective pharmacotherapies or drugs for cognitive dysfunction in T2DM. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from the leaves of Ampelopsis grossedentata and has various pharmacological effects including anti-oxidant and anti-diabetes. Thus, we investigated the effects of DHM on CI in T2DM mouse model and its possible mechanism. To induce T2DM, mice were fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet for 8 weeks, followed by a low dose streptozotocin (STZ) administration...
February 7, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Krithiga Shridhar, Ambika Satija, Preet K Dhillon, Sutapa Agrawal, Ruby Gupta, Liza Bowen, Sanjay Kinra, A V Bharathi, D Prabhakaran, K Srinath Reddy, Shah Ebrahim
BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India...
February 8, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Christie Walker, Eileen R Gibney, Stefanie Hellweg
This study evaluates the relationship between environmental impacts and diet quality through several environmental and nutritional indicators, using data from over 1400 participants across seven European countries in the Food4Me study. Comparisons of environmental impacts and dietary quality were evaluated across country, gender groups, and dietary patterns. While there was clear variability within the different subsets, there were large differences observed in both dietary quality and environmental impacts between cultures, genders, and dietary patterns...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana San Gabriel, Kumiko Ninomiya, Hisayuki Uneyama
As incomes steadily increase globally, traditional diets have been displaced by diets that are usually animal-based with a high content of "empty calories" or refined sugars, refined fats, and alcohol. Dietary transition coupled with the expansion of urbanization and lower physical activity have been linked to the global growth in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and life style-related non-communicable diseases. The challenge is in how to reverse the trend of high consumption of less healthy food by more healthful and more environmentally sustainable diets...
February 3, 2018: Nutrients
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