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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548281/adverse-effects-of-fructose-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-subjects-with-abdominal-obesity
#1
Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Sanni Söderlund, Leonie H Bogl, Antti Hakkarainen, Niina Matikainen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Sari Räsänen, Nina Lundbom, Elias Björnson, Björn Eliasson, Rosellina M Mancina, Stefano Romeo, Natalie Alméras, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Claudia Vetrani, Anna Prinster, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Rivellese, Jean-Pierre Després, Jan Borén
BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or if they are secondary to weight gain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of fructose (75 g/day), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n=71) of abdominally obese men...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545937/treatment-of-nafld-with-diet-physical-activity-and-exercise
#2
REVIEW
Manuel Romero-Gómez, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Michael Trenell
Lifestyle intervention can be useful across all the spectrum of NAFLD patients. Losing weight decreases cardiovascular / diabetes risk and also regresses liver disease. Weight reductions of ≥ 10% are required for inducing near universal NASH resolution or fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight losses (>5%) also produce important benefits on NAS and its components. In addition, to improve the success of this intervention we need to explore, beyond total calories and type of weight loss diet, the role of micro and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally supporting these modifications through established behaviour change models and techniques...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541752/ensiled-sugar-beets-as-dietary-component-and-their-effect-on-preference-and-dry-matter-intake-by-goats
#3
Katrin Gerlach, Anke Reimink, Ulrike Messerschmidt, Karl-Heinz Südekum
This study examines the influence of ensiled sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) on preference and short-time dry matter (DM) intake of goats. Whole sugar beets were ensiled either without any silage additive (sugar beet silage (SBS)) or with a chemical additive (6 l/t) containing 85% formic and propionic acids (treated sugar beet silage (TBS)) and were chopped after ensiling. The influence of different proportions of SBS (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% of dietary DM) and TBS (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of DM) in partial mixed rations on short-time DM intake by goats (adult Saanen type wethers; n = 10) was studied in two separate, independent trials...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538927/feasibility-of-using-of-a-simplified-question-in-assessing-diet-quality-of-adolescents
#4
Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves-Silva, Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira, Rosangela Alves Pereira
This study aims to analyze the applicability of a simplified question in assessing diet quality of adolescents in a cross-sectional school-based study carried out in a sample of high school students. Diet quality self-perception was obtained when the participant was inquired about own diet considering "excellent", "good", "fair" or "poor" responses. We evaluated meals habits and food intake through food frequency questionnaire. The revised version of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R) was estimated and we identified three dietary patterns using factor analysis...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538925/diet-and-body-fat-in-adolescence-and-early-adulthood-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies
#5
Bruna Celestino Schneider, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Silvana Paiva Orlandi, Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção
Adipose tissue is a vital component of the human body, but in excess, it represents a risk to health. According to the World Health Organization, one of the main factors determining excessive body adiposity is the dietary habit. This systematic review investigated longitudinal studies that assessed the association between diet and body fat in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-one relevant papers published between 2001 and 2015 were selected. The most used method for estimating body fat was the body mass index (15 studies)...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526377/orange-juice-allied-to-a-reduced-calorie-diet-results-in-weight-loss-and-ameliorates-obesity-related-biomarkers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Carolina Ribeiro, Grace Dourado, Thais Cesar
OBJECTIVE: Assumptions have linked orange juice (OJ) consumption with weight gain and adverse effects on health due to its sugar content; however, epidemiologic studies have not shown increased risk for overweight or obesity with the consumption of 100% OJ. The aim of this study was to verify whether the combination of a reduced-calorie diet (RCD) and 100% OJ contribute to weight loss, promote changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve diet quality in obese individuals. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with 78 obese patients (age 36 ± 1 y, body mass index [BMI] 33 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in two groups: Individuals in the OJ group submitted to an RCD that included OJ (500 mL/d), and individuals in the control group submitted to an RCD without OJ...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#7
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521334/lifestyle-recommendations-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-metabolic-syndrome-an-international-panel-recommendation
#8
Pablo Pérez-Martínez, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Vasilios G Athyros, Mónica Bullo, Patrick Couture, María I Covas, Lawrence de Koning, Javier Delgado-Lista, Andrés Díaz-López, Christian A Drevon, Ramón Estruch, Katherine Esposito, Montserrat Fitó, Marta Garaulet, Dario Giugliano, Antonio García-Ríos, Niki Katsiki, Genovefa Kolovou, Benoît Lamarche, Maria Ida Maiorino, Guillermo Mena-Sánchez, Araceli Muñoz-Garach, Dragana Nikolic, José M Ordovás, Francisco Pérez-Jiménez, Manfredi Rizzo, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Helmut Schröder, Francisco J Tinahones, Rafael de la Torre, Ben van Ommen, Suzan Wopereis, Emilio Ros, José López-Miranda
The importance of metabolic syndrome (MetS) lies in its associated risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as other harmful conditions such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this report, the available scientific evidence on the associations between lifestyle changes and MetS and its components is reviewed to derive recommendations for MetS prevention and management. Weight loss through an energy-restricted diet together with increased energy expenditure through physical activity contribute to the prevention and treatment of MetS...
May 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520791/toxic-and-hormetic-like-effects-of-three-components-of-citrus-essential-oils-on-adult-mediterranean-fruit-flies-ceratitis-capitata
#9
Stella A Papanastasiou, Eleftheria-Maria D Bali, Charalampos S Ioannou, Dimitrios P Papachristos, Kostas D Zarpas, Nikos T Papadopoulos
Plant essential oils (EOs) and a wide range of their individual components are involved in a variety of biological interactions with insect pests including stimulatory, deterrent, toxic and even hormetic effects. Both the beneficial and toxic properties of citrus EOs on the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) have been experimentally evidenced over the last years. However, no information is available regarding the toxic or beneficial effects of the major components of citrus EOs via contact with the adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499824/quantifying-dietary-exposure-to-pesticide-residues-using-spraying-journal-data
#10
Martin Olof Larsson, Vibe Sloth Nielsen, Christian Ørsted Brandt, Niels Bjerre, Frank Laporte, Nina Cedergreen
Relatively few studies are available on the combined risk of realistic dietary pesticide exposure. Despite available studies showing low risk, public concern remains. Recent methods used to estimate realistic exposure levels have a number of drawbacks, and better methods are needed. Using a novel approach, we estimated the combined exposure in the Danish population, resulting from pesticide usage in Danish agriculture. The complete Danish spraying journal data from 2014, and supervised trial residue levels reported by EFSA, were used in combination, generating residue estimates in 25 crops...
May 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489037/color-coded-front-of-pack-nutrition-labels-an-option-for-us-packaged-foods
#11
Elizabeth K Dunford, Jennifer M Poti, Dagan Xavier, Jacqui L Webster, Lindsey Smith Taillie
The implementation of a standardized front-of-pack-labelling (FoPL) scheme would likely be a useful tool for many consumers trying to improve the healthfulness of their diets. Our objective was to examine what the traffic light labelling scheme would look like if implemented in the US. Data were extracted from Label Insight's Open Access branded food database in 2017. Nutrient levels and the proportion of products classified as "Red" (High), "Amber" (Medium) or "Green" (Low) in total fat, saturated fat, total sugar and sodium for food and beverage items were examined...
May 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487555/adaptation-to-dietary-conditions-by-trehalose-metabolism-in-drosophila
#12
Tetsuo Yasugi, Takayuki Yamada, Takashi Nishimura
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that serves as the main sugar component of haemolymph in insects. Trehalose hydrolysis enzyme, called trehalase, is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. However, our understanding of the physiological role of trehalase remains incomplete. Here, we analyze the phenotypes of several Trehalase (Treh) loss-of-function alleles in a comparative manner in Drosophila. The previously reported mutant phenotype of Treh affecting neuroepithelial stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the optic lobe is caused by second-site alleles in addition to Treh...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464074/influence-of-lignocellulose-and-low-or-high-levels-of-sugar-beet-pulp-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-the-fecal-microbiota-in-dogs
#13
S Kröger, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Lignocellulose is an alternative fiber source for dogs; however, it has not yet been studied as a feed ingredient for the nutrition of dogs. Eight adult Beagles were involved in the study, which consisted of 3 feeding periods of 8 to 12 wk each. All dogs received 3 different diets, which either had the same concentration of fiber sources (2.7% sugar beet pulp or lignocellulose) or were formulated for a similar concentration of approximately 3% crude fiber: 12% sugar beet pulp (highSBP; 3.1% crude fiber), 2...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452694/diet-and-physical-activity-in-african-american-girls-seasonal-differences
#14
Karen W Cullen, Yan Liu, Debbe Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Diet and physical activity (PA) may vary by season. METHODS: Two 24-hour dietary recalls and 7 days of accelerometry were collected from 342 8-10 year-old African-American girls between January 2013 and October 2014. Season was based on time of data collection (fall, spring, winter, summer). Seasonal differences in diet and PA were assessed. RESULTS: Mean age was 8.9 years; 53% were low income. Girls with summer baseline data collection reported consuming significantly less 100% fruit juice than those with winter and spring data...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446499/food-groups-and-risk-of-all-cause-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#15
Lukas Schwingshackl, Carolina Schwedhelm, Georg Hoffmann, Anna-Maria Lampousi, Sven Knüppel, Khalid Iqbal, Angela Bechthold, Sabrina Schlesinger, Heiner Boeing
Background: Suboptimal diet is one of the most important factors in preventing early death and disability worldwide.Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups, including whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with risk of all-cause mortality.Design: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar for prospective studies investigating the association between these 12 food groups and risk of all-cause mortality...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424192/sodium-sugar-and-fat-content-of-complementary-infant-and-toddler-foods-sold-in-the-united-states-2015
#16
Joyce Maalouf, Mary E Cogswell, Marlana Bates, Keming Yuan, Kelley S Scanlon, Pamela Pehrsson, Janelle P Gunn, Robert K Merritt
Background: As part of a healthy diet, limiting intakes of excess sodium, added sugars, saturated fat, and trans fat has been recommended. The American Heart Association recommends that children aged <2 y should avoid added sugars.Objective: We sought to determine commercial complementary infant-toddler food categories that were of potential concern because of the sodium, added sugar, saturated fat, or trans fat content.Design: Nutrition label information (e.g., serving size, sodium, saturated fat, trans fat) for 1032 infant and toddler foods was collected from manufacturers' websites and stores from May to July 2015 for 24 brands, which accounted for >95% of infant-toddler food sales...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421787/adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-pattern-cognitive-status-and-depressive-symptoms-in-an-elderly-non-institutionalized-population
#17
Ana Hernández-Galiot, Isabel Goñi
INTRODUCTION: Scientific evidence indicates that adherence to the Mediterranean diet protects against the deterioration of cognitive status and depressive symptoms during aging. However, few studies have been conducted in elderly non-institutionalized subjects. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the relation between the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and cognitive status and depressive symptoms in an elderly population over 75 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Mediterranean city (Garrucha, Spain) in 79 elderly people over 75 (36 men and 41 women)...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416368/nutritional-management-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review-study
#18
REVIEW
Zeinab Faghfoori, Siavash Fazelian, Mahdi Shadnoush, Reza Goodarzi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, which leads to reproductive, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. Due to the presence of insulin resistance, PCOS increases the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid disorders, cardiovascular diseases and malignancies such as breast and endometrial cancer. The actual cause of this syndrome is unknown but environmental factors such as dietary habits play an important role in prevention and treatment and lifestyle modifications are the most important therapeutic strategies in these patients...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415920/what-can-the-food-and-drink-industry-do-to-help-achieve-the-5-free-sugars-goal
#19
Sigrid Gibson, Margaret Ashwell, Jenny Arthur, Lindsey Bagley, Alison Lennox, Peter J Rogers, Sara Stanner
AIMS: To contribute evidence and make recommendations to assist in achieving free sugars reduction, with due consideration to the broader picture of weight management and dietary quality. METHODS: An expert workshop in July 2016 addressed options outlined in the Public Health England report 'Sugar reduction: The evidence for action' that related directly to the food industry. Panel members contributed expertise in food technology, public heath nutrition, marketing, communications, psychology and behaviour...
April 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406437/low-glycemic-index-prototype-isomaltulose-update-of-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Constanze Christin Maresch, Sebastian Friedrich Petry, Stephan Theis, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Thomas Linn
Low glycemic index diets are supposed to achieve a more beneficial effect on blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus and may also provide metabolic benefits for the general population. A prototype of a low-glycemic index carbohydrate is the natural occurring disaccharide isomaltulose that can be commercially produced from sucrose (beet sugar) to industrial scale. It is currently used in various food and drink applications as well as special and clinical nutrition feeds and formula diet as a food ingredient and alternative sugar...
April 13, 2017: Nutrients
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