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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454227/a-pilot-trial-of-l-carnitine-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-biomarkers-of-injury
#1
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Hadi Hamishehkar, Hassan Soleimanpour, Sarvin Sanaie, Jahan Porhomayon, Fatemeh Rasouli, Nader D Nader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of l-Carnitine on neuron specific enolase (NSE) as a marker of inflammation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Forty patients with severe TBI were randomized into 2 groups. The (LCA-) group received standard treatment with placebo while the (LCA+) group received l-Carnitine 2g/day for one week. NSE was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 after the initiation of the study. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders were recorded on the first and third months...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454224/the-consonant-vowel-pattern-determines-the-structure-of-orthographic-representations-in-the-left-fusiform-gyrus
#2
Fabienne Chetail, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Xavier De Tiège, Vincent Wens, Alain Content
Recent findings demonstrated readers' sensitivity to the distinction between consonant and vowel letters. Especially, the way consonants and vowels are organised within written words determines their perceptual structure. The present work attempted to overcome two limitations of previous studies by examining the neurophysiological correlates of this perceptual structure through magnetoencephalography (MEG). One aim was to establish that the extraction of vowel-centred units takes place during early stages of processing...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454163/exacerbations-in-adults-with-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-external-validation-of-prediction-models
#3
Rik Jb Loymans, Thomas Pa Debray, Persijn J Honkoop, Evelien H Termeer, Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Tjard Rj Schermer, Willem Jj Assendelft, Merel Timp, Kian Fan Chung, Ana R Sousa, Jaap K Sont, Peter J Sterk, Helen K Reddel, Gerben Ter Riet
BACKGROUND: Several prediction models assessing future risk of exacerbations in adult patients with asthma have been published. Applicability of these models is uncertain because their predictive performance has often not been assessed beyond the population in which they were derived. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and critically appraise prediction models for asthma exacerbations and validate them in two clinically distinct populations. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched to April 2017 for reports describing adult asthma populations in which multivariable models were constructed to predict exacerbations during any time frame...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454157/nanofibrous-plga-electrospun-scaffolds-modified-with-type-i-collagen-influence-hepatocyte-function-and-support-viability-in-vitro
#4
Jessica H Brown, Prativa Das, Michael D DiVito, David Ivancic, Lay Poh Tan, Jason A Wertheim
A major challenge of maintaining primary hepatocytes in vitro is progressive loss of hepatocyte-specific functions, such as protein synthesis and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalytic activity. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffold made from poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using a newlyoptimizedwet electrospinning techniquethat resulted in a highly porous structure that accommodated inclusion of primary human hepatocytes. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (type I collagen or fibronectin) at varying concentrations were chemically linked to electrospun PLGA using amine coupling to develop an in vitro culture system containing the minimal essential ECM components of the liver micro-environment that preserve hepatocyte function in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454129/delayed-post-traumatic-subacute-lumbar-subarachnoid-hematoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Thiébaud Picart, Timothée Jacquesson, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Moncef Berhouma
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal subarachnoid hematoma, associated or not to a concurrent subdural hematoma has rarely been described. The evolution of such hematomas is heterogeneous. This study aims at defining the most accurate management which is currently not standardized. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 20-year-old man, victim of a high kinetic road accident five days before, suffering from several non-neurologic non-surgical vertebral fractures, complained of a sudden dorso-lumbar pain irradiating to his lower limbs...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453729/perioperative-outcomes-of-robotic-hysterectomy-with-mini-laparotomy-versus-open-hysterectomy-for-uterus-weighing-more-than-250-g
#6
Natasha Gupta, Shanti Mohling, Rebecca Mckendrick, Rayan Elkattah, Jenny Holcombe, Robert S Furr, Todd Boren, Stephen DePasquale
To compare perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing robotic hysterectomy and extraction of specimen via mini-laparotomy (RHML) versus open hysterectomy (OH) when uterus weighs more than 250 g. To study the factors determining the length of hospital stay in 2 groups. A retrospective analysis of all hysterectomies performed for uterus weighing more than 250 g from the year 2012 to 2015 was conducted. A total of 140 patients were divided into 2 groups based on the type of surgery; RHML (n = 82) and OH (n = 58)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453716/occurrence-and-assessment-of-the-risk-of-ultraviolet-filters-and-light-stabilizers-in-victorian-estuaries
#7
Mayumi Allinson, Yutaka Kameda, Kumiko Kimura, Graeme Allinson
This reconnaissance study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of common ultraviolet filters (UVF) and light stabilizers (UVLS), and preservatives in four different estuaries in Port Philip Bay, Victoria, for the first time. In total, 11 UV filters, 10 UV stabilizers, 12 preservatives and a metabolite, and one fragrance were screened in grab samples of water and sediment using a combination of solid phase extraction and gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry measurement techniques. In that context, 16 of the UVF and UVLS and 5 of the preservatives screened were observed in water and/or sediment samples...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453700/reliability-of-cartilage-digestion-and-fda-eb-fluorescence-staining-for-the-detection-of-chondrocyte-viability-in-osteochondral-grafts
#8
Jianhong Qi, Famin Cao, Yunning Han, Di Xie, Hongqiang Song, Bin Chen, Lu Zhou
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability of cartilage digestion and fluorescein diacetate-ethidium bromide (FDA-EB) fluorescence staining for the detection of chondrocyte viability in osteochondral grafts. Sixteen fresh osteochondral grafts were harvested from pig knee condyles, and the articular cartilage tissue was preserved. Each cartilage graft was cut into two 70-µm thick pieces and randomly allocated to Group A or Group B. The cell viability of Group A was detected using FDA-EB fluorescence staining of the digested cartilage, and the viability of Group B was detected with FDA-EB fluorescence staining of cartilage sections...
February 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453652/significance-of-the-nonneoplastic-renal-parenchymal-findings-in-robotic-partial-nephrectomy-series
#9
Ercan Malkoç, Matthew J Maurice, Oktay Akça, Önder Kara, Homayoun Zargar, Hiury Andrade, Daniel Ramirez, Peter Caputo, Robert Stein, Demirjian Sevag, Jihad H Kaouk
AIM: To describe the pathological characteristics of the peritumoral non-neoplastic renal parenchyma (NNRP) and to investigate their impact on long-term renal function after partial nephrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our institutional robotic partial nephrectomy database, we identified 394 cases with pathological assessment of the NNRP and long-term postoperative renal functional follow-up. The NNRP was classified as normal (healthy renal parenchyma) or abnormal, based on the presence of arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and/or tubulopapillary hyperplasia...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453579/cryopreservation-of-human-testicular-tissue-by-isopropyl-controlled-slow-freezing
#10
Yoni Baert, Jaime Onofre, Dorien Van Saen, Ellen Goossens
Tissue cryopreservation uses very low temperatures to preserve structurally intact living cells in their natural microenvironment. Cell survival is strongly influenced by the biophysical effects of ice during both the freezing and the subsequent thawing. These effects can be controlled by optimizing the fragment size, type of cryoprotectant, and cooling rate. The challenge is to determine cryopreservation parameters that suit all cell types present in the tissue. Here we describe a quick and convenient protocol for the cryopreservation of testicular tissue using an isopropyl-insulated freezing device, which was validated in both a mouse and a human model...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453562/preparation-of-testicular-samples-for-histology-and-immunohistochemistry
#11
Barbara Bilinska, Anna Hejmej, Malgorzata Kotula-Balak
One approach to visualize internal structures of the testis is histological sectioning of the material. The use of testicular samples allows a detailed analysis of the structure of both seminiferous tubules and the interstitial space. It is worth noting that key role in the control of germ cell development is assigned to Sertoli cells. Thus, in this chapter the special reference is made on visualization of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous epithelium in which they create a specialized microenvironment to support the germ cell development through the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453461/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-induces-specific-shifts-of-the-gut-microbiota-without-altering-the-metabolism-of-bile-acids-in-the-intestinal-lumen
#12
Henri Duboc, Caroline Chong Nguyen, Jean-Baptiste Cavin, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Anne-Charlotte Jarry, Dominique Rainteau, Lydie Humbert, Benoit Coffin, Maude Le Gall, André Bado, Harry Sokol
Some shifts in the gut microbiota composition and its metabolic fingerprints have been associated to Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). So far, plasma bile acids have been associated with post-operative glucose improvement and weight loss, but nothing is known about their metabolism in the gut lumen. As bile acids are physiologically transformed by the microbiota into various species, the aim of this work was to study how SG and RYGB-associated dysbiosis impact the bioconversion of bile acids in the intestinal lumen...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453268/high-microbial-diversity-promotes-soil-ecosystem-functioning
#13
Pierre-Alain Maron, Amadou Sarr, Aurore Kaisermann, Jean Lévêque, Olivier Mathieu, Julien Guigue, Battle Karimi, Laetitia Bernard, Samuel Dequiedt, Sébastien Terrat, Abad Chabbi, Lionel Ranjard
In soil, the link between microbial diversity and carbon transformations is challenged by the concept of functional redundancy. Here, we hypothesized that functional redundancy may decrease with increasing carbon source recalcitrance, and that coupling of diversity with C-cycling may change accordingly. We manipulated microbial diversity to examine how diversity decrease affects the decomposition of easily degradable ( i.e. allochthonous plant residues) vs. recalcitrant ( i.e. autochthonous organic matter) C-sources...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453137/scientific-evidence-on-perineal-trauma-during-labor-integrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Flaviana Vieira, Janaina V Guimarães, Marcia C S Souza, Poliana M L Sousa, Rafaela F Santos, Agueda M R Z Cavalcante
OBJECTIVE: To assess the scientific evidence for management and preservation of perineal integrity during the expulsive stage of labor. STUDY DESIGN: Integrative review that employed the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome strategy to formulate the research question: Which perineal measure(s) is(are) effective in maintaining perineal integrity during labor? The search was performed in the databases MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF and SciELO. The ten selected studies were analyzed based on their level of evidence and grade of recommendation...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453086/pegylated-polyaminoacid-capped-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-mitochondria-targeted-delivery-of-celastrol-in-solid-tumors
#15
Ju Yeon Choi, Biki Gupta, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Jee-Heon Jeong, Sung Giu Jin, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
The major goal of cancer chemotherapy is to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs, while minimizing their associated side effects. Celastrol (CST), which is extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii, has been reported to exhibit significant anticancer effects in various in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems could be employed to preserve and enhance the pharmacological effects of CST in cancer cells. Among these, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are one of the most promising drug delivery systems...
February 11, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452987/cell-therapy-for-peripheral-artery-disease
#16
REVIEW
Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Patients with severe peripheral artery disease (PAD) who are not candidates for revascularization have poor prognosis. Cell therapy using peripheral blood-derived or bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or marker-specific subsets of bone marrow cells with angiogenic properties may hold promise for no-option PAD patients. Injected cells may exert beneficial actions by enhancing local angiogenesis (either through maturation of endothelial progenitors, or through secretion of angiogenic mediators), or by transducing cytoprotective signals that preserve tissue structure...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452961/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-dpp-4i-combined-with-vitamin-d3-an-exploration-to-treat-new-onset-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-in-the-future
#17
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Felipe Moura Maia Pinheiro, Maria Luisa Trabachin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells through cell injury caused primarily by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8 + ). The pathophysiological basis of T1DM seems to be an imbalance between a reduced function of T regulatory lymphocytes and an increased inflammatory activity of Th17 lymphocytes caused by increased production of inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-gamma due to environmental factors and genetic predisposition...
February 13, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452852/reduction-of-patient-radiation-dose-with-a-new-organ-based-dose-modulation-technique-for-thoraco-abdominopelvic-computed-tomography-ct-liver-dose-right-index
#18
M Fillon, S Si-Mohamed, P Coulon, A Vuillod, P Klahr, L Boussel
PURPOSE: To evaluate the radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic confidence with thoraco-abdominopelvic computed tomography (TACT) using a new organ based dose modulation system (liver dose right index [Liver DRI]), compared to TACT using a standard automatic exposure control adjusting mA according to attenuation. METHODS: A total of 37 patients who had two TACT examinations on 2 different CT scanners, one using standard automatic exposure control (combination of a DoseRight automatic current selection and Z modulation) and one using Liver DRI were included...
February 13, 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452832/delayed-endovascular-aortic-repair-is-associated-with-reduced-in-hospital-mortality-in-patients-with-blunt-thoracic-aortic-injury
#19
Christina L Marcaccio, Ryan P Dumas, Yanlan Huang, Wei Yang, Grace J Wang, Daniel N Holena
OBJECTIVE: The traditional approach to stable blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) endorsed by the Society for Vascular Surgery is early (<24 hours) thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Recently, some studies have shown improved mortality in stable BTAI patients repaired in a delayed manner (≥24 hours). However, the indications for use of delayed TEVAR for BTAI are not well characterized, and its overall impact on the patient's survival remains poorly understood. We sought to determine whether delayed TEVAR is associated with a decrease in mortality compared with early TEVAR in this population...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452769/the-radiation-resistance-of-human-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-is-independent-of-their-tissue-of-origin
#20
Alexander Rühle, Oliver Xia, Ramon Lopez Perez, Thuy Trinh, Wiltrud Richter, Anna Sarnowska, Patrick Wuchter, Jürgen Debus, Rainer Saffrich, Peter E Huber, Nils H Nicolay
PURPOSE: Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may aid the regeneration of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced tissue damage. They can be harvested from different tissues for clinical purposes; however, the role of the tissue source on the radiation response of human MSCs remains unknown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Human MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue, bone marrow, and umbilical cord, and cellular survival, proliferation, and apoptosis were measured after irradiation...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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