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Romain Da Costa, Carsten Röger, Jasmin Segelken, Maya Barben, Christian Grimm, John Neidhardt
Purpose: Gene therapies to treat eye disorders have been extensively studied in the past 20 years. Frequently, adeno-associated viruses were applied to the subretinal or intravitreal space of the eye to transduce retinal cells with nucleotide sequences of therapeutic potential. In this study we describe a novel intravitreal injection procedure that leads to a reproducible adeno-associated virus (AAV)2/8-mediated transduction of more than 70% of the retina. Methods: Prior to a single intravitreal injection of a enhanced green fluorescent protien (GFP)-expressing viral suspension, we performed an aspiration of vitreous tissue from wild-type C57Bl/6J mice...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Aakash Garg, Deepti Virmani, Sahil Agrawal, Chirag Agarwal, Abhishek Sharma, Giulio Stefanini, John B Kostis
Heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly prevalent and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFpEF has a complex pathophysiology, with recent evidence suggesting that an interaction of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities (e.g. obesity, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease) induces an inflammatory state that eventually leads to myocardial structural and functional alterations. Current ACCF/AHA guidelines suggest incorporation of biomarkers along with clinical and imaging tools to establish the diagnosis and disease severity in heart failure (HF)...
October 27, 2016: Cardiology
Tuany Defaveri Begossi, Janice Zarpellon Mazo
The scope of this study was to analyze the legal norms that have underpinned the alignment of organizational structures in the area of sports directed to individuals with disabilities in Brazil. The theoretical and methodological benchmark of the New Cultural History was based on the analysis of legal documents, as well as oral sources, which consist of three interviews with athletes who have experienced the period before the creation of the Brazilian Paralympic Committee. These sources were subjected to the technique of document analysis...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Coşku Kasnakoğlu
Some level of uncertainty is unavoidable in acquiring the mass, geometry parameters and stability derivatives of an aerial vehicle. In certain instances tiny perturbations of these could potentially cause considerable variations in flight characteristics. This research considers the impact of varying these parameters altogether. This is a generalization of examining the effects of particular parameters on selected modes present in existing literature. Conventional autopilot designs commonly assume that each flight channel is independent and develop single-input single-output (SISO) controllers for every one, that are utilized in parallel for actual flight...
2016: PloS One
Solveig Langsrud, Katrin Steinhauer, Sonja Lüthje, Klaus Weber, Peter Goroncy-Bermes, Askild L Holck
Preservatives are added to cosmetics to protect the consumers from infections and prevent product spoilage. The concentration of preservatives should be kept as low as possible and this can be achieved by adding potentiating agents. The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanisms behind potentiation of the bactericidal effect of a commonly used preservative, 2-phenoxyethanol (PE), by the potentiating agent ethylhexylglycerin (EHG). Sub-lethal concentrations of EHG (0.075%) and PE (0.675%) in combination led to rapid killing of E...
2016: PloS One
David E Friesem, Noa Lavi, Marco Madella, P Ajithprasad, Charles French
Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers' ways of living in tropical forests...
2016: PloS One
Catherine Hankins, Mitchell Warren, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices...
2016: PloS One
Saurabh Zanwar, Vikas Ostwal, Arvind Sahu, Deepak Jain, Anant Ramaswamy, Avanish Saklani, Mukta Ramadwar, Nitin Shetty, Shailesh V Shrikande
INTRODUCTION: There is scarce data relating to methods to improve sphincter preservation in rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Increasing the duration of neoadjuvant (NA) imatinib resulting in improved sphincter preservation rate has not been established. This retrospective analysis looks at the rates of sphincter preservation in rectal GIST with NA imatinib and effect of duration of NA imatinib on the same to find out optimum duration of NA with respect to sphincter preservation in rectal GIST patients...
October 26, 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Devasena Ponnalagu, Harpreet Singh
Mitochondria are the "power house" of a cell continuously generating ATP to ensure its proper functioning. The constant production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation demands a large electrochemical force that drives protons across the highly selective and low-permeable mitochondrial inner membrane. Besides the conventional role of generating ATP, mitochondria also play an active role in calcium signaling, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress responses, and regulation of cell-death pathways...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Sébastien Pesenti, Benjamin Blondel, Gregory Armaganian, Sébastien Parratte, Gérard Bollini, Franck Launay, Jean-Luc Jouve
Patellofemoral instability in children requires surgery when recurrent dislocation occurs. The aim of this study is to report the 5-year clinical and radiographic outcomes following lateral wedge augmentation trochleoplasty of the femoral trochlea. This is a review of 23 (mean age: 12.5 years) patients who underwent surgery for recurrent patellar dislocations related to a flat trochlea. In every case, a lateral wedge augmentation trochleoplasty was performed with preservation of the growth plate. This surgery was consistently associated with a soft tissue procedure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
Peter C Petersen, Rune W Berg
When spinal circuits generate rhythmic movements it is important that the neuronal activity remains within stable bounds to avoid saturation and to preserve responsiveness. Here, we simultaneously record from hundreds of neurons in lumbar spinal circuits of turtles and establish the neuronal fraction that operates within either a 'mean-driven' or a 'fluctuation-driven' regime. Fluctuation-driven neurons have a 'supralinear' input-output curve, which enhances sensitivity, whereas the mean-driven regime reduces sensitivity...
October 26, 2016: ELife
Nidal Jaradat, Lina Adwan, Shadi K'aibni, Naser Shraim, Abdel Naser Zaid
BACKGROUND: It has been recently recognized that oxidative stress, helminth and microbial infections are the cause of much illness found in the underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. The present study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition, and to assess anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil. METHODS: The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 26, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Zhaodong Liu, Zhen Yao, Mingguang Yao, Jiayin Lv, Shuanglong Chen, Quanjun Li, Hang Lv, Tianyi Wang, Shuangchen Lu, Ran Liu, Bo Liu, Jing Liu, Zhiqiang Chen, Bo Zou, Tian Cui, Bingbing Liu
We present a joint experimental and theoretical study on the high-pressure behavior of bromine confined in the one-dimensional (1D) nanochannels of zeolite AlPO4-5 (AFI) single crystals. Raman scattering experiments indicate that loading bromine into AFI single crystals can lead to the formation of bromine molecular chains inside the nanochannels of the crystals. High-pressure Raman and X-ray diffraction studies demonstrate that high pressure can increase the length of the confined bromine molecular chains and modify the inter- and intramolecular interactions of the molecules...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Samare Rostami, S Alireza Ghasemi, Ehsan Nedaaee Oskoee
We present an accurate and efficient algorithm to calculate the electrostatic interaction of charged point particles with partially periodic boundary conditions that are confined along the non-periodic direction by two parallel metallic plates. The method preserves the original boundary conditions, leading to an exact solution of the problem. In addition, the scaling complexity is quasilinear O(Nln(N)), where N is the number of particles in the simulation box. Based on the superposition principle in electrostatics, the problem is split into two electrostatic problems where each can be calculated by the appropriate Poisson solver...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Lijun Yang, Honglei Yang, Hongyuan Zhang, Haoyun Wei, Yan Li
We propose a stable method for repetition rate multiplication of a 250-MHz Er-fiber frequency comb by a phase-locked all-pass fiber ring resonator, whose phase-locking configuration is simple. The optical path length of the fiber ring resonator is automatically controlled to be accurately an odd multiple of half of the original cavity length using an electronical phase-locking unit with an optical delay line. As for shorter cavity length of the comb, high-order odd multiple is preferable. Because the power loss depends only on the net-attenuation of the fiber ring resonator, the energetic efficiency of the proposed method is high...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Paola Campagnolo, Adam J Gormley, Lesley W Chow, Anne Géraldine Guex, Paresh A Parmar, Jennifer L Puetzer, Joseph A M Steele, Alexandre Breant, Paolo Madeddu, Molly M Stevens
The development of synthetic vascular grafts for coronary artery bypass is challenged by insufficient endothelialization, which increases the risk of thrombosis, and the lack of native cellular constituents, which favors pathological remodeling. Here, a bifunctional electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold with potential for synthetic vascular graft applications is presented. This scaffold incorporates two tethered peptides: the osteopontin-derived peptide (Adh) on the "luminal" side and a heparin-binding peptide (Hep) on the "abluminal" side...
October 26, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Tomohiro Mizuno, Koso Egi, Kenji Sakai, Keiji Oi, Tsuyoshi Hachimaru, Tohru Makita, Kiyotoshi Oishi, Hirokuni Arai
Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is difficult because of circulatory deterioration during displacement of the heart. At our institution, we performed minimally circulatory-assisted on-pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting (MICAB) in these patients. During MICAB, support flow was controlled at a minimal level to maintain a systemic blood pressure of approximately 100 mm Hg and a pulmonary arterial systolic pressure of <30 mm Hg, providing optimal pulsatile circulation for end-organ perfusion and prevention of heart congestion...
October 26, 2016: Artificial Organs
Anh Nguyen Duc, Marcel Wolbers
Composite endpoints are widely used as primary endpoints of randomized controlled trials across clinical disciplines. A common critique of the conventional analysis of composite endpoints is that all disease events are weighted equally, whereas their clinical relevance may differ substantially. We address this by introducing a framework for the weighted analysis of composite endpoints and interpretable test statistics, which are applicable to both binary and time-to-event data. To cope with the difficulty of selecting an exact set of weights, we propose a method for constructing simultaneous confidence intervals and tests that asymptotically preserve the family-wise type I error in the strong sense across families of weights satisfying flexible inequality or order constraints based on the theory of χ¯2-distributions...
October 26, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Prince Saurabh Bassi, Li Xianglin, Yanan Fang, Joachim Say Chye Loo, James Barber, Lydia Helena Wong
Hematite (Fe2O3) nanorods on FTO substrates have been proven to be promising photoanodes for solar fuel production but only with high temperature thermal activation which allows diffusion of tin (Sn) ions from FTO, eventually enhancing their conductivity. Hence, there is a trade-off between the conductivity of Fe2O3, and the degradation of FTO occurring at high annealing temperatures (>750 °C). Here, we present a comprehensive study on undoped Fe2O3 nanorods under front and back illumination to find the optimum annealing temperature...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
G H B Greenhall, A Davenport
: Background/objectivesKidney dialysis patients with sarcopenia have increased mortality. Screening for low muscle mass may allow interventions at an earlier stage to help improve outcomes. We wished to determine the prevalence of low muscle mass in a cohort of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.Subjects/methodsWe measured lean body mass index (LBMI) in 490 PD patients by bioimpedance, grading patients using two different classifications of sarcopenia. RESULTS: LBMI was 9...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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