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Joseph M Kasper, David B Williams-Young, Eugene Vecharynski, Chao Yang, Xiaosong Li
The time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) equations allow one to probe electronic resonances of a system quickly and cheaply. However, the iterative solution of the eigenvalue problem can be challenging or impossible to converge with standard methods such as the Davidson algorithm for spectrally dense regions in the interior of the spectrum as are common in X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). More robust solvers such as the generalized preconditioned locally harmonic residual (GPLHR) method can alleviate this problem, but at the expense of higher average computational cost...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Kasper Meidahl Petersen, Søren Bøgevig, Jens Juul Holst, Filip Krag Knop, Mikkel Bring Christensen
Context: Glucagon's effects on hemodynamic parameters - most notably heart rate and cardiac contractility - are overlooked. The glucagon receptor is a central target in novel and anticipated type 2 diabetes therapies and hemodynamic consequences of glucagon signaling have therefore become increasingly important. In this review we summarize and evaluate published studies on glucagon pharmacology with focus on clinical hemodynamic effects in humans. Evidence acquisition: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched for clinical studies concerning hemodynamic effects of glucagon (no year restriction)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Louise Kruse Jensen, Nicole Lind Henriksen, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Kasper Nørskov Kragh, Henrik Elvang Jensen
Aim: Visualization of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm using histochemical staining and combined histochemistry (HC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods: The ability of S. aureus S54F9 to form biofilm was tested in vitro . Hereafter, infected bone tissue was collected from two different porcine models of osteomyelitis inoculated with S. aureus strain S54F9. The infection time was five and fifteen days, respectively. Twenty-five different histochemical staining protocols were tested in order to find the stains that could identify extracellular biofilm matrix...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Briana L Moreland, Laura L Durbin, Judith D Kasper, Thelma J Mielenz
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of community-dwelling older adults receiving fall-related rehabilitation. Injurious falls cost billions of dollars each year in the United States and these costs are expected to rise. Fall-related rehabilitation can presumably decrease this burden. More needs to be known about the characteristics of older adults utilizing fall-related rehabilitation services. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the fifth round (2015) of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS)...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jens Sundbøll, Katalin Veres, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Kasper Adelborg, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Background -Venous thromboembolism can be a presenting symptom of cancer, but the association between lower limb arterial thrombosis and cancer is unknown. We therefore examined cancer risk and prognosis of cancer in patients with lower limb arterial thrombosis. Methods -Using nationwide population-based Danish medical registries, we identified all patients diagnosed with first-time lower limb arterial thrombosis (1994-2013) and followed them until the occurrence of any subsequent cancer diagnosis, emigration, death, or 30 November 2013, whichever came first...
March 14, 2018: Circulation
Pengyu Guan, Francesco Da Ros, Mads Lillieholm, Niels-Kristian Kjøller, Hao Hu, Kasper Meldgaard Røge, Michael Galili, Toshio Morioka, Leif Katsuo Oxenløwe
Optical data regeneration is attractive, due to its potential to increase transmission reach and data throughput in communication systems, and several interesting proposals have been made. However, efficient and scalable solutions for regeneration of multiple parallel wavelength channels have been elusive, constituting a key challenge, which must be overcome for optical regeneration to have any prospect of being adapted in actual communication systems. Here we report a scalable wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) regeneration scheme for phase only regeneration, which satisfies the multichannel requirement, using a set of optical time-lens-based Fourier processors combined with a single phase-sensitive amplifier (PSA)...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Peter Stoustrup, Christian Kerting Iversen, Kasper Dahl Kristensen, Cory M Resnick, Carlalberta Verna, Sven Erik Nørholt, Shelly Abramowicz, Annelise Küseler, Paolo Maria Cattaneo, Troels Herlin, Thomas Klit Pedersen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and involvement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often experience abnormal facial growth. Three-dimensional (3D) assessment of dentofacial growth deviation has become more common with advancement and commercialization of imaging technologies. However, no standardized guidelines exist for interpretation of 3D imaging in patients with JIA. The aim of this study was to propose and validate morphometric measures for the 3D radiographic assessment of dentofacial growth deviation in patients with JIA to enhance: 1) Description of dentofacial growth deviation; 2) Treatment planning; 3) Longitudinal follow-up...
2018: PloS One
Jacklyn R Hurst, Katherine J Kasper, Akshay N Sule, John K McCormick
Streptococcus pyogenes is a human-specific and globally prominent bacterial pathogen that despite causing numerous human infections, this bacterium is normally found in an asymptomatic carrier state. This review provides an overview of both bacterial and human factors that likely play an important role in nasopharyngeal colonization and pharyngitis, as well as the development of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Here we highlight a recently described role for bacterial superantigens in promoting acute nasopharyngeal infection, and discuss how these immune system activating toxins could be crucial to initiate the autoimmune process in rheumatic heart disease...
March 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kasper Kyhl, Per Lav Madsen
Patients with heart valve disease are evaluated with non-invasive imaging techniques notably echocardiography. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR) is increasingly applied, not only in case of a poor echocardiographic window, but also as a consequence of CMR's possibilities of precise determination of regurgitation volumes in insufficiency and precise determination of the impact of valve disease on corres-ponding heart chambers including chamber volumes, myocardial masse and fibrosis. In this paper, the emerging role of CMR in evaluation of patients with heart valve disease is reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Deniz Erturk-Hasdemir, Dennis L Kasper
Starting from birth, all animals develop a symbiotic relationship with their resident microorganisms that benefits both the microbe and the host. Recent advances in technology have substantially improved our ability to direct research toward the identification of important microbial species that affect host physiology. The identification of specific commensal molecules from these microbes and their mechanisms of action is still in its early stages. Polysaccharide A (PSA) of Bacteroides fragilis is the archetypical example of a commensal molecule that can modulate the host immune system in health and disease...
March 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Marcel Wiesweg, Henning Reis, Tobias Köster, Moritz Goetz, Karl Worm, Thomas Herold, Andreas Paul, Alexander Dechêne, Brigitte Schumacher, Peter Markus, Isabel Virchow, Karina Kostbade, Nathalie Wolf, Gregor Zaun, Martin Metzenmacher, Kurt W Schmid, Martin Schuler, Stefan Kasper
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of signal transduction pathways plays a critical role in oncogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and directly affects sensitivity to targeted therapies. Against this background we developed a comprehensive biomarker profiling program including markers of downstream signaling to study their association with clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospectively studied cohort of 160 patients with metastatic CRC was included. Standard diagnostic workup included mutational analyses of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Kasper Korsholm, Jesper Møller Jensen, Jens Erik Nielsen-Kudsk
Transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion is increasingly used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The technique has proven effective and safe in randomized trials and multiple observational studies. The procedure is challenging due to the complex anatomy of the left atrial appendage; accurate cardiac imaging is essential for procedural guidance. Transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard, but cardiac computed tomography (CT) has gained increasing interest within recent years. Cardiac CT offers high-resolution imaging allowing for preprocedural anatomic evaluation and device sizing, but may also be useful for exclusion of left atrial appendage thrombus, and follow-up assessment of residual peri-device leaks...
April 2018: Interventional Cardiology Clinics
Hao Shi, Alexander Munk, Thomas S Nielsen, Morgan R Daughtry, Louise Larsson, Shize Li, Kasper F Høyer, Hannah W Geisler, Karolina Sulek, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Taylor Fisher, Marianne M Andersen, Zhengxing Shen, Ulrik K Hansen, Eric M England, Zhiyong Cheng, Kurt Højlund, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Xiaoyong Yang, Matthew W Hulver, Richard F Helm, Jonas T Treebak, David E Gerrard
OBJECTIVE: Given that cellular O-GlcNAcylation levels are thought to be real-time measures of cellular nutrient status and dysregulated O-GlcNAc signaling is associated with insulin resistance, we evaluated the role of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that mediates O-GlcNAcylation, in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We assessed O-GlcNAcylation levels in skeletal muscle from obese, type 2 diabetic people, and we characterized muscle-specific OGT knockout (mKO) mice in metabolic cages and measured energy expenditure and substrate utilization pattern using indirect calorimetry...
February 24, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Karl Roessler, Burkhard S Kasper, Roland Coras, Soheil Arinrad, Michael Scholz, Hajo H Hamer, Ingmar Blümcke, Michael Buchfelder
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe resection (TLR) including amygdalo-hippocampectomy (AHE) is the most frequent performed procedure in epilepsy surgery. Due to close anatomical relationship of the mesial temporal structures and the midbrain and choroidal fissure, the risk of severe complications like postoperative stroke is up to 2.5%. METHODS: We developed a modification of the classical technique for AHE by early entering the choroidal fissure for identification of crus cerebri, posterior cerebri artery and oculomotor nerve via the anterior part of the fronto- mesial temporal horn cleft...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Tina Heidi Pedersen, Nina Kasper, Hari Roman, Mike Egloff, David Marx, Sandra Abegglen, Robert Greif
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate whether pure self-learning without instructor support, resulted in the same BLS-competencies as facilitator-led learning, when using the same commercially available video BLS teaching kit. METHODS: First-year medical students were randomised to either BLS self-learning without supervision or facilitator-led BLS-teaching. Both groups used the MiniAnne kit (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway) in the students' local language. Directly after the teaching and three months later, all participants were tested on their BLS-competencies in a simulated scenario, using the Resusci Anne SkillReporter™ (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway)...
March 6, 2018: Resuscitation
Janne Flora, Kasper Lambert Johansen, Bjarne Grønnow, Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen, Anders Mosbech
Information from a collaborative GPS tracking project, Piniariarneq, involving 17 occupational hunters from Qaanaaq and Savissivik, Northwest Greenland, is used to explore the resource spaces of hunters in Avanersuaq today. By comparison with historical records from the time of the Thule Trading Station and the decades following its closure, we reveal a marked variability in resource spaces over time. It is argued that the dynamics of resources and resource spaces in Thule are not underlain by animal distribution and migration patterns, or changes in weather and sea ice conditions alone; but also by economic opportunities, human mobility, settlement patterns, particular historical events and trajectories, and not least by economic and political interests developed outside the region...
March 8, 2018: Ambio
Christoph Kraus, Manfred Klöbl, Martin Tik, Bastian Auer, Thomas Vanicek, Nicole Geissberger, Daniela M Pfabigan, Andreas Hahn, Michael Woletz, Katharina Paul, Arkadiusz Komorowski, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Claus Lamm, Rupert Lanzenberger
The author list was presented as last name, first name. The names should have been listed as:Christoph Kraus, Manfred Klöbl, Martin Tik, Bastian Auer, Thomas Vanicek, Nicole Geissberger, Daniela M. Pfabigan, Andreas Hahn, Michael Woletz, Katharina Paul, Arkadiusz Komorowski, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Claus Lamm, Rupert Lanzenberger.
March 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Vicky L Ng, Lisa G Sorensen, Estella M Alonso, Emily M Fredericks, Wen Ye, Jeff Moore, Saul J Karpen, Benjamin L Shneider, Jean P Molleston, Jorge A Bezerra, Karen F Murray, Kathleen M Loomes, Philip Rosenthal, Robert H Squires, Kasper Wang, Ronen Arnon, Kathleen B Schwarz, Yumirle P Turmelle, Barbara H Haber, Averell H Sherker, John C Magee, Ronald J Sokol
OBJECTIVES: To assess neurodevelopmental outcomes among participants with biliary atresia with their native liver at ages 12 months (group 1) and 24 months (group 2), and to evaluate variables predictive of neurodevelopmental impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Participants enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study underwent neurodevelopmental testing with either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, or Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Anders Mosbech, Kasper Lambert Johansen, Thomas A Davidson, Martin Appelt, Bjarne Grønnow, Christine Cuyler, Peter Lyngs, Janne Flora
The little auk is the most numerous seabird in the North Atlantic and its most important breeding area is the eastern shores of the North Water polynya. Here, a population of an estimated 33 million pairs breeds in huge colonies and significantly shapes the ecosystem. Archaeological remains in the colonies document that the little auk has been harvested over millennia. Anthropological research discloses how the little auk has a role both as social engineer and as a significant resource for the Inughuit today...
March 7, 2018: Ambio
Thomas A Davidson, Sebastian Wetterich, Kasper L Johansen, Bjarne Grønnow, Torben Windirsch, Erik Jeppesen, Jari Syväranta, Jesper Olsen, Ivan González-Bergonzoni, Astrid Strunk, Nicolaj K Larsen, Hanno Meyer, Jens Søndergaard, Rune Dietz, Igor Eulears, Anders Mosbech
The North Water (NOW) polynya is one of the most productive marine areas of the Arctic and an important breeding area for millions of seabirds. There is, however, little information on the dynamics of the polynya or the bird populations over the long term. Here, we used sediment archives from a lake and peat deposits along the Greenland coast of the NOW polynya to track long-term patterns in the dynamics of the seabird populations. Radiocarbon dates show that the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) and the common eider (Somateria mollissima) have been present for at least 5500 cal...
March 7, 2018: Ambio
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