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thorium and health

Masanori Ogawa, Ryusuke Ae, Teppei Sasahara
In the current study, we report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented with sudden abdominal pain and was diagnosed with rupture of hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS). He underwent surgery, but died 13 days after the onset of the abdominal pain. Chronic exposure to carcinogens, such as thorium dioxide, arsenic, vinyl chloride, and radium, is associated with HAS. However, our patient had not been exposed to such carcinogens. He had submitted himself for annual medical checkups since he was employed. His liver was cirrhotic, and medical history data showed that he had had fatty liver for at least 10 years before HAS onset...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
Florian Lahrouch, Oleksandr Sofronov, Gaëlle Creff, André Rossberg, Christoph Hennig, Christophe Den Auwer, Chirstophe Di Giorgio
The use of uranium and to a minor extent plutonium as fuel for nuclear energy production or as components in military applications is under increasing public pressure. Uranium is weakly radioactive in its natural isotopy but its chemical toxicity, combined with its large scale industrial utilization, makes it a source of concern in terms of health impact for workers and possibly the general population. Plutonium is an artificial element that exhibits both chemical and radiological toxicities. So far, uranium (under its form uranyl, U(vi)) or plutonium (as Pu(iv)) decorporation or protecting strategies based on molecular design have been of limited efficiency to remove the actinide once incorporated after human exposure...
October 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Atun Zawadzki, Megan Cook, Brodie Cutmore, Fiona Evans, Daniela Fierro, Alicea Gedz, Jennifer J Harrison, Tom Loosz, Peter Medley, Lida Mokhber-Shahin, Sarah Mullins, Sandra Sdraulig
The National Health and Medical Research Council and Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council of Australia developed the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines which recommend an annual radiation dose value of 1 mSv year(-1). One of the potential major contributors to the radiation dose from drinking water is radium-228, a naturally occurring radionuclide arising from the thorium decay series. Various methods of analysing for radium-228 in water have been established and adapted by analytical radiochemistry laboratories...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
B Pauget, A Villeneuve, P O Redon, A Cuvier, A de Vaufleury
Uranium ore waste has led to soil contamination that may affect both environmental and soil health. To analyze the risk of metal transfer, metal bioavailability must be estimated by measuring biological parameters. Kinetic studies allow taking into account the dynamic mechanisms of bioavailability, as well as the steady state concentration in organisms necessary to take into account for relevant risk assessment. In this way, this work aims to model the snail accumulation and excretion kinetics of uranium (U), cesium (Cs) and thorium (Th)...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Muhammad Babar Javed, Chad W Cuss, Iain Grant-Weaver, William Shotyk
Lead (Pb) is a metal of special importance because of its long history of commercial and industrial use, global atmospheric contamination accelerated by the use of gasoline additives, and health effects, with children being especially vulnerable. Global atmospheric Pb pollution reached its zenith in the 1970's, but subsequent impacts on freshwater aquatic systems are poorly understood. Employing metal-free sampling and handling protocols, we show that snowmelt from the Athabasca bituminous sands region is an insignificant source of dissolved Pb to the Athabasca River (AR)...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mark W Donner, Muhammad Babar Javed, William Shotyk, Kevin A Francesconi, Tariq Siddique
Human and ecosystem health concerns for arsenic (As) in the lower Athabasca River downstream of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) mining (Alberta, Canada) prompted an investigation to determine its forms in surface and groundwater upstream and downstream of industry. Dissolved As species, together with total and particulate As, were used to evaluate the potential bioavailability of As in water as well as to decipher inputs from natural geological processes and ABS mining and upgrading activities. Water samples were collected from the river in October at 13 locations in 2014 and 19 locations in 2015, spanning up to 125 km...
May 2017: Environmental Pollution
D E Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, M Kłos
We studied the influence of terrain, geology and weather condition on radon concentration in the atmosphere and occurrence of radon density currents. The survey was carried out in Kowary (SW Poland) and in the spoil tip formed during uranium mining. The measurements of radon concentration were performed using SSNTD LR-115. The measurements of uranium thorium and potassium content in soil were carried out using gamma ray spectrometer Exploranium RS-230. We noticed that terrain and stability of weather condition had significant impact on atmospheric radon concentration...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lingqing Wang, Buqing Zhong, Tao Liang, Baoshan Xing, Yifang Zhu
Exposure to radionuclide thorium (Th) has generated widespread public concerns, mainly because of its radiological effects on human health. Activity levels of airborne232 Th in total suspended particulate (TSP) were measured in the vicinity of the largest rare earth mine in China in August 2012 and March 2013. The mean activity concentrations of232 Th in TSP ranged from 820μBqm-3 in a mining area in August 2012 to 39,720μBqm-3 in a smelting area in March 2013, much higher than the world reference of 0.5μBqm-3 ...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Manny Mathuthu, Caspah Kamunda, Morgan Madhuku
Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth's surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3...
June 7, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
B Grosche, M Birschwilks, H Wesch, A Kaul, G van Kaick
It is well known that exposures like those from (226)Ra, (224)Ra and Thorotrast(®) injections increase the risk of neoplasia in bone marrow and liver. The thorium-based radioactive contrast agent Thorotrast(®) was introduced in 1929 and applied worldwide until the 1950s, especially in angiography and arteriography. Due to the extremely long half-life of several hundred years and the life-long retention of the thorium dioxide particles in the human body, patients suffer lifetime internal exposure. The health effects from the incorporated thorium were investigated in a few cohort studies with a German study being the largest among them...
August 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Vikas Duggal, Asha Rani, V Balaram
The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th have been determined in drinking water samples collected from the Sikar district of Rajasthan State, India. The samples have been analysed by using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (238)U content in water samples ranged from 8.20 to 202.63 µg l(-1) and (232)Th content ranged from 0.57 to 1.46 µg l(-1) The measured (238)U content in 25 % of the analysed samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency drinking water guidelines of 30 µg l(-1) and 12...
October 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Andrew W Nelson, Adam J Johns, Eric S Eitrheim, Andrew W Knight, Madeline Basile, E Arthur Bettis, Michael K Schultz, Tori Z Forbes
Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) associated with unconventional drilling produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale have raised environmental concerns. However, few investigations into the fundamental chemistry of NORM in Marcellus Shale produced fluids have been performed. Thus, we performed radiochemical experiments with Marcellus Shale produced fluids to understand the partitioning behavior of major radioelements of environmental health concern (uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), lead (Pb), and polonium (Po))...
April 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Manjoor Ali, Amit Kumar, Mukesh Kumar, Badri N Pandey
Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant soluble protein in blood plays critical roles in transportation of biomolecules and maintenance of osmotic pressure. In view of increasing applications of lanthanides- and actinides-based materials in nuclear energy, space, industries and medical applications, the risk of exposure with these metal ions is a growing concern for human health. In present study, binding interaction of actinides/lanthanides [thorium: Th(IV), uranium: U(VI), lanthanum: La(III), cerium: Ce(III) and (IV)] with HSA and its structural consequences have been investigated...
April 2016: Biochimie
Amit Kumar, Manjoor Ali, Raghumani S Ningthoujam, Pallavi Gaikwad, Mukesh Kumar, Bimalendu B Nath, Badri N Pandey
Due to increasing use of lanthanides/actinides in nuclear and civil applications, understanding the impact of these metal ions on human health and environment is a growing concern. Hemoglobin (Hb), which occurs in all the kingdom of living organism, is the most abundant protein in human blood. In present study, effect of lanthanides and actinides [thorium: Th(IV), uranium: U(VI), lanthanum: La(III), cerium: Ce(III) and (IV)] on the structure and function of Hb has been investigated. Results showed that these metal ions, except Ce(IV) interacted with carbonyl and amide groups of Hb, which resulted in the loss of its alpha-helix conformation...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Caspah Kamunda, Manny Mathuthu, Morgan Madhuku
Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg(-1) for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785...
January 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
S G Dlamini, M M Mathuthu, V M Tshivhase
High concentrations of radionuclides and toxic elements in gold mine tailings facilities present a health hazard to the environment and people living near that area. Soil and water samples from selected areas around the Princess Mine dump were collected. Soil sampling was done on the surface (15 cm) and also 100 cm below the surface. Water samples were taken from near the dump, mid-stream and the flowing part of the stream (drainage pipe) passing through Roodepoort from the mine dump. Soil samples were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a HPGe detector to determine the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) (​40)K from the activities of the daughter nuclides in the respective decay chains...
March 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A L Hinwood, A Stasinska, A C Callan, J Heyworth, M Ramalingam, M Boyce, P McCafferty, J Ø Odland
Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS...
September 2015: Environmental Pollution
Andrew W Nelson, Eric S Eitrheim, Andrew W Knight, Dustin May, Marinea A Mehrhoff, Robert Shannon, Robert Litman, William C Burnett, Tori Z Forbes, Michael K Schultz
BACKGROUND: The economic value of unconventional natural gas resources has stimulated rapid globalization of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. However, natural radioactivity found in the large volumes of "produced fluids" generated by these technologies is emerging as an international environmental health concern. Current assessments of the radioactivity concentration in liquid wastes focus on a single element-radium. However, the use of radium alone to predict radioactivity concentrations can greatly underestimate total levels...
July 2015: Environmental Health Perspectives
H Abuahmad
This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228...
June 2015: Annals of the ICRP
Hamed S Hamadneh, Zaid Q Ababneh, Khadeejeh M Hamasha, Anas M Ababneh
Dust storms in the Middle East are common during spring. Some of these storms are massive and carry a large amount of dust from faraway regions, which pose health and pollution risks. The huge dust storm event occurred in early May, 2012 was investigated for its radioactive content using gamma ray spectroscopy. Dust samples were collected from Northern Jordan and it was found that the storm carried a large amount of both artificial and natural radioactivity. The average activity concentration of fallout (137)Cs was 17...
February 2015: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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