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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802058/engineered-recognition-of-tetravalent-zirconium-and-thorium-by-chelator-protein-systems-toward-flexible-radiotherapy-and-imaging-platforms
#1
Ilya Captain, Gauthier J-P Deblonde, Peter B Rupert, Dahlia D An, Marie-Claire Illy, Emeline Rostan, Corie Y Ralston, Roland K Strong, Rebecca J Abergel
Targeted α therapy holds tremendous potential as a cancer treatment: it offers the possibility of delivering a highly cytotoxic dose to targeted cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. The metallic α-generating radioisotopes (225)Ac and (227)Th are promising radionuclides for therapeutic use, provided adequate chelation and targeting. Here we demonstrate a new chelating platform composed of a multidentate high-affinity oxygen-donating ligand 3,4,3-LI(CAM) bound to the mammalian protein siderocalin...
November 1, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338424/modelling-of-radiological-health-risks-from-gold-mine-tailings-in-wonderfonteinspruit-catchment-area-south-africa
#2
Manny Mathuthu, Caspah Kamunda, Morgan Madhuku
Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth's surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123094/statistics-and-outlook-of-primary-hepatic-angiosarcoma-based-on-clinical-stage
#3
I-Hsuan Huang, Yi-Ying Wu, Tzu-Chuan Huang, Wei-Kuo Chang, Jia-Hong Chen
Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare condition that has been associated with exposure to colloidal solutions of thorium dioxide, vinyl chloride, arsenic and radiation. Therapeutic guidelines have not been definitively established due to the small number of cases of this disease. The present study reviewed 28 cases of hepatic angiosarcoma from studies that had been published between January 2000 and December 2012, in addition to 6 cases diagnosed at Tri-Service General Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). Clinical staging was based on American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for soft tissue sarcoma (2014)...
May 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25261683/otto-hahn-1879-1968-pioneer-in-radiochemistry-and-discoverer-of-radiotherapeutic-mesothorium
#4
Markos Sgantzos, George Kyrgias, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Marianna Karamanou, Gregory Tsoucalas, George Androutsos
Otto Hahn was a German innovative chemist. He had discovered various radioactive elements, as well as the nuclear fission. He finally received the Nobel Prize for his participation in the atomic energy project, which Hahn and others considered that could be a factor used for peaceful means like cheap electricity and cheap industrial products. His greatest discovery though in oncology was mesothorium, a radioactive element that had been used to treat all cancer types at the beginning of the 20th century.
July 2014: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25192189/targeted-%C3%AE-therapy-using-227th-apomab-and-cross-fire-antitumour-effects-preliminary-in-vivo-evaluation
#5
Alexander H Staudacher, Eva Bezak, Artem Borysenko, Michael P Brown
Resistance to conventional cancer treatments is a major problem associated with solid tumours. Tumour hypoxia is associated with a poor prognosis and with poor treatment outcomes; therefore, there is a need for treatments that can kill hypoxic tumour cells. One potential option is targeted α-radioimmunotherapy, as α-particles can directly kill hypoxic tumour cells. The murine monoclonal antibody DAB4 (APOMAB), which binds dead tumour cells after DNA-damaging treatment, was conjugated and radiolabelled with the α-particle-emitting radionuclide thorium-227 (Th)...
December 2014: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24965107/radiation-pathology-from-thorotrast-to-the-future-beyond-radioresistance
#6
REVIEW
Manabu Fukumoto
The effects of radiation on human health have been a major concern, especially after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. We can determine these effects only from radiological disasters. The radiological contrast medium Thorotrast is known to induce hepatic cancers decades after injection. Using archival materials from Thorotrast patients, we performed molecular pathological studies to elucidate carcinogenic mechanisms of internal radiation exposure. It is emphasized here that radiation-induced cancers are a complex consequence of biological response to radiation and ingested radionuclides...
June 2014: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24528059/environmental-radioactivity-and-high-incidence-rates-of-stomach-and-esophagus-cancer-in-the-van-lake-region-a-causal-relationship
#7
Zafer Akan, Busranur Baskurt, Hizir Asliyuksek, Erol Kam, Ahmet Yilmaz, Mehmet Bilgehan Yuksel, Recep Biyik, Ramazan Esen, Dogan Koca
This study examined the incidence rates of cancer cases (averages for 2006-2010) and relationships with environmental radioactivity levels. Soil and water samples were collected from provincial and district centers of Van city and the outdoor gamma doses were determined using a portable gamma scintillation detector. Gross alpha and beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K activities were measured in both tap water and soil samples. Although high rates of stomach and esophagus cancers have been reported previously in Van the underlying reasons have not hitherto been defined...
2014: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24412972/multivariate-statistical-analysis-of-radiological-data-of-building-materials-used-in-tiruvannamalai-tamilnadu-india
#8
R Ravisankar, K Vanasundari, M Suganya, Y Raghu, A Rajalakshmi, A Chandrasekaran, S Sivakumar, J Chandramohan, P Vijayagopal, B Venkatraman
Using γ spectrometry, the concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K has been measured in soil, sand, cement, clay and bricks, which are used as building materials in Tiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu, India. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the criterion formula (CF), indoor gamma absorbed dose rate (DR), annual effective dose (HR), activity utilization index (AUI), alpha index (Iα), gamma index (Iγ), external radiation hazard index (Hex), internal radiation hazard index (Hin), representative level index (RLI), excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) and annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials...
February 2014: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24319106/evaluation-of-natural-radioactivity-and-its-associated-health-hazard-indices-of-a-south-indian-river
#9
N Krishnamoorthy, S Mullainathan, R Mehra, Marcos A E Chaparro, Mauro A E Chaparro
The activity concentration of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was measured for sediment samples collected from thirty-three different locations along the Bharathapuzha river basin by using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides were found to vary from location to location, and their mean values are 19.6, 82.87 and 19.44% higher than the worldwide mean values of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The value of (232)Th was found to be higher than that of (226)Ra in 82% of the samples collected for this study...
December 2014: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24279290/assessment-of-health-hazard-due-to-natural-radioactivity-in-kluang-district-johor-malaysia
#10
Muneer Aziz Saleh, Ahmad Termizi Ramli, Yasser Alajerami, Mohammed Damoom, Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu
The radiation survey of the ambient environment was conducted using two gamma detectors, and the measurement results were used in the computation of the mean external radiation dose rate, mean-weighted dose rate and annual effective dose, which are 144 nGy h(-1), 0.891 mSv y(-1) and 178 μSv, respectively. A high-purity germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in soil samples. The results of the gamma spectrometry of the soil samples show radioactivity concentration ranges from 19±1 to 405±13 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 137±5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, from 21±2 to 268±9 Bq kg(-1)with a mean value of 78±3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and from 23±9 to 1268±58 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 207±13 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K...
2014: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24106332/a-radiometric-and-petrographic-approach-to-risk-assessment-at-alte-madonie-mounts-region-sicily-italy
#11
G Lanzo, S Rizzo, E Tomarchio
The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached...
March 2014: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23790511/modifications-in-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-parameters-after-%C3%AE-particle-emitting-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-th-trastuzumab-therapy-of-her2-expressing-ovarian-cancer-xenografts
#12
Helen Heyerdahl, Kathrine Røe, Ellen Mengshoel Brevik, Jostein Dahle
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting (227)Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of (227)Th-trastuzumab. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm(3) (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either (227)Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0...
September 1, 2013: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23633648/background-radiation-measurements-and-cancer-risk-estimates-for-sebinkarahisar-turkey
#13
Asli Kurnaz
This paper presents the measurement results of environmental radioactivity levels for Şebinkarahisar district (uranium-thorium area), Giresun, Turkey. The radioactivity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and the fission product (137)Cs in soil samples collected from 73 regions from the surroundings of the study area were determined. In situ measurements of the gamma dose rate in air were performed in the same 73 locations where the soil samples were collected using a portable NaI detector. Also the mean radioactivity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in rock samples collected from 50 regions were determined...
April 30, 2013: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23509393/radiometric-assessment-of-natural-radioactivity-levels-of-agricultural-soil-samples-collected-in-dakahlia-egypt
#14
Shams A M Issa
Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks...
2013: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23304108/potential-treatment-of-inflammatory-and-proliferative-diseases-by-ultra-low-doses-of-ionizing-radiations
#15
Charles L Sanders
Ultra-low doses and dose- rates of ionizing radiation are effective in preventing disease which suggests that they also may be effective in treating disease. Limited experimental and anecdotal evidence indicates that low radiation doses from radon in mines and spas, thorium-bearing monazite sands and enhanced radioactive uranium ore obtained from a natural geological reactor may be useful in treating many inflammatory conditions and proliferative disorders, including cancer. Optimal therapeutic applications were identified via a literature survey as dose-rates ranging from 7 to 11μGy/hr or 28 to 44 times world average background rates...
December 2012: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22697483/production-of-high-purity-radium-223-from-legacy-actinium-beryllium-neutron-sources
#16
Chuck Z Soderquist, Bruce K McNamara, Darrell R Fisher
Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution...
July 2012: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22664247/bone-target-radiotracers-for-palliative-therapy-of-bone-metastases
#17
REVIEW
K Ogawa, K Washiyama
The skeleton is one of the most common organs affected by metastatic cancer, and bone metastases often cause severe pain, which significantly affects quality of life. Internal radiotherapy using specifically localized bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has proven to be an effective alternative and shows fewer side effects than those associated with other forms of treatment. In this review article, we highlight not only radiopharmaceuticals, which have been approved for the palliation of bone metastases but also boneseeking radiolabeled compounds under investigation in basic research...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22466086/genetic-background-and-227thorium-as-risk-factors-in-biologically-based-models-for-induction-of-bone-cancer-in-mice
#18
W F Heidenreich, M Rosemann
We explore the potential for the biologically based two-stage clonal expansion model to make statements about the influence of genetic factors on the steps in the model. We find evidence that the different susceptibility of BALB/C and CBA/Ca mice to bone cancer after (227)Thorium injection may be mostly due to different promotional responses to radiation. In BALB/C × CBA/Ca back-crossed mice, we analyzed the specific contribution of two individual loci in the carcinogenic process. This analysis suggests that the two high- or low-risk alleles are acting on promotion or on the background parameters, but not on radiation-induced initiation...
May 2012: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22077335/comparative-in-vitro-microdosimetric-study-of-murine-and-human-derived-cancer-cells-exposed-to-alpha-particles
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
E Lazarov, L Arazi, M Efrati, T Cooks, M Schmidt, Y Keisari, I Kelson
Diffusing alpha-emitter radiation therapy (DaRT) is a proposed new form of brachytherapy using α particles to treat solid tumors. The method relies on implantable ²²⁴Ra-loaded sources that continually release short-lived α-particle-emitting atoms that spread inside the tumor over a few millimeters. This treatment was demonstrated to have a significant effect on tumor growth in murine and human-derived models, but the degree of tumor response varied across cell lines. Tumor response was found to correlate with the degree of radionuclide spread inside the tumor...
March 2012: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21498861/radiological-impacts-of-natural-radioactivity-from-soil-in-montenegro
#20
N M Antovic, N Svrkota, I Antovic
Soil samples from Montenegro were analysed by the HPGe detector with 40 % of relative efficiency, for radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The average activity concentrations have been found to be 39.9, 43.5 and 437.6 Bq kg(-1), respectively, i.e. in accordance with those in the other South European countries. In order to evaluate the health hazard, radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, external hazard index, annual gonadal dose equivalent and excess lifetime cancer risk (CR) have been calculated...
February 2012: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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