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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446716/targeted-alpha-therapy-using-a-novel-cd70-targeted-thorium-227-conjugate-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#1
Urs B Hagemann, Dessislava Mihaylova, Steinar R Uran, Joergen Borrebaek, Derek Grant, Roger M Bjerke, Jenny Karlsson, Alan S Cuthbertson
The cell surface receptor CD70 has been previously reported as a promising target for B-cell lymphomas and several solid cancers including renal cell carcinoma. We describe herein the characterization and efficacy of a novel CD70 targeted thorium-227 conjugate (CD70-TTC) comprising the combination of the three components, a CD70 targeting antibody, a chelator moiety and the short-range, high-energy alpha-emitting radionuclide thorium-227 (227Th). In vitro analysis demonstrated that the CD70-TTC retained binding affinity to its target and displayed potent and specific cytotoxicity compared to an isotype control-TTC...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432972/assessment-of-the-bioavailability-and-depuration-of-uranium-cesium-and-thorium-in-snails-cantareus-aspersus-using-kinetics-models
#2
B Pauget, A Villeneuve, P O Redon, A Cuvier, A de Vaufleury
Uranium ore waste has led to soil contamination that may affect both environmental and soil health. To analyze the risk of metal transfer, metal bioavailability must be estimated by measuring biological parameters. Kinetic studies allow taking into account the dynamic mechanisms of bioavailability, as well as the steady state concentration in organisms necessary to take into account for relevant risk assessment. In this way, this work aims to model the snail accumulation and excretion kinetics of uranium (U), cesium (Cs) and thorium (Th)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431375/radioactivity-in-wastes-generated-from-shale-gas-exploration-and-production-north-eastern-poland
#3
Paweł Jodłowski, Jan Macuda, Jakub Nowak, Chau Nguyen Dinh
In the present study, the K-40, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Ra-228 and Th-228 activity concentrations were measured in 64 samples of wastes generated from shale gas exploration in North-Eastern Poland. The measured samples consist of drill cuttings, solid phase of waste drilling muds, fracking fluids, return fracking fluids and waste proppants. The measured activity concentrations in solid samples vary in a wide range from 116 to around 1100 Bq/kg for K-40, from 14 to 393 Bq/kg for U-238, from 15 to 415 Bq/kg for Ra-226, from 12 to 391 Bq/kg for Pb-210, from a few Bq/kg to 516 Bq/kg for Ra-228 and from a few Bq/kg to 515 Bq/kg for Th-228...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430420/a-thorium-chalcogenolate-series-generated-by-atom-insertion-into-thorium-carbon-bonds
#4
Nicholas S Settineri, Mary E Garner, John Arnold
A new thorium monoalkyl complex, Th(CH2SiMe3)(L3) (L = MeC(N(i)Pr)2) (2), undergoes insertion of chalcogen atoms resulting in a series of thorium chalcogenolate complexes, Th(ECH2SiMe3)(L3) (E = S, SS, Se, Te; 5-8). Complex 6 represents the first alkyl disulfide thorium species and illustrates the ability of 2 to undergo controllable, stoichiometric atom insertion. All complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, EA, and melting point, and in the case of 1, 2, and 4-8, X-ray crystallography...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421751/formation-and-characterization-of-homoleptic-thorium-isocyanide-complexes
#5
Xiuting Chen, Qingnuan Li, Yu Gong, Lester Andrews, Benjamin K Liebov, Zongtang Fang, David A Dixon
Homoleptic thorium isocyanide complexes have been prepared via the reactions of laser-ablated thorium atoms and (CN)2 in a cryogenic matrix, and the structures of the products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. Thorium atoms reacted with (CN)2 under UV irradiation to form the oxidative addition product Th(NC)2, which was calculated to have closed-shell singlet ground state with a bent geometry. Further reaction of Th(NC)2 and (CN)2 resulted in the formation of Th(NC)4, a molecule with a tetrahedral geometry...
April 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411426/thoron-mitigation-system-based-on-charcoal-bed-for-applications-in-thorium-fuel-cycle-facilities-part-2-development-characterization-and-performance-evaluation
#6
K Sudeep Kumara, B K Sahoo, J J Gaware, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya, N Karunakara
Exposure due to thoron ((220)Rn) gas and its decay products in a thorium fuel cycle facility handling thorium or (232)U/(233)U mixture compounds is an important issue of radiological concern requiring control and mitigation. Adsorption in a flow-through charcoal bed offers an excellent method of alleviating the release of (220)Rn into occupational and public domain. In this paper, we present the design, development, and characterization of a Thoron Mitigation System (TMS) for industrial application. Systematic experiments were conducted in the TMS for examining the (220)Rn mitigation characteristics with respect to a host of parameters such as flow rate, pressure drop, charcoal grain size, charcoal mass and bed depth, water content, and heat of the carrier gas...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411425/thoron-mitigation-system-based-on-charcoal-bed-for-applications-in-thorium-fuel-cycle-facilities-part-1-development-of-theoretical-models-for-design-considerations
#7
B K Sahoo, K Sudeep Kumara, N Karunakara, J J Gaware, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya
Regulating the environmental discharge of (220)Rn (historically known as thoron) and its decay products from thorium processing facilities is important for protection of environment and general public living in the vicinities. Activated charcoal provides an effective solution to this problem because of its high adsorption capacity to gaseous element like radon. In order to design and develop a charcoal based Thoron Mitigation System, a mathematical model has been developed in the present work for studying the (220)Rn transport and adsorption in a flow through charcoal bed and estimating the (220)Rn mitigation factor (MF) as a function of system and operating parameters...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402142/development-of-separation-technology-for-the-removal-of-radium-223-from-targeted-thorium-conjugate-formulations-part-ii-purification-of-targeted-thorium-conjugates-on-cation-exchange-columns
#8
Janne Olsen Frenvik, Knut Dyrstad, Solveig Kristensen, Olav B Ryan
Tumour targeting pharmaceuticals will play a crucial role in future pharma pipelines. The Targeted Thorium Conjugate (TTC) therapeutic platform could provide real benefit to patients, whereby targeting moieties like monoclonal antibodies are radiolabelled with the alpha-emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th, t1/2=18.7 days). A potential problem could be the accumulation of the long-lived daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2=11.4 days) in the drug product during manufacture and distribution. Therefore, the level of (223)Ra must be standardised before administration to the patient...
April 12, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398437/synthesis-structure-and-bonding-of-actinide-disulphide-dications-in-the-gas-phase
#9
Ana F Lucena, Nuno A G Bandeira, Cláudia C L Pereira, John K Gibson, Joaquim Marçalo
Actinide disulphide dications, AnS2(2+), were produced in the gas phase for An = Th and Np by reaction of An(2+) cations with the sulfur-atom donor COS, in a sequential abstraction process of two sulfur atoms, as examined by FTICR mass spectrometry. For An = Pu and Am, An(2+) ions were unreactive with COS and did not yield any sulphide species. High level multiconfigurational (CASPT2) calculations were performed to assess the structures and bonding of the new AnS2(2+) species obtained for An = Th, Np, as well as for An = Pu to examine trends along the An series, and for An = U to compare with a previous experimental study and DFT computational scrutiny of US2(2+)...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394275/influence-of-speciation-of-thorium-on-toxic-effects-to-green-algae-chlorella-pyrenoidosa
#10
Can Peng, Yuhui Ma, Yayun Ding, Xiao He, Peng Zhang, Tu Lan, Dongqi Wang, Zhaohui Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang
Thorium (Th) is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has the potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the influence and toxicity of Th in the environment. In the present study, the toxicity of Th to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) was evaluated by algal growth inhibition, biochemical assays and morphologic observations. In the cultural medium (OECD TG 201), Th(NO₃)₄ was transformed to amorphous precipitation of Th(OH)₄ due to hydrolysis...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383571/pressure-induced-structural-transformations-and-polymerization-in-thc2
#11
Yongliang Guo, Cun Yu, Jun Lin, Changying Wang, Cuilan Ren, Baoxing Sun, Ping Huai, Ruobing Xie, Xuezhi Ke, Zhiyuan Zhu, Hongjie Xu
Thorium-carbon systems have been thought as promising nuclear fuel for Generation IV reactors which require high-burnup and safe nuclear fuel. Existing knowledge on thorium carbides under extreme condition remains insufficient and some is controversial due to limited studies. Here we systematically predict all stable structures of thorium dicarbide (ThC2) under the pressure ranging from ambient to 300 GPa by merging ab initio total energy calculations and unbiased structure searching method, which are in sequence of C2/c, C2/m, Cmmm, Immm and P6/mmm phases...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375617/properties-of-the-only-thorium-fullerene-th-c84-uncovered
#12
Jakub Kaminský, Jan Vícha, Petr Bouř, Michal Straka
Only a single thorium fullerene, Th@C84, has been reported to date (Akiyama, K.; et al. J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci. 2002, 3, 151-154). Although the system was characterized by UV-vis and XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectra, its structure and properties remain unknown. In this work we used the density functional calculations to identify molecular and electronic structure of the Th@C84. Series of molecular structures satisfying the ThC84 stoichiometric formula were studied comprising 24 IPR and 110 non-IPR Th@C84 isomers as well as 9 ThC2@C82 IPR isomers...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365477/reference-natural-radionuclide-concentrations-in-australian-soils-and-derived-terrestrial-air-kerma-rate
#13
R Kleinschmidt
Sediment from drainage catchment outlets has been shown to be a useful means of sampling large land masses for soil composition. Naturally occurring radioactive material concentrations (uranium, thorium and potassium-40) in soil have been collated and converted to activity concentrations using data collected from the National Geochemistry Survey of Australia. Average terrestrial air kerma rate data are derived using the elemental concentration data, and is tabulated for Australia and states for use as baseline reference information...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364648/retardation-of-uranium-and-thorium-by-a-cementitious-backfill-developed-for-radioactive-waste-disposal
#14
M Felipe-Sotelo, J Hinchliff, L P Field, A E Milodowski, O Preedy, D Read
The solubility of uranium and thorium has been measured under the conditions anticipated in a cementitious, geological disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Similar solubilities were obtained for thorium in all media, comprising NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and water equilibrated with a cement designed as repository backfill (NRVB, Nirex Reference Vault Backfill). In contrast, the solubility of U(VI) was one order of magnitude higher in NaOH than in the remaining solutions. The presence of cellulose degradation products (CDP) results in a comparable solubility increase for both elements...
July 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363158/evaluation-of-the-separation-and-purification-of-227-th-from-its-decay-progeny-by-anion-exchange-and-extraction-chromatography
#15
P I Ivanov, S M Collins, E M van Es, M García-Miranda, S M Jerome, B C Russell
Thorium-227 is currently undergoing evaluation as a potential radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy, and as such a high chemical purity of the material is required. To establish a reliable procedure for radiochemical isolation of (227)Th from the parent (227)Ac and decay progeny, which includes the radiotherapeutic (223)Ra, the performance of three different separation schemes based on ion-exchange and extraction chromatography have been evaluated. The results suggest that both ion exchange and extraction chromatographic techniques can be successfully used for the separation of (227)Th from its decay progeny, however extraction chromatographic resins demonstrate favourable performance in terms of Th recovery and purification from radionuclide impurities...
March 23, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349157/schiff-base-thorium-iv-and-uranium-iv-chloro-complexes-synthesis-substitution-and-oxidation-chemistry
#16
Brian C Stobbe, Douglas R Powell, Robert K Thomson
New tetradentate Schiff base chloro complexes of U(iv) and Th(iv) are prepared by salt metathesis approaches. These compounds undergo clean salt metathesis with NaN3 to generate stable pseudo-trans azide compounds. The uranium dichloro complex also undergoes 2 e(-) oxidation with excess NaNO2 to generate the uranyl derivative. All classes of complexes are characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy.
April 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343275/potential-toxic-elements-in-stream-sediments-soils-and-waters-in-an-abandoned-radium-mine-central-portugal
#17
I M H R Antunes, A M R Neiva, M T D Albuquerque, P C S Carvalho, A C T Santos, Pedro P Cunha
The Alto da Várzea radium mine (AV) exploited ore and U-bearing minerals, such as autunite and torbernite. The mine was exploited underground from 1911 to 1922, closed in 1946 without restoration, and actually a commercial area is deployed. Stream sediments, soils and water samples were collected between 2008 and 2009. Stream sediments are mainly contaminated in As, Th, U and W, which is related to the AV radium mine. The PTEs, As, Co, Cr, Sr, Th, U, W, Zn, and electrical conductivity reached the highest values in soils collected inside the mine influence...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342327/influence-of-terrestrial-radionuclides-on-environmental-gamma-exposure-in-a-uranium-deposit-in-para%C3%A3-ba-brazil
#18
José Araújo Dos Santos Júnior, Romilton Dos Santos Amaral, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Juan Reinaldo Estevez Álvarez, Josineide Marques do Nascimento Santos, Zahily Herrero Fernández, Jairo Dias Bezerra, Alberto Antônio da Silva, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues Damascena, José de Almeida Maciel Neto
One of the main natural uranium deposits in Brazil is located in the municipality of Espinharas, in the State of Paraíba. This area may present high levels of natural radioactivity due to the presence of these radionuclides. Since this is a populated area, there is need for a radioecological dosimetry assessment to investigate the possible risks to the population. Based on this problem, the objective of this study was to estimate the environmental effective dose outdoors in inhabited areas influenced by the uranium deposit, using the specific activities of equivalent uranium, equivalent thorium and (40)K and conversion factors...
March 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340791/solid-phase-extraction-microfluidic-devices-for-matrix-removal-in-trace-element-assay-of-actinide-materials
#19
Jun Gao, Benjamin T Manard, Alonso Castro, Dennis P Montoya, Ning Xu, Rebecca M Chamberlin
Advances in sample nebulization and injection technology have significantly reduced the volume of solution required for trace impurity analysis in plutonium and uranium materials. Correspondingly, we have designed and tested a novel chip-based microfluidic platform, containing a 100-µL or 20-µL solid-phase microextraction column, packed by centrifugation, which supports nuclear material mass and solution volume reductions of 90% or more compared to standard methods. Quantitative recovery of 28 trace elements in uranium was demonstrated using a UTEVA chromatographic resin column, and trace element recovery from thorium (a surrogate for plutonium) was similarly demonstrated using anion exchange resin AG MP-1...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336962/optomechanically-induced-transparency-of-x-rays-via-optical-control
#20
Wen-Te Liao, Adriana Pálffy
The search for new control methods over light-matter interactions is one of the engines that advances fundamental physics and applied science alike. A specific class of light-matter interaction interfaces are setups coupling photons of distinct frequencies via matter. Such devices, nontrivial in design, could be endowed with multifunctional tasking. Here we envisage for the first time an optomechanical system that bridges optical and robust, high-frequency x-ray photons, which are otherwise notoriously difficult to control...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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