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Neglected diseases

Ravit Malishev, Razan Abbasi, Raz Jelinek, Liraz Chai
Biofilms are aggregates of cells that form surface-associated communities. The cells in a biofilm are interconnected with an extracellular matrix, a network that is made mostly of polysaccharides, proteins and sometimes nucleic acids. Some extracellular matrix proteins form fibers, often termed functional amyloids or amyloid-like fibrils, to differentiate their constructive function from disease-related amyloid fibers. Recent studies of functional amyloid assembly have neglected their interaction with membranes, despite their native assembly in a cellular environment...
March 22, 2018: Biochemistry
R Q Graumam, M M Pinheiro, L E Nery, C H M Castro
A very high rate of osteoporosis, fractures, and low lean mass was observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Disease severity was associated with bone and muscle adverse outcomes, while age ≥ 63.5 years old, low lean mass, higher iPTH, and a T-score below - 2.5 were all associated with higher risk of fracture. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is frequently neglected in patients with COPD. We aimed at evaluating the rate of osteoporosis, fractures, and low lean mass in patients with COPD...
March 21, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Sergio Arregui, María José Iglesias, Sofía Samper, Dessislava Marinova, Carlos Martin, Joaquín Sanz, Yamir Moreno
In the case of tuberculosis (TB), the capabilities of epidemic models to produce quantitatively robust forecasts are limited by multiple hindrances. Among these, understanding the complex relationship between disease epidemiology and populations' age structure has been highlighted as one of the most relevant. TB dynamics depends on age in multiple ways, some of which are traditionally simplified in the literature. That is the case of the heterogeneities in contact intensity among different age strata that are common to all airborne diseases, but still typically neglected in the TB case...
March 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Masoud Keighobadi, Saeed Emami, Milad Lagzian, Mahdi Fakhar, Alireza Rafiei, Reza Valadan
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease and a major public health in the most countries. Leishmania major is the most common cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the Leishmania parasites, sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), which is involved in the biosynthesis of sterols, has been identified as an attractive target for development of new therapeutic agents. In this study, the sequence and structure of CYP51 in a laboratory strain (MRHO/IR/75/ER) of L. major were determined and compared to the wild-type strain...
March 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
L I Wasserman, T V Cherednikova, E L Wasserman, M V Wasserman, O Yu Shchelkova, E V Solovyova
AIM: To study the phenomena of visual-hemispatial neglect in healthy people and patients with brain diseases of different genesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 68 patients with exogenous organic brain diseases and 240 healthy adults of different age were included in the study. The digit cancellation test modified by the authors was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The validity of the modified digit cancellation test was approved and its age standards were obtained...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
H Ooms, H U De Schepper, T G Moreels
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Small bowel ulceration poses a limited, but difficult differential diagnosis. The most common causes are Crohn's disease (CD), NSAID-associated enteritis, lymphoma, cytomegaly virus infection and tuberculosis. A less known and relatively novel differential diagnosis is cryptogenic multifocal ulcerative stenosing enteritis (CMUSE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: ive patients referred for balloon-assisted enteroscopy for various reasons showed endoscopic features of CMUSE...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Andrea Fabianova, Monika Barathova, Lucia Csaderova, Veronika Simko, Miriam Zatovicova, Martina Labudova, Jaromir Pastorek
Renal cell carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancer diseases with high resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Mutation of VHL gene is frequent in these tumors leading to simulation of hypoxic conditions. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, belonging to RNA viruses, is a neglected human pathogen and teratogen. We have found that infection of renal cell carcinoma cells by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strain MX causes a decrease of carbonic anhydrase IX protein and RNA level. Lower expression of carbonic anhydrase IX on the cell surface provides less target for carbonic anhydrase IX-targeted immunotherapy...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Gavin Yamey, Amie Batson, Peter H Kilmarx, Marcel Yotebieng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Mathias Montenarh, Claudia Götz
Ecto-protein kinases, including protein kinase CK2 (former name, casein kinase 2), have been the focus of research for more than 30 years. At the beginning of the ecto-kinase research their identification was performed with substrates and inhibitors whose specificity under the current knowledge was rather limited. Since all currently known ecto-kinases, including ecto-CK2, have intracellular counterparts, one has to exclude that an ecto-localization originates from intracellular counterparts after cell damage...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Xiaowei Dong
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been a great hurdle for brain drug delivery. The BBB in healthy brain is a diffusion barrier essential for protecting normal brain function by impeding most compounds from transiting from the blood to the brain; only small molecules can cross the BBB. Under certain pathological conditions of diseases such as stroke, diabetes, seizures, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease, the BBB is disrupted. The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview on current strategies for brain drug delivery and related subjects from the past five years...
2018: Theranostics
Shashi Shekhar Suman, Ajay Amit, Krishn Pratap Singh, Parool Gupta, Asif Equbal, Arti Kumari, Roshan Kamal Topno, Vidyananda Ravidas, Krishna Pandey, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Vahab Ali
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the unicellular protozoan parasite of genus Leishmania. Tryparedoxin (TXN) is a low molecular mass dithiol protein belonging to oxidoreductases super-family; which function in concert with tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx) as a system in protozoan parasites including Leishmania. Leishmanial hydroperoxides detoxification cascade uses trypanothione as electron donor to reduce hydroperoxide inside the macrophages during infection. However, the mechanism by which tryparedoxin can contribute in progression of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its impact on host's cellular immune response during infection in Indian VL patient is unknown...
March 16, 2018: Cytokine
Xiaosong He, Danielle S Bassett, Ganne Chaitanya, Michael R Sperling, Lauren Kozlowski, Joseph I Tracy
Temporal lobe epilepsy tends to reshape the language system causing maladaptive reorganization that can be characterized by task-based functional MRI, and eventually can contribute to surgical decision making processes. However, the dynamic interacting nature of the brain as a complex system is often neglected, with many studies treating the language system as a static monolithic structure. Here, we demonstrate that as a specialized and integrated system, the language network is inherently dynamic, characterized by rich patterns of regional interactions, whose transient dynamics are disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy...
March 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Joan M King, Chetan Tiwari, Armin R Mikler, Martin O'Neill
Ebola is a high consequence infectious disease-a disease with the potential to cause outbreaks, epidemics, or pandemics with deadly possibilities, highly infectious, pathogenic, and virulent. Ebola's first reported cases in the United States in September 2014 led to the development of preparedness capabilities for the mitigation of possible rapid outbreaks, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) providing guidelines to assist public health officials in infectious disease response planning...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Amanda M Rojek, Kassiani Gkolfinopoulou, Apostolos Veizis, Angeliki Lambrou, Lyndsey Castle, Theano Georgakopoulou, Karl Blanchet, Takis Panagiotopoulos, Peter W Horby
BACKGROUND: Refugees may have an increased vulnerability to infectious diseases, and the consequences of an outbreak are more severe in a refugee camp. When an outbreak is suspected, access to clinical information is critical for investigators to verify that an outbreak is occurring, to determine the cause and to select interventions to control it. Experience from previous outbreaks suggests that the accuracy and completeness of this information is poor. This study is the first to assess the adequacy of clinical characterisation of acute medical illnesses in refugee camps...
March 19, 2018: BMC Medicine
Antonio J T Machado, Antonia T L Santos, Gioconda M A B Martins, Rafael P Cruz, Maria do S Costa, Fábia F Campina, Maria A Freitas, Camila F Bezerra, Antonio L A B Leal, Joara N P Carneiro, Cathia Coronel, Miriam Rolón, Celeste V Gómez, Henrique D M Coutinho, Maria F B Morais-Braga
In the search for new therapeutic agents against neglected diseases, both aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium guajava L. and P. brownianum Mart ex DC leaves were investigated regarding their antiparasitic effect and cytotoxic potential. The extracts were tested at three concentrations (250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL) against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms (Chagas, 1909), Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna, 1911) and L. infantum promastigotes forms (Nicolle, 1908), as well as against fibroblasts...
March 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Søren Kudsk-Iversen, Naomi Shamambo, M Dylan Bould
The majority of the world's population lacks access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care. Although there is a health workforce crisis across the board in the poorest countries in the world, anesthesia is disproportionally affected. This article explores some of the key issues that must be tackled to strengthen the anesthesia workforce in low- and lower-middle-income countries. First, we need to increase the overall number of safe anesthesia providers to match a huge burden of disease, particularly in the poorest countries in the world and in remote and rural areas...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
David H Molyneux, Laura Dean, Oluwatosin Adekeye, J Russell Stothard, Sally Theobald
The drive to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has had many successes but to reach defined targets new approaches are required. Over the last decade, NTD control programmes have benefitted from increased resources, and from effective partnerships and long-term pharmaceutical donations. Although the NTD agenda is broader than those diseases of parasitic aetiology there has been a massive up-scaling of the delivery of medicines to some billion people annually. Recipients are often the poorest, with the aspiration that NTD programmes are key to universal health coverage as reflected within the 2030 United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs)...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
Jose M Sanchez Bornot, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Alwani Liyana Ahmad, Girijesh Prasad
The brain's functional connectivity (FC) estimated at sensor level from electromagnetic (EEG/MEG) signals can provide quick and useful information towards understanding cognition and brain disorders. Volume conduction (VC) is a fundamental issue in FC analysis due to the effects of instantaneous correlations. FC methods based on the imaginary part of the coherence (iCOH) of any two signals are readily robust to VC effects, but neglecting the real part of the coherence leads to negligible FC when the processes are truly connected but with zero or π-phase (modulus 2π) interaction...
March 15, 2018: Brain Topography
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
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