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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334925/simultaneous-lc-ms-ms-determination-of-lopinavir-and-rifabutin-in-human-plasma
#1
Swati Jaiswal, Abhisheak Sharma, Mahendra Shukla, Jawahar Lal
Tuberculosis (TB) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome represents the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Anti-TB drugs are used concurrently with antiretroviral drug for treatment of TB-HIV co-morbidities. Due to lower risk of interaction with protease inhibitors, rifabutin is preferred over rifampicin in treatment of HIV and TB co-morbidity. A simple and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for quantification of rifabutin (RBT) and lopinavir (LPV) simultaneously in human plasma...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334088/relapse-re-infection-and-mixed-infections-in-tuberculosis-disease
#2
Amanda McIvor, Hendrik Koornhof, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be characterized by genotypic and phenotypic complexity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli within a single patient. This microbiological heterogeneity has become an area of intense study due its perceived importance in drug tolerance, drug resistance and as a surrogate measure of transmission rates. This review presents a descriptive analysis of research describing the prevalence of mixed strain TB infections in geographically distinct locations. Despite significant variation in disease burden and a rampant HIV-TB co-epidemic, there was no difference in the prevalence range of mixed infections reported in African countries when compared to the rest of the world...
February 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328799/oral-microbiome-in-hiv-associated-periodontitis
#3
Marc Noguera-Julian, Yolanda Guillén, Jessica Peterson, David Reznik, Erica V Harris, Sandeep J Joseph, Javier Rivera, Sunil Kannanganat, Rama Amara, Minh Ly Nguyen, Simon Mutembo, Roger Paredes, Timothy D Read, Vincent C Marconi
HIV-associated periodontal diseases (PD) could serve as a source of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to characterize the oral microbial signatures of HIV+ and HIV- individuals at different levels of PD severity.This cross-sectional study included both HIV+ and HIV- patients with varying degrees of PD. Two tooth, 2 cheek, and 1 saliva samples were obtained for microbiome analysis. Mothur/SILVADB were used to classify sequences. R/Bioconductor (Vegan, PhyloSeq, and DESeq2) was employed to assess overall microbiome structure differences and differential abundance of bacterial genera between groups...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327790/association-of-nr1i2-gene-polymorphisms-and-time-of-progression-to-aids
#4
Rúbia Marília de Medeiros, Carolina Fialho Menti, Jéssica Louise Benelli, Maria Cristina Cotta Matte, Marineide Gonçalves de Melo, Sabrina Esteves de Matos Almeida, Marilu Fiegenbaum
BACKGROUND: The time of progression towards AIDS can vary greatly among seropositive patients, and may be associated with host genetic variation. The NR1I2 (PXR) gene, a ligand-activated transcription factor, regulates the transcription immune pathway genes and can therefore be targets of viral replication mechanisms influencing time of progression to AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3814057, rs6785049, rs7643645, and rs2461817 in the NR1I2 (PXR) gene with progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected patients...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303602/agreement-between-an-in-house-replication-competent-and-a-reference-replication-defective-recombinant-virus-assay-for-measuring-phenotypic-resistance-to-hiv-1-protease-reverse-transcriptase-and-integrase-inhibitors
#5
Francesco Saladini, Alessia Giannini, Adele Boccuto, Ilaria Vicenti, Maurizio Zazzi
BACKGROUND: Although clinical management of drug resistance is routinely based on genotypic methods, phenotypic assays remain necessary for the characterization of novel HIV-1 inhibitors, particularly against common drug-resistant variants. We describe the development and assessment of the performance of a recombinant virus assay for measuring HIV-1 susceptibility to protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN) inhibitors. METHODS: The system is based on the creation of replication-competent chimeric viruses through homologous recombination between patient or laboratory virus-derived PCR fragments and the corresponding NL4-3 vector where the whole Gag-PR, RT-RNaseH or IN coding regions has been deleted through inverse PCR...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303533/urban-health-in-tanzania-questioning-the-urban-advantage
#6
Francis Levira, Gemma Todd
How are health inequalities articulated across urban and rural spaces in Tanzania? This research paper explores the variations, differences, and inequalities, in Tanzania's health outcomes-to question both the idea of an urban advantage in health and the extent of urban-rural inequalities in health. The three research objectives aim to understand: what are the health differences (morbidity and mortality) between Tanzania's urban and rural areas; how are health inequalities articulated within Tanzania's urban and rural areas; and how are health inequalities articulated across age groups for rural-urban Tanzania? By analyzing four national datasets of Tanzania (National Census, Household Budget Survey, Demographic Health Survey, and Health Demographic Surveillance System), this paper reflects on the outcomes of key health indicators across these spaces...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303164/adverse-drug-reactions-triggered-by-the-common-hla-b-57-01-variant-a-molecular-docking-study
#7
George Van Den Driessche, Denis Fourches
BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) surface proteins are directly involved in idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Herein, we present a structure-based analysis of the common HLA-B*57:01 variant known to be responsible for several HLA-linked adverse effects such as the abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome. METHODS: First, we analyzed three X-ray crystal structures involving the HLA-B*57:01 protein variant, the anti-HIV drug abacavir, and different co-binding peptides present in the antigen-binding cleft...
2017: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300059/genetic-basis-for-variation-in-plasma-il-18-levels-in-persons-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infections
#8
C Vergara, C Thio, R Latanich, A L Cox, G D Kirk, S H Mehta, M Busch, E L Murphy, M C Villacres, M G Peters, A L French, E Golub, J Eron, C D Lahiri, S Shrestha, D Gustafson, M Young, K Anastos, B Aouizerat, A Y Kim, G Lauer, D L Thomas, P Duggal
Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes integrating pathogen-triggered signaling leading to the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-18 (IL-18). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are associated with elevated IL-18, suggesting inflammasome activation. However, there is marked person-to-person variation in the inflammasome response to HCV and HIV. We hypothesized that host genetics may explain this variation. To test this, we analyzed the associations of plasma IL-18 levels and polymorphisms in 10 genes in the inflammasome cascade...
March 16, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298450/cost-effectiveness-study-of-criteria-to-screen-herpes-simplex-pcr-tests-from-cerebrospinal-fluid
#9
Ronald G Hauser, Sheldon M Campbell, Cynthia A Brandt, Shiyi Wang
Background: The absence of markers of inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) commonly predict the absence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) infection. Consequently, multiple authors have proposed and validated criteria to defer HSV PCR tests from CSF in immune competent hosts with normal CSF white cells and protein (≤5 cells/mm(3), ≤50 mg/dL, respectively). Immune competence equates to age ≥2 years without HIV or transplant. Adoption of the criteria may erroneously exclude HSV infected persons from a necessary diagnostic test, or alternatively, reduce the costs associated with HSV tests with minimal to no effect on patient care...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295611/variation-in-networks-and-forms-of-support-for-care-seeking-across-the-hiv-care-continuum-in-the-rural-southeastern-united-states
#10
Miranda Hill, Amber Huff, Neale Chumbler
PURPOSE: In spite of progress in understanding the importance of social support for health outcomes in Persons Living with HIV (PLWH), more remains to be known about mechanisms of support most beneficial at each stage of HIV treatment. In this study, we use a qualitative analytic approach to investigate the forms and sources of social support deemed most integral to the diagnosis, care engagement, and medication adherence behaviors of a diverse sample of PLWH in a mostly rural health district in the Southeastern United States...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288159/determinants-of-anemia-among-pregnant-mothers-attending-antenatal-care-in-dessie-town-health-facilities-northern-central-ethiopia-unmatched-case-control-study
#11
Sisay Eshete Tadesse, Omer Seid, Yemane G/Mariam, Abel Fekadu, Yitbarek Wasihun, Kedir Endris, Abebayehu Bitew
INTRODUCTION: Anemia affects around 38.2% and 22% of pregnant women at a global and national level respectively. In developing countries, women start pregnancy with already depleted body stores of iron and other vitamins with significant variation of anemia within and between regions. OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia. METHODS: A health facility based unmatched case control study was conducted among 112 cases and 336 controls from January to March 2016 G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280398/interrelationship-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-with-patient-characteristics-in-bahrain
#12
Maheeba A Abdulla, Eman A Murad, Hend A Aljenaidi, Duha R Aljowder, Omar Ik Aljeeran, Eman Farid, Jehad R Al Qamish
AIM: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows genotype-based variation in prevalence across geographical regions. This study was conducted to understand the clinical interrelationship of HCV genotypes with patient characteristics. METHODS: Medical records of 122 patients positive for HCV RNA test collected during 2013 and 2014 were included for analysis. Only adults were included in the study. HCV RNA extraction and genotyping was done as part of the routine diagnostic requirements...
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264795/detailed-knowledge-about-hiv-epidemiology-and-transmission-dynamics-and-their-associations-with-preventive-and-risk-behaviors-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states
#13
Akshay Sharma, Stephen P Sullivan, Rob B Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in the United States remain disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet their testing frequency is suboptimal and condomless anal sex (CAS) is increasing. Behavioral theories posit that information about HIV is a pivotal construct in individual risk reduction. However, measurements of knowledge have traditionally focused on ever hearing about HIV and being aware of the most common routes of spread...
March 6, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257482/rhesus-macaque-ifitm3-gene-polymorphisms-and-siv-infection
#14
Michael Winkler, Sabine Gärtner, Florian Wrensch, Michael Krawczak, Ulrike Sauermann, Stefan Pöhlmann
Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have been recognized as important antiviral effectors of the innate immune system, both in cell culture and in infected humans. In particular, polymorphisms of the human IFITM3 gene have been shown to affect disease severity and progression in influenza A virus (FLUAV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, respectively. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are commonly used to model human infections and the experimental inoculation of these animals with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is one of the best models for HIV/AIDS in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252818/economic-impact-of-routine-opt-out-antenatal-hiv-screening-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
E Ibekwe, C Haigh, F Duncan, F Fatoye
OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the economic impact of routine testing of HIV in antenatal (ANC) settings. BACKGROUND: Many children are being infected with HIV through mother to child transmission (MTCT) of the virus. Most of these infections are preventable if the mothers' HIV status are identified in a timely manner and appropriate interventions put in place. Routine HIV testing is widely acclaimed as a strategy for universal access to HIV testing and is being adopted by developed and developing poor income countries without recourse to the economic impact...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252455/variation-in-the-viral-hepatitis-and-hiv-policies-and-practices-of-methadone-maintenance-programs
#16
Amy B Jessop, Jeffrey K Hom, Monika Burke
OBJECTIVE: Patients prescribed methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) demonstrate elevated prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Government agencies recommend testing for these infections in MMT programs, but uptake is limited. METHODS: We audited infection-related policies and practices of all 14 MMT programs in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 2015. Results were tabulated and compared with the results from a 2010 audit of 10 of 12 MMT programs...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248190/changes-in-abdominal-fat-following-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-hiv-infected-individuals-correlate-with-waist-circumference-and-self-reported-changes
#17
Priya Bhagwat, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Grace A McComsey, Todd T Brown, Carlee Moser, Catherine A Sugar, Judith S Currier
BACKGROUND: We examined whether waist circumference (WC) and self-reported abdominal size changes can estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) changes for those initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Prospectively collected data from ACTG A5257 and its metabolic substudy, A5260s, were used for this analysis. ART-naïve HIV-infected participants were randomized to one of three contemporary ART regimens. Changes in abdominal CT-measured VAT and total adipose tissue (TAT) and DXA-measured trunk fat were tested for association with WC changes (by Pearson correlation) and categories of self-reported abdominal size changes (by ANOVA) between entry and week 96...
March 1, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237668/mathematical-modeling-of-hiv-like-particle-assembly-in-vitro
#18
Yuewu Liu, Xiufen Zou
In vitro, the recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein can generate spherical particles with a diameter of 25-30 nm in a fully defined system. It has approximately 80 building blocks, and its intermediates for assembly are abundant in geometry. Accordingly, there are a large number of nonlinear equations in the classical model. Therefore, it is difficult to compute values of geometry parameters for intermediates and make the mathematical analysis using the model. In this work, we develop a new model of HIV-like particle assembly in vitro by using six-fold symmetry of HIV-like particle assembly to decrease the number of geometry parameters...
February 22, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220738/the-influence-of-hiv-infection-on-the-age-dependence-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-skin-in-south-africa
#19
B L Diffey, M Norval, P N Albers, C Y Wright
BACKGROUND: Cancer incidence typically increases with age, but it is not known whether ethnic characteristics influence the age dependence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC). OBJECTIVES: (i) To determine the age dependence of SCC in the black African, coloured and white population groups of South Africa (SA); and (ii) to show whether any differences in the rate of change of age dependence could be influenced by diversity in behaviour and lifestyle, especially with regard to the prevalence of HIV infection, rather than by a fundamental variation in cancer biology between the populations...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213870/molecular-characterization-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-from-moldovan-dairy-cattle
#20
Aneta Pluta, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Piotr Kubiś, Svetlana Balov, Roman Moskalik, Bhudipa Choudhury, Jacek Kuźmak
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized based on the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded gp51 protein...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
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