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HIV variation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911125/differences-in-survival-among-adults-with-hiv-associated-kaposi-s-sarcoma-during-routine-hiv-treatment-initiation-in-zomba-district-malawi-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#1
Emmanuel Singogo, Thomas J Keegan, Peter J Diggle, Monique van Lettow, Alfred Matengeni, Joep J van Oosterhout, Sumeet Sodhi, Martias Joshua, Benjamin M Taylor
Background: The HIV epidemic is a major public health concern throughout Africa. Malawi is one of the worst affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a 2014 national HIV prevalence currently estimated at 10% (9.3-10.8%) by UNAIDS. Study reports, largely in the African setting comparing outcomes in HIV patients with and without Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) indicate poor prognosis and poor health outcomes amongst HIV+KS patients. Understanding the mortality risk in this patient group could help improve patient management and care...
September 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903730/routine-monitoring-and-assessment-of-adults-living-with-hiv-results-of-the-british-hiv-association-bhiva-national-audit-2015
#2
A Molloy, H Curtis, F Burns, A Freedman
BACKGROUND: The clinical care of people living with HIV changed fundamentally as a result of the development of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV infection is now a long-term treatable condition. We report a national audit to assess adherence to British HIV Association guidelines for the routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: All UK sites known as providers of adult HIV outpatient services were invited to complete a case-note review and a brief survey of local clinic practices...
September 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900351/an-overview-of-different-health-indicators-used-in-the-european-health-systems
#3
REVIEW
M Gaeta, F Campanella, L Capasso, G M Schifino, L Gentile, G Banfi, G Pelissero, C Ricci
INTRODUCTION: In the European Union three different health systems could be defined according to service delivery, financing, and economic policies: Beveridge, Bismarck and Mixed system. Although health systems are hardly to compare, various organizations are developing methods assessing performance. In the present work the performance of the three systems were evaluated using European Community Health Indicators according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. METHODS: The study has been conducted among the 28 states of the European Union using the following indicators: Standardized death rate for diseases of the circulatory system, standardized death rate of malignant neoplasms, road traffic accidents with injury, life expectancy at birth, incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), infant deaths, pure alcohol consumption, infants vaccinated against Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTP), public and total expenditure on health over the period 2001-2010...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900073/-molecular-mechanisms-of-hiv-1-genetic-diversity
#4
D V Sosin, N A Tchurikov
High genetic diversity of HIV-1 is the main factor behind the fact that HIV infection is widespread and difficult to treat. Although a limited number (or only one) of virus particles enters the blood upon infection, the particles are replicated in infected cells and rapidly produce new genetic variants that are resistant to the host immune system and antiretroviral drugs. This circumstance hampers the development of anti-HIV-1 vaccines and requires new antiretroviral drugs to be designed. The cause of the high variation of HIV-1 is related to the properties of its reverse transcriptase, which is error prone and often makes mistakes when transcribing virus RNA...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899424/clade-homogeneity-and-low-rate-of-delta-virus-despite-hyperendemicity-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-ethiopia
#5
Yeshambel Belyhun, Uwe Gerd Liebert, Melanie Maier
BACKGROUND: Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic and heterogeneous in its genetic diversity in Ethiopia, little is known about hepatitis D virus (HDV) circulating genotypes and molecular diversity. METHODS: A total of 321 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positives (125 HIV co-infected, 102 liver disease patients and 94 blood donors) were screened for anti-HDV antibody. The anti-HDV positive sera were subjected to Real time PCR for HDV-RNA confirmation...
September 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886044/genetic-variants-in-cyp2b6-and-cyp2a6-explain-interindividual-variation-in-efavirenz-plasma-concentrations-of-hiv-infected-children-with-diverse-ethnic-origin
#6
Sandra Soeria-Atmadja, Emma Österberg, Lars L Gustafsson, Marja-Liisa Dahl, Jaran Eriksen, Johanna Rubin, Lars Navér
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2.6 million children live with HIV globally, and efavirenz (EFV) is one of the most widely used antiretroviral agents for HIV treatment in children and adults. There are concerns about the appropriateness of current EFV dosing and it has been discussed whether EFV dosing should be adapted according to genotype in children as suggested for adults. AIM: To investigate if pediatric EFV dosing should be guided by genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes rather than by body weight...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883510/disseminated-tuberculosis-among-hospitalised-hiv-patients-in-south-africa-a-common-condition-that-can-be-rapidly-diagnosed-using-urine-based-assays
#7
Andrew D Kerkhoff, David A Barr, Charlotte Schutz, Rosie Burton, Mark P Nicol, Stephen D Lawn, Graeme Meintjes
HIV-associated disseminated TB (tuberculosis) has been under-recognised and poorly characterised. Blood culture is the gold-standard diagnostic test, but is expensive, slow, and may under-diagnose TB dissemination. In a cohort of hospitalised HIV patients, we aimed to report the prevalence of TB-blood-culture positivity, performance of rapid diagnostics as diagnostic surrogates, and better characterise the clinical phenotype of disseminated TB. HIV-inpatients were systematically investigated using sputum, urine and blood testing...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875725/il-1%C3%AE-haplotype-influences-the-effect-of-nox-exposure-on-gestational-age-in-the-south-african-mace-birth-cohort
#8
P Nansook, R N Naidoo, P Ramkaran, A Phulukdaree, S Muttoo, K Asharam, A A Chuturgoon
OBJECTIVE: Cytokines, molecules within the immune system that affect either a pro- or anti-inflammatory response, have previously been shown to influence birth outcomes. The maternal cytokine gene-environment interactions are thought to alter their expression, potentially influencing susceptibility to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal interleukin-1β (IL-1β) haplotype and expression variation with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels, and thereafter investigate the IL-1β haplotype-specific effects of NOx exposure levels, IL-1β mRNA expression and other variables on gestational age...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870251/hiv-1-tolerates-changes-in-a-count-in-a-small-segment-of-the-pol-gene
#9
Bep Klaver, Yme van der Velden, Formijn van Hemert, Antoinette C van der Kuyl, Ben Berkhout
BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 RNA genome has a biased nucleotide composition with a surplus of As. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain this striking phenomenon, but the A-count of the HIV-1 genome has thus far not been systematically manipulated. The reason for this reservation is the likelihood that known and unknown sequence motifs will be affected by such a massive mutational approach, thus resulting in replication-impaired virus mutants. We present the first attempt to increase and decrease the A-count in a relatively small polymerase (pol) gene segment of HIV-1 RNA...
September 5, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863160/high-rates-of-loss-to-follow-up-during-the-first-year-of-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-patients-at-sites-providing-pre-art-care-in-nigeria-2004-2012
#10
Simon G Agolory, Andrew F Auld, Solomon Odafe, Ray W Shiraishi, E Kainne Dokubo, Mahesh Swaminathan, Ibrahim Dalhatu, Dennis Onotu, Oseni Abiri, Henry Debem, Adebobola Bashorun, Tedd V Ellerbrock
BACKGROUND: With about 3.4 million HIV-infected persons, Nigeria has the second highest number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the world. However, antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in Nigeria remains low with only 748,846 (22%) of PLHIV on ART by the end of 2014. Retention of HIV-infected patients in pre-ART care is essential to ensure timely ART initiation. We assessed outcomes of patients enrolled in Nigeria's pre-ART program during 2004-2012. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative retrospective cohort study among adults (≥15 years old), enrolling in pre-ART programs supported by the U...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863154/the-impact-of-hiv-infection-and-socioeconomic-factors-on-the-incidence-of-gonorrhea-a-county-level-us-wide-analysis
#11
Nikolaos Andreatos, Christos Grigoras, Fadi Shehadeh, Elina Eleftheria Pliakos, Georgianna Stoukides, Jenna Port, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported identifiable disease in the United States (U.S.). Importantly, more than 25% of gonorrheal infections demonstrate antibiotic resistance, leading the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to classify gonorrhea as an "urgent threat". METHODS: We examined the association of gonorrhea infection rates with the incidence of HIV and socioeconomic factors. A county-level multivariable model was then constructed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845244/a39%C3%A2-human-exome-sequencing-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-rare-coding-variation-on-hiv-1-control
#12
P J McLaren, P R Shea, I Bartha, J Fellay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843815/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-induced-hepatocellular-mitochondrial-dna-lesions-and-compensatory-enhancement-of-mitochondrial-function-and-dna-repair
#13
Qi Liang, Jing Zeng, Jian Wu, Luxin Qiao, Qinghai Chen, Dexi Chen, Yulin Zhang
As the backbone of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are widely used in anti-HIV therapy. The long-term administration of NRTIs can result in mitochondrial dysfunction in certain HIV-1 infected patients. But NRTIs associated liver mitochondrial toxicity is not wellknown. Herein, the liver autopsy of AIDS patients and the liver tissues of the mice with 12 months of NRTI exposure were used to identify NRTIs associated liver toxicity with immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR, Amplex red and horseradish peroxidase, and cloning and sequencing...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838029/radionuclide-synovectomy-synoviorthesis-rs-in-patients-with-bleeding-disorders-a-review-of-patient-and-procedure-demographics-and-functional-outcomes-in-the-athndataset
#14
C McGuinn, D Cheng, D Aschman, S L Carpenter, R Sidonio, A Soni, M D Tarantino, A P Wheeler, A L Dunn
INTRODUCTION: Radionuclide synovectomy/synoviorthesis (RS) to manage proliferative synovitis in persons with bleeding disorders has been utilized for decades; however, aggregate US results are limited. AIM: To determine the prevalence of RS utilization, patient and procedure related demographics and functional outcomes in United States haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs). The ATHNdataset includes US patients with bleeding disorders who have authorized the sharing of their demographic and clinical information for research...
August 24, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837576/space-time-variations-in-child-mortality-in-a-rural-south-african-population-with-high-hiv-prevalence-2000-2014
#15
Boikhutso Tlou, Benn Sartorius, Frank Tanser
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the key determinants of child mortality 'hot-spots' in space and time. METHODS: Comprehensive population-based mortality data collected between 2000 and 2014 by the Africa Centre Demographic Information System located in the UMkhanyakude District of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, was analysed. We assigned all mortality events and person-time of observation for children <5 years of age to an exact homestead of residence (mapped to <2m accuracy as part of the DSA platform)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832781/health-transition-in-brazil-regional-variations-and-divergence-convergence-in-mortality
#16
Gabriel Mendes Borges
This study analyzes the main characteristics of the health transition in Brazil and its five major regions, using a framework that accounts for regional inequalities in mortality trends. The regional mortality divergence/convergence process is described and discussed by considering the specific contributions of age groups and causes of death in life expectancy variations. Results show that mortality change in Brazil has follow the epidemiologic transition theory to some extent during the period under analysis - for instance, the sharp decline in infant mortality in all regions (first from infectious and parasitic diseases and then from causes associated with the perinatal period) and the increase in the participation of chronic and degenerative diseases as the main cause of death...
August 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832284/attendance-at-antenatal-clinics-in-inner-city-johannesburg-south-africa-and-its-associations-with-birth-outcomes-analysis-of-data-from-birth-registers-at-three-facilities
#17
Siphamandla Gumede, Vivian Black, Nicolette Naidoo, Matthew F Chersich
BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) clinics serve as key gateways to screening and treatment interventions that improve pregnancy outcomes, and are especially important for HIV-infected women. By disaggregating data on access to ANC, we aimed to identify variation in ANC attendance by level of care and across vulnerable groups in inner-city Johannesburg, and document the impact of non-attendance on birth outcomes. METHODS: This record review of routine health service data involved manual extraction of 2 years of data from birth registers at a primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level facility within inner-city Johannesburg...
July 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831758/inter-partner-and-temporal-variations-in-the-perception-of-sexual-risk-for-hiv
#18
Tamar Goldenberg, Lynae A Darbes, Rob Stephenson
This study uses longitudinal qualitative methods to examine how gay and bisexual men perceive sexual risk across both a variety of partners and across time. Over ten weeks, participants completed three quantitative personal relationship diaries (PRD) describing sexual encounters during that time period. Participants then completed a timeline-based individual in-depth interview to unpack the PRD data. Participants used multiple factors to determine their own sexual risk (e.g., type of sex, partner concurrency, emotional connections), which often resulted in inconsistencies in defining sexual risk and determining the level of risk both within and across partners and across time...
August 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829790/disparities-in-kaposi-sarcoma-incidence-and-survival-in-the-united-states-2000-2013
#19
Kathryn E Royse, Firas El Chaer, E Susan Amirian, Christine Hartman, Susan E Krown, Thomas S Uldrick, Jeannette Y Lee, Zachary Shepard, Elizabeth Y Chiao
OBJECTIVE: Geographic and racial disparities may contribute to variation in the incidence and outcomes of HIV-associated cancers in the United States. METHOD: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we analyzed Kaposi sarcoma (KS) incidence and survival by race and geographic region during the combined antiretroviral therapy era. Reported cases of KS in men from 2000 to 2013 were obtained from 17 SEER cancer registries. Overall and age-standardized KS incidence rates were calculated and stratified by race and geographic region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819541/mortality-among-5-17-year-old-children-in-kenya
#20
Bonface Ombaba Osano, Fred Were, Shanaaz Mathews
INTRODUCTION: Global mortality trends have changed over time and are expected to continue changing with a reduction in communicable diseases and an increase of non-communicable disease. Increased survival of children beyond five years may change mortality patterns for these children. There are few studies in Africa that explore the causes of mortality in children over five years. The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate and clinical profiles of children aged 5-17 years who died in six Kenyan hospitals in 2013...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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