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HIV variation

Aditya H Gaur, Hilda Kizito, Wasana Prasitsueubsai, Natella Rakhmanina, Mohammed Rassool, Rana Chakraborty, Jagmohan Batra, Pope Kosalaraksa, Wicharn Luesomboon, Danielle Porter, Yongwu Shao, Michael Myers, Lillian Ting, Devi SenGupta, Erin Quirk, Martin S Rhee
BACKGROUND: The prodrug tenofovir alafenamide is associated with improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. We aimed to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of this single-tablet, fixed-dose combination of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adolescents. METHODS: We did a 48 week, single-arm, open-label trial in treatment-naive adolescents with HIV from ten hospital clinics in South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA...
October 17, 2016: Lancet HIV
Natalya M Gashnikova, Darya P Zyryanova, Ekaterina M Astakhova, Vladimir V Ivlev, Maria P Gashnikova, Natalya V Moskaleva, Sergey S Aikin, Tatyana N Bulatova, Sergey V Pustylnikov, Evgeny F Bocharov, Aleksey V Totmenin
Kemerovo Oblast (KO) has had the highest rate of HIV spread in Russia since 2011. The aim of this work was to study the genetic variation of HIV-1 in Kemerovo Oblast. Blood was sampled from a total of 91 HIV-positive antiretroviral-therapy-naïve individuals in 2013 (38) and 2015 (53). HIV-1 subtypes, pol gene drug resistance mutations, and viral tropism were analyzed. In 2013-2015, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A decreased in KO from 60.5 to 7.5 %. The samples collected in 2015 from the patients with newly diagnosed HIV demonstrate the current dominance of HIV-1 CRF63_02A1 (71...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Virology
Rafael Sauter, Ruizhu Huang, Bruno Ledergerber, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Matthias Cavassini, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Hoffmann, Mathieu Rougemont, Huldrych F Günthard, Leonhard Held
Plasma HIV viral load is related to declining CD4 lymphocytes. The extent to which CD8 cells, in addition to RNA viral load, predict the depletion of CD4 cells is not well characterized so far. We examine if CD8 cell count is a prognostic factor for CD4 cell counts during an HIV infection.A longitudinal analysis is conducted using data from the Swiss HIV cohort study collected between January 2000 and October 2014. Linear mixed regression models were applied to observations from HIV-1-infected treatment naive patients (NAIVE) and cART-treated patients to predict the short-term evolution of CD4 cell counts...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Delelegn Tsegaye, Leul Deribe, Shambel Wodajo
Objectives: Adherence of HIV positive pregnant and lactating mothers to ART is a central component in PMTCT. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure the level of adherence and identify factors associated with adherence to option B+ PMTCT among pregnant and lactating mothers in selected government health facilities of South Wollo Zone, Amhara region, North East Ethiopia. Methods: An institution based cross sectional quantitative study design was employed from March 1 to April 14, 2016 using standard structured data collection instrument...
October 13, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Elisa Fronti, Marco Vecchia, Luigia Scudeller, Liliana Praticò, Piero Marone, Alba Muzzi, Lorenzo Minoli, Elena Seminari
This study investigated the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the last 16 years in the province of Pavia, Lombardy, Northern Italy. The objective was to evaluate the clinical pattern of tuberculosis in immigrant groups compared with Italians in an observational retrospective study conducted from 1998 to 2013. In all, 615 tuberculosis cases were admitted, 354 males (57.3%), median age 47 years, 425 (69.1%) Italian-born patients, 190 (30.9%) immigrants. The ratio between the immigrant group and the Italian-born group of patients increased from 1...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
Rajeev K Mehlotra, Noemi B Hall, Barne Willie, Catherine M Stein, Aaron Weinberg, Peter A Zimmerman, Lance T Vernon
Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and β-defensin (DEFB) genes have been recognized as potential genetic factors that can influence susceptibility to and severity of periodontal diseases (PD). However, data regarding associations between these polymorphisms and PD are still scarce in North American populations, and are not available in HIV+ North American populations. In this exploratory study, we analyzed samples from HIV+ adults (n = 115), who received primary HIV care at 3 local outpatient HIV clinics and were monitored for PD status...
2016: PloS One
Bella Devaleenal D, Geetha Ramachandran, Soumya Swaminathan
Inter-individual variations in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-TB drugs are known to occur, which could have important therapeutic implications in patient management. Areas covered: We compiled factors responsible for PK variability of anti-TB drugs reported from different settings that would give a better understanding about the challenges of PK variability of anti-TB medications. We searched PubMed data base and Google scholar from 1976 to the present using the key words "Pharmacokinetics", "pharmacokinetic variability", "first-line anti-TB therapy", "Rifampicin", "Isoniazid", "Ethambutol", "Pyrazinamide", "food", "nutritional status", "HIV", "diabetes", "genetic polymorphisms" and "pharmacokinetic interactions"...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Gadavalli Vera Venkata Satyakiran, Radhika Manoj Bavle, Glory Alexander, Saritha Rao, Reshma Venugopal, Sreelatha S Hosthor
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection gradually destroys the body's immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. HIV infection causes a quantitative and qualitative depletion of CD4 lymphocyte count, which increases the risk of opportunistic infections. Thus, CD4 count is one of the key factors in determining both the urgency of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and the need of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Shuguo Yang, Danmei Jiao, Changjun Liu, Ming Lv, Shan Li, Zongyun Chen, Yao Deng, Yanqing Zhao, Jian Li
BACKGROUND: Ordinary screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors is essential for blood transfusion. Although there is several TTIs studies focus on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections in China, it is no data to illustrate any firm conclusion from Shiyan City, Central China. It aims to verify the seroprevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of blood donors' information was conducted for the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T...
October 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
K F Gurski, K A Hoffman
In 1992, Watts and May introduced a simple dynamical systems model of the spread of HIV based on disease transmission per partnership including the length of partnership duration. This model allowed for the treatment of concurrent partnerships, although it was hampered by the assumption of an important latent phase which generated a non-autonomous system. Subsequent models including concurrency have been based on networks, Monte Carlo, and stochastic simulations which lose a qualitative understanding of the effects of concurrency...
October 3, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Karen P Coss, Snezana Vasiljevic, Laura K Pritchard, Stefanie A Krumm, Molly Glaze, Sharon Madzorera, Penny L Moore, Max Crispin, Katie J Doores
: The HIV envelope (Env) is extensively modified with host-derived N-linked glycans. The high density of glycosylation on the viral spike limits enzymatic processing resulting in numerous under-processed oligomannose-type glycans. This extensive glycosylation not only shields conserved regions of the protein from the immune system but also act as targets for HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). In response to the host immune system, the HIV glycan shield is constantly evolving through mutations affecting both the positions and frequencies of potential N-linked glycans (PNGSs)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Katrina A Lythgoe, François Blanquart, Lorenzo Pellis, Christophe Fraser
The viral population of HIV-1, like many pathogens that cause systemic infection, is structured and differentiated within the body. The dynamics of cellular immune trafficking through the blood and within compartments of the body has also received wide attention. Despite these advances, mathematical models, which are widely used to interpret and predict viral and immune dynamics in infection, typically treat the infected host as a well-mixed homogeneous environment. Here, we present mathematical, analytical, and computational results that demonstrate that consideration of the spatial structure of the viral population within the host radically alters predictions of previous models...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Ronald Moura Rodrigues, Monserrat Plana, Felipe Garcia, Luisa Zupin, Louise Kuhn, Sergio Crovella
We performed a retrospective genome-wide association study in HIV-infected individuals who were treated with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in clinical trials performed by two research groups (Spain and Brazil). We aimed to identify host genetic variants influencing treatment response. The Illumina Human Core Exome 12 v 1.0 Bead Chip with over 250,000 markers was used to analyze genetic factors affecting treatment response. Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis of the results obtained from Spanish and Brazilian patients...
October 4, 2016: Immunologic Research
Yuqin Zhao, Daniel T Wood, Hristo V Kojouharov, Yang Kuang, Dobromir T Dimitrov
Mechanistic mathematical models are increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions for HIV prevention and to inform public health decisions. By focusing exclusively on the impact of the interventions, the importance of the demographic processes in these studies is often underestimated. In this paper, we use simple deterministic models to assess the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis in reducing the HIV transmission and to explore the influence of the recruitment mechanisms on the epidemic and effectiveness projections...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Dharma R Thapa, Jeremy Martinson, Priya Duggal, Sudhir Penugonda, Jay H Bream, Po-Yin Chang, Sugandha Dandekar, Shen-Chih Chang, Roger Detels, Otoniel Martínez-Maza, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Shehnaz K Hussain
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, are implicated in lymphomagenesis. We evaluated whether genetic variations in microRNA coding regions, binding sites, or biogenesis genes (collectively referred to as miRNA-SNPs) were associated with risk of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), and serum levels of four lymphoma-related microRNAs. METHODS: Twenty-five miRNA-SNPs were genotyped in 180 AIDS-NHL cases and 529 HIV-infected matched controls from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify serum microRNA levels...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Emily C Williams, Judith A Hahn, Richard Saitz, Kendall Bryant, Marlene C Lira, Jeffrey H Samet
Alcohol use is common among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this narrative review, we describe literature regarding alcohol's impact on transmission, care, coinfections, and comorbidities that are common among people living with HIV (PLWH), as well as literature regarding interventions to address alcohol use and its influences among PLWH. This narrative review identifies alcohol use as a risk factor for HIV transmission, as well as a factor impacting the clinical manifestations and management of HIV...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Angel M Mayor, Eduardo J Santiago-Rodriguez, Eddy Rios-Olivares, Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, Robert F Hunter-Mellado
BACKGROUND: The study describes the cancer trends in a Puerto Rican Hispanic HIV/AIDS cohort for three different time periods as defined by the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Island: pre (1992-1995), early (1996-2002, and recent (2003-2009). METHODS: AIDS and non-AIDS related malignancies risk, standardized incidence rate and one year mortality was evaluated in the cohort before and after cART. RESULTS: Of the 281 malignancies found in 265 persons; 72% were in men, 38% in injecting drug users and 42...
2016: International Journal of Cancer Research
Kathleen A McGinnis, Janet P Tate, Emily C Williams, Melissa Skanderson, Kendall J Bryant, Adam J Gordon, Kevin L Kraemer, Stephen A Maisto, Steven Crystal, David A Fiellin, Amy C Justice
BACKGROUND: Using electronic medical record (EMR) data for clinical decisions, quality improvement, and research is common. While unhealthy alcohol use is particularly risky among HIV infected individuals (HIV+), the validity of EMR data for identifying unhealthy alcohol use among HIV+ is unclear. Among HIV+ and uninfected, we: (1) assess agreement of EMR and research AUDIT-C at validated cutoffs for unhealthy alcohol use; (2) explore EMR cutoffs that maximize agreement; and (3) assess subpopulation variation in agreement...
September 22, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Y Shi, Y M Wan, J Chen, J Wang, Y Q Ren, Q Wei, Z Cong, J Q Xu
Objective: To investigate the number and distribution of N-linked glycosylation sites of simian/human immunodeficiency virus envelope proteins(SHIVSF162P3)and SHIV transmission. Methods: Two female adult Chinese rhesus macaques(4 years old)were intravenously inoculated with 300 TCID50 SHIVSF162P3. The macaques weighed 4 and 5 kg and were identified as Rh1 and Rh2. We collected plasma samples at days 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70 and 77 post-challenge. Subsequently, we monitored plasma viral load by real-time PCR after viral RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis...
October 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Fan Wu, Andrea Kirmaier, Ellen White, Ilnour Ourmanov, Sonya Whitted, Kenta Matsuda, Nadeene Riddick, Laura R Hall, Jennifer S Morgan, Ronald J Plishka, Alicia Buckler-White, Welkin E Johnson, Vanessa M Hirsch
: TRIM5α polymorphism limits and complicates the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) for evaluation of HIV vaccine strategies in rhesus macaques. We previously reported that the TRIM5α-sensitive SIVsm clone, SIVsmE543-3, acquired amino acid substitutions in capsid that overcame TRIM5α restriction when it was passaged in rhesus macaques expressing restrictive TRIM5α alleles. Here we generated TRIM5α-resistant clones of the related SIVsmE660 strain without animal passage by introducing the same amino acid capsid substitutions...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
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