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HIV variation

Chia-Yin Hsieh, Yi-Yin Lai, Yen-Chin Chen, Chia-Chun Lin, Li-Fang Liu, Nai-Ying Ko
BACKGROUND: There has been a global consensus since 2016 that antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated following HIV diagnosis regardless of CD4-count test results. Identifying an instrument that is able to accurately assess the readiness of HIV-infected persons for treatment initiation is thus critical. PURPOSE: (1) To evaluate the comparative readiness of patients receiving ART and those who are not yet on ART; (2) to evaluate the respective readiness variation within these 2 groups over a one-year period; and (3) to identify the cutoff value for medication readiness that indicates the ideal time to initiate ART...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Victor Garcia, Emily C Glassberg, Arbel Harpak, Marcus W Feldman
Within-host adaptation of pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often occurs at more than two loci. Multiple beneficial mutations may arise simultaneously on different genetic backgrounds and interfere, affecting each other's fixation trajectories. Here, we explore how these evolutionary dynamics are mirrored in multilocus linkage disequilibrium (MLD), a measure of multi-way associations between alleles. In the parameter regime corresponding to HIV, we show that deterministic early infection models induce MLD to oscillate over time in a wavelet-like fashion...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
C A Basham, B Elias, A Fanning, C Cook, P Orr
BACKGROUND: Performance measurement assists tuberculosis (TB) programmes in understanding areas of strength and weakness, and planning for improvements. Canada currently does not have a national comprehensive system for the measurement and analysis of TB programme performance. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the performance of a Canadian provincial TB programme using measures and targets based on those published by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control for 2015...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Noemy Starita, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco M Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the conjunctiva is a common cancer in Africa mainly associated with solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We analyzed the role of HIV on the occurrence of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations among a cohort of conjunctiva neoplasia Ugandan patients. METHODS: Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were searched in 72 conjunctiva neoplasia cases, comprising SCC and intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1-3 (CIN1-3), as well as in 53 conjunctiva normal tissues and in 24 HIV-related Kaposi sarcoma...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Setegn Eshetie, Mucheye Gizachew, Animut Alebel, Dick van Soolingen
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes is substantially needed to assess the performance of national TB controls programs (NTPs). To date, the overall estimates of treatment outcomes have not been determined in Ethiopia. Therefore, this meta-analysis was undertaken to produce pooled estimates of TB treatment outcomes and to analyze the impact of prior anti-TB drug exposure and HIV co-infection. METHODS: Potentially relevant studies were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE online databases...
2018: PloS One
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Bijou R Hunt, Charlotte Picard, Jana L Hirschtick, Nancy Glick
While data on HIV testing prevalence is readily available at the national, state, and more rarely at the city level, few data are available on HIV testing at the community level, where public health initiatives may be most effectively implemented. Community-level data are necessary given that city, state, and national estimates mask variation occurring at the community level in large urban areas. This type of data is crucial for informing education efforts both within the community and among providers. The current study uses the Sinai Community Health Survey 2...
March 7, 2018: AIDS Care
Jocelyn Anstey Watkins, Jane Goudge, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Caroline Huxley, Katherine Dodd, Frances Griffiths
Background: Routine monitoring by patients and healthcare providers to manage chronic disease is vital, though this can be challenging in low-resourced health systems. Mobile health (mHealth) has been proposed as one way to improve management of chronic diseases. Past mHealth reviews have proposed the need for a greater understanding around how the theoretical constructs in mHealth interventions actually work. In response, we synthesised evidence from primary studies on monitoring of chronic diseases using two-way digital text or voice communication between a patient and health worker...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Myint Aung, Tadashi Konoshita, Jagadissan Moodley, Prem Gathiram
INTRODUCTION: The exact cause of preeclampsia (PE) remains elusive. Recently, many researchers have focused on the role of genetic variations in pathogenesis of PE. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is affected in the pathogenesis of PE. OBJECTIVES: To determine association of gene polymorphisms of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in PE and normotensive South African Black women. METHODS: A group of 603 South African Black pregnant women, 246 normotensive and 357 with PE, was recruited...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Rachel Margaret Coyle, Ada Rose Miltz, Fiona C Lampe, Janey Sewell, Andrew N Phillips, Andrew Speakman, Jyoti Dhar, Lorraine Sherr, S Tariq Sadiq, Stephen Taylor, Daniel R Ivens, Simon Collins, Jonathan Elford, Jane Anderson, Alison Rodger
OBJECTIVES: In the UK, people of black ethnicity experience a disproportionate burden of HIV and STI. We aimed to assess the association of ethnicity with sexual behaviour and sexual health among women and heterosexual men attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England. METHODS: The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV is a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire study of HIV negative people recruited from 20 GUM clinics in England, 2013-2014...
March 8, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Norma Rallón, Marcial García, Javier García-Samaniego, Alfonso Cabello, Beatriz Álvarez, Clara Restrepo, Sara Nistal, Miguel Górgolas, José M Benito
INTRODUCTION: T-cell exhaustion has been involved in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. We have longitudinally analyzed PD1 and Tim3 surrogate markers of T-cells exhaustion, in parallel with other markers of HIV progression, and its potential association with CD4 changes in treated and untreated infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 96 HIV patients, 49 of them followed in the absence of cART (cART-naïve group) and 47 after initiation of cART (cART group) were included and followed for a median of 43 [IQR: 31-60] months...
2018: PloS One
Sara S Dias, Francisco Mbofana, Sheyla R Cassy, Sónia Dias, Gonçalo F Augusto, Victor Agadjanian, Maria R O Martins
The use of population-based survey data together with sound statistical methods can enhance better estimation of HIV risk factors and explain variations across subgroups of the population. The distribution and determinants of HIV infection in populations must be taken into consideration. We analysed data from the HIV Prevalence and Behaviour Survey in Mozambique aiming to find risk factors associated with HIV infection among Mozambican women. The paper provides a complex survey logistic regression model to explain the variation in HIV seropositivity using demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Mathieu Bangert, María D Flores-Chávez, Ivonne P Llanes-Acevedo, Carolina Arcones, Carmen Chicharro, Emilia García, Sheila Ortega, Javier Nieto, Israel Cruz
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of leishmaniasis, is endemic in Europe with Mediterranean countries reporting endemic status alongside a worrying northward spread. Serological diagnosis, including immunochromatographic test based on the recombinant antigen rK39 (rK39-ICT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT) based on the whole parasite antigen, have been validated in regions with high VL burden, such as eastern Africa and the Indian subcontinent. To date, no studies using a large set of patients have performed an assessment of both methods within Europe...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ana Paula Loch, Maria Ines Battistella Nemes, Maria Altenfelder Santos, Ana Maroso Alves, Regina Melchior, Cáritas Relva Basso, Joselita Maria de Magalhães Caraciolo, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E Alves, Elen Rose Lodeiro Castanheira, Wania Maria do Espírito Santo Carvalho, Ruth Terezinha Kehrig, Aline Aparecida Monroe
Health services play a crucial role in reaching the 90-90-90 target of controlling the HIV epidemic. This study evaluates the organization of Brazilian health services in improving, monitoring, and retention in HIV care and adherence support. Percentage variation (PV) was used to compare the responses by services to an evaluation questionnaire on organizational quality (Qualiaids) in 2007 and 2010. The study analyzed the 419 services that completed the questionnaire in 2007 (83.1% of respondents) and 2010 (63...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
A-M Schweitzer, M Bogdan, A Corduneanu, I Ciocea
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of clients who enrolled into of an opt-in, HIV, HBV & HCV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Program in Dobrogea Region, Romania (VCT) and to identify the utility of the pre-test counseling sessions in increasing subjective perception regarding transmission knowledge for the clients attending the VCT program. METHODS: Cross sectional data collection, between August 2015 and September 2016. Sociodemographic and behavioral information were collected for the clients who enrolled at two Baylor centers...
February 2018: HIV Medicine
Martin J Downing, Dominique Brown, Jeffrey Steen, Ellen Benoit
BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) remains a critical public health issue among black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is associated with multiple negative outcomes including substance misuse, poor mental health, revictimization, and high-risk sexual behavior. Most CSA research with MSM relies on quantitative assessment that often precludes consideration of cultural variations in how formative sexual experiences are understood and is based on inconsistent or overly restrictive definitions of abuse, and therefore may fail to detect certain abusive experiences (eg, those involving female perpetrators), which can have harmful health consequences if they remain unrecognized...
February 26, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Jing Sun, Todd T Brown, David C Samuels, Todd Hulgan, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Beth D Jamieson, Kristine M Erlandson, Jeremy Martinson, Frank J Palella, Joseph B Margolick, Gregory D Kirk, Jennifer A Schrack
Background: Age-related gait speed decline is accelerated in men with HIV. Mitochondrial genetic variation is associated with frailty and mortality in the general population, and may provide insight into mechanisms of functional decline in people aging with HIV. Material & Methods: Gait speed was assessed semi-annually in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups were extracted from genome-wide genotyping data, classifying men ≥ 50 years into 5 groups: mtDNA haplogroup H, J, T, Uk, and other...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hassan Noorbazargan, Seyed Alireza Nadji, Siamak Mirab Samiee, Mahdi Paryan, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh
Background Viral load measurement is commonly applicable to monitor HIV infection in patients to determine the number of HIV-RNA in serum samples of individuals. The aim of the present study was to set up a highly specific, sensitive, and reproducible home-brewed Real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan chemistry to quantify HIV-1 RNA genome. Methods In this study, three sets of primer pairs and a TaqMan probe were designed for HIV subtypes conserved sequences. An internal control was included in this assay to evaluate the presence of inhibition...
February 23, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
Uma Sharma, Poonam Gupta, Sunil Gupta, S Venkatesh, Mohammad Husain
OBJECTIVE: Identifying the genetic variability in vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand the disease progression. Being important in HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, vpu gene, isolated from young infants was investigated to understand the viral characteristics. METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 80 HIV-1 positive infants, categorized in two age groups; acute (<6 months) and early (>6-18 months). A total of 77 PCR positive samples, amplified for vpu gene, were sequenced and analyzed...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
Jason Yolitz, Catherine Schwing, Julia Chang, Donald Van Ryk, Fatima Nawaz, Danlan Wei, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Anthony S Fauci
The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) of early-replicating viruses encodes several distinct transmission signatures. One such signature involves a reduced number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGs). This transmission signature underscores the importance of posttranslational modifications in the fitness of early-replicating isolates. An additional signature in Env involves the overrepresentation of basic amino acid residues at a specific position in the Env signal peptide (SP). In this report, we investigated the potential impact of this SP signature on gp120 glycosylation and antigenicity...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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