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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079718/longitudinal-hiv-care-trajectories-in-north-carolina
#1
Kimberly A Powers, Erika Samoff, Mark A Weaver, Lynne A Sampson, William C Miller, Peter A Leone, Heidi Swygard
BACKGROUND: Long-term HIV care and treatment engagement is required for maximal clinical and prevention benefits, but longitudinal care patterns are poorly understood. We used the last 10 years' worth of HIV surveillance data from North Carolina to describe longitudinal HIV care trajectories from diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of all persons newly diagnosed with HIV in North Carolina between March 31, 2006 and March 31, 2015 (N = 16,207)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074680/sero-discovering-versus-sero-cognisant-initial-challenges-and-needs-of-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-porto-alegre-brazil
#2
Shana D Hughes, Hong-Ha M Truong
This paper focuses on challenges faced by heterosexual couples of mixed HIV status in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and argues for more conceptual nuance in our understanding of 'serodiscordance'. Couples' stories, collected over 11 months of qualitative research, demonstrate how profoundly serodiscordance involves both partners and suggest that the timing of relationship formation relative to HIV diagnosis influenced the particular challenges they confronted. In recognition of this variation, we propose the distinction of 'sero-discovering' from 'sero-cognisant' couples...
January 11, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073289/generation-and-characterization-of-hiv-1-transmitted-and-founder-virus-consensus-sequence-from-intravenous-drug-users-in-xinjiang-china
#3
Fan Li, Liying Ma, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Na Ni, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) have been characterized by high genetic multiplicity, suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing(SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence(IDU.CON). All the T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC, and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus...
January 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066922/x-ray-crystal-structure-of-the-n-terminal-region-of-moloney-murine-leukemia-virus-integrase-and-its-implications-for-viral-dna-recognition
#4
Rongjin Guan, Sriram Aiyer, Marie L Cote, Rong Xiao, Mei Jiang, Thomas B Acton, Monica J Roth, Gaetano T Montelione
The retroviral integrase (IN) carries out the integration of a dsDNA copy of the viral genome into the host DNA, an essential step for viral replication. All IN proteins have three general domains, the N-terminal domain (NTD), the catalytic core domain (CCD), and the C-terminal domain (CTD). The NTD includes an HHCC zinc finger-like motif, which is conserved in all retroviral IN proteins. Two crystal structures of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) IN N-terminal region (NTR) constructs that both include an N-terminal extension domain (NED, residues 1-44) and an HHCC zinc-finger NTD (residues 45-105), in two crystal forms are reported...
January 9, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065665/unbiased-identification-of-blood-based-biomarkers-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-by-modeling-and-mining-molecular-interaction-networks
#5
Awanti Sambarey, Abhinandan Devaprasad, Abhilash Mohan, Asma Ahmed, Soumya Nayak, Soumya Swaminathan, George D'Souza, Anto Jesuraj, Chirag Dhar, Subash Babu, Annapurna Vyakarnam, Nagasuma Chandra
Efficient diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is met with multiple challenges, calling for a shift of focus from pathogen-centric diagnostics towards identification of host-based multi-marker signatures. Transcriptomics offer a list of differentially expressed genes, but cannot by itself identify the most influential contributors to the disease phenotype. Here, we describe a computational pipeline that adopts an unbiased approach to identify a biomarker signature. Data from RNA sequencing from whole blood samples of TB patients were integrated with a curated genome-wide molecular interaction network, from which we obtain a comprehensive perspective of variations that occur in the host due to TB...
December 21, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063466/sexuality-related-attitudes-significantly-modulate-demographic-variation-in-sexual-health-literacy-in-tasmanian-university-students
#6
Steve Simpson, Christine Clifford, Michael G Quinn, Kaz Ross, Neil Sefton, Louise Owen, Leigh Blizzard, Richard Turner
Background: It has previously been shown that there is a significant demographic variation in sexual health literacy (SHL) in university-level students in Tasmania, Australia. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statistical adjustment for sexuality-related attitudes on this demographic variation in SHL. Methods: Iterated principal-factor analysis was used to evaluate latent variable grouping of responses to 21 attitudinal questions regarding sexuality and sexual behaviour. Linear regression was used to evaluate the distribution and determinants of attitudinal patterns and thence the relationship of these patterns to SHL...
January 9, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060846/prediction-of-under-detection-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-experience-of-six-years-in-the-south-kivu-province
#7
Emmanuel André, Yvette Lufungulo Bahati, Eric Mulume Musafiri, Olivier Bahati Rusumba, Dimitri Van der Linden, Francis Zech
INTRODUCTION: In the field of tuberculosis (TB), and particularly in regard to paediatric TB (PedTB), clinical skills of health professionals play an important role in determining quality of care. In an era where novel diagnostic technologies and efficient treatment regimens are being made available for the poorest, we must not divert our attention from the importance of clinical skills, as this deliverable remains the cornerstone of individualized patient care and ultimately the best assurance for optimal use of resources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058111/impacts-and-shortcomings-of-genetic-clustering-methods-for-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#8
Art F Y Poon
For infectious diseases, a genetic cluster is a group of closely related infections that is usually interpreted as representing a recent outbreak of transmission. Genetic clustering methods are becoming increasingly popular for molecular epidemiology, especially in the context of HIV where there is now considerable interest in applying these methods to prioritize groups for public health resources such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. To date, genetic clustering has generally been performed with ad hoc algorithms, only some of which have since been encoded and distributed as free software...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053011/dismantling-the-silence-lgbtq-aging-emerging-from-the-margins
#9
Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
Historical, environmental, and cultural contexts intersect with aging, sexuality, and gender across communities and generations. My scholarship investigates health and well-being over the life course across marginalized communities, including LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) midlife and older adults, native communities experiencing cardiovascular risk, and families in China living with HIV, in order to balance the realities of unique lives in contemporary society. By probing the intersection of age, sexuality, and gender, my analysis is informed by both personal and professional experiences...
January 3, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042947/efficient-transduction-of-human-and-rhesus-macaque-primary-t-cells-by-a-modified-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-based-lentiviral-vector
#10
Huan He, Jing Xue, Weiming Wang, Lihong Liu, Chaobaihui Ye, Zhe Cong, Jason Kimata, Chuan Qin, Paul Zhou
HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors efficiently transduce genes to human, but not rhesus, primary T cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The poor transduction of HIV-1 vectors to rhesus cells is mainly due to species-specific restriction factors such as rhesus TRIM5α. Previously, several strategies to modify HIV-1 vectors were developed to overcome rhesus TRIM5α restriction. While the modified HIV-1 vectors efficiently transduce rhesus HSCs, they remain suboptimal for rhesus primary T cells. Recently, HIV-1 variants that encode combinations of LNEIE mutations in capsid (CA) protein and SIVmac239 Vif were found to replicate efficiently in rhesus primary T cells...
January 2, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042394/network-approaches-to-substance-use-and-hiv-hepatitis-c-risk-among-homeless-youth-and-adult-women-in-the-united-states-a-review
#11
Kirk Dombrowski, Kelley Sittner, Devan Crawford, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Patrick Habecker, Bilal Khan
During the United States economic recession of 2008-2011, the number of homeless and unstably housed people in the United States increased considerably. Homeless adult women and unaccompanied homeless youth make up the most marginal segments of this population. Because homeless individuals are a hard to reach population, research into these marginal groups has traditionally been a challenge for researchers interested in substance abuse and mental health. Network analysis techniques and research strategies offer means for dealing with traditional challenges such as missing sampling frames, variation in definitions of homelessness and study inclusion criteria, and enumeration/population estimation procedures...
September 2016: Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040577/activity-spaces-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-initial-exploration-of-geographic-variation-in-locations-of-routine-potential-sexual-risk-and-prevention-behaviors
#12
Adam S Vaughan, Michael R Kramer, Hannah L F Cooper, Eli S Rosenberg, Patrick S Sullivan
Theory and research on HIV and among men who have sex with men (MSM) have long suggested the importance of non-residential locations in defining structural exposures. Despite this, most studies within these fields define place as a residential context, neglecting the potential influence of non-residential locations on HIV-related outcomes. The concept of activity spaces, defined as a set of locations to which an individual is routinely exposed, represents one theoretical basis for addressing this potential imbalance...
December 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032523/hiv-fertility-intentions-and-contraception-in-the-era-of-expanded-access-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-case-study-of-rural-mozambique
#13
Victor Agadjanian, Sarah R Hayford
Provision of effective contraception to HIV-positive women of reproductive age is critical to effective management of HIV infection and prevention of both vertical and horizontal HIV transmission in developing countries. This exploratory retrospective study examines contraceptive use during the prolonged post-partum period in a sample of 285 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who gave birth at four rural maternity clinics in a high HIV-prevalence region in Mozambique. Multivariate analyses show no significant variations by HIV status in contraceptive timing (mean time to first contraceptive use of 7...
December 29, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025011/influence-of-raltegravir-intensification-on-viral-load-and-2-ltr-dynamics-in-hiv-patients-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Xia Wang, Gregory Mink, Daniel Lin, Xinyu Song, Libin Rong
Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV-1 plasma viral load to below the detection limit but cannot eradicate the virus. Whether residual ongoing viral replication persists during suppressive therapy remains unclear. A few clinical studies showed that treatment intensification with an additional drug led to a lower viral load or an increase in 2-LTR (long terminal repeat), a marker for ongoing viral replication. However, some other studies found no change in the viral load and 2-LTR. In this paper, we developed multi-stage models to evaluate the influence of treatment intensification with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir on viral load and 2-LTR dynamics in HIV patients under suppressive therapy...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009639/increased-expression-of-the-type-i-interferon-receptor-on-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#15
M Scott Killian, Sue H Fujimura, Ramu G Sudhagoni
BACKGROUND: Type I interferons (IFN1; e.g. IFN-α and IFN-β) are potent cytokines that inhibit the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. The antiviral and immunoregulatory activities of IFN1 are mediated through ligand/receptor interactions with the IFN1 receptor complex (IFNAR). Variation in the cell surface density of IFNAR could play a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of fresh whole blood, we used flow cytometry to evaluate the expression of IFNAR2 on lymphocyte subsets from HIV-1-infected (n=33) and -uninfected (n=22) individuals...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008867/dolutegravir-plasma-concentrations-according-to-companion-antiretroviral-drug-unwanted-drug-interaction-or-desirable-boosting-effect
#16
Dario Cattaneo, Davide Minisci, Valeria Cozzi, Agostino Riva, Paola Meraviglia, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Galli, Cristina Gervasoni
BACKGROUND: Studies in healthy volunteers have shown that the recently approved HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir has limited drug-to-drug interaction profile. Here we carried out a pharmacokinetic survey in HIV-infected patients given dolutegravir as part of their antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Dolutegravir plasma trough concentrations were measured in 78 HIV infected patients given the drug in combination with a protease inhibitor, a non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or abacavir/lamivudine...
December 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007791/factors-associated-with-seminal-impairment-in-hiv-infected-men-under-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
A Jerónimo, M B Baza, I Río, M Vera, V Hernando, J Castilla, C Rodriguez, J Del Romero
STUDY QUESTION: How do semen parameters of HIV-infected men under antiretroviral treatment compare with WHO parameters of normal semen, and what factors are associated with any differences? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen quality in most HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral treatment exceeds WHO limits, but the number falling below them is higher than would be expected in a healthy population. Exposure to efavirenz has a significant association with dysmotility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Dysmotility is the most frequently described sperm alteration related to HIV infection, and it has recently been linked to treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly to efavirenz...
December 21, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999010/pharmacokinetics-of-dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-in-combination-with-simeprevir-and-sofosbuvir-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfected-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#18
Marco Merli, Laura Galli, Letizia Marinaro, Alessandra Ariaudo, Emanuela Messina, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Antonella Castagna, Antonio D'Avolio, Adriano Lazzarin, Stefano Bonora, Hamid Hasson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the plasma trough concentrations (Ctrough) of dolutegravir and rilpivirine used in combination with simeprevir and sofosbuvir in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis. Virological efficacy and safety of both ART and anti-HCV therapy were assessed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis on ART with dolutegravir plus rilpivirine and treated with simeprevir plus sofosbuvir (±ribavirin) was conducted...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998286/ultrasensitive-single-genome-sequencing-accurate-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-hiv-1-rna
#19
Valerie F Boltz, Jason Rausch, Wei Shao, Junko Hattori, Brian Luke, Frank Maldarelli, John W Mellors, Mary F Kearney, John M Coffin
BACKGROUND: Although next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential for studying virus populations in unprecedented depth, PCR error, amplification bias and recombination during library construction have limited its use to population sequencing and measurements of unlinked allele frequencies. Here we report a method, termed ultrasensitive Single-Genome Sequencing (uSGS), for NGS library construction and analysis that eliminates PCR errors and recombinants, and generates single-genome sequences of the same quality as the "gold-standard" of HIV-1 single-genome sequencing assay but with more than 100-fold greater depth...
December 20, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993614/performance-of-celera-ruo-integrase-resistance-assay-across-multiple-hiv-1-subtypes
#20
Carole L Wallis, Raquel V Viana, Shanmugam Saravanan, Carlos Silva de Jesus, Clement Zeh, Elias K Halvas, John W Mellors
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 sequence variation is a major obstacle to developing molecular based assays for multiple subtypes. This study sought to independently assess performance characteristics of the ViroSeq™ HIV-1 Integrase RUO Genotyping Kit (Celera, US) for samples of multiple different HIV-1 subtypes. METHODS: 264 samples were tested in the validation, 106 from integrase inhibitor naïve patients' sent for routine HIV-1 drug resistance testing after failing a 1st- or 2nd-line regimen, and 158 samples from an external virology quality assurance program (VQA)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
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