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'There will only be equal esteem when the Paralympic and the Olympic Games run simultaneously and the two competitions merge'.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Debbie Van Biesen, Florentina Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n=67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 years; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 years). The ability to perform at a pre-planned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
October 5, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kristina Fagher, Jenny Jacobsson, Toomas Timpka, Örjan Dahlström, Jan Lexell
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13102-016-0053-x.].
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
V C Altmann, B E Groen, A L Hart, Y C Vanlandewijck, J van Limbeek, N L W Keijsers
In Paralympic sport, classification of impairment is needed to prevent a one-sided and predictable outcome of competition, in which the least impaired athlete has the best chance to win. To develop evidence-based classification in wheelchair rugby, the impact of trunk impairment, measured by the Trunk Impairment Classification (TIC), on performance-determining activities was assessed. Arm impairment was analyzed as a covariant. Fifty-five athletes, 21 with TIC score 0, 13 with TIC score 0.5, 11 with TIC score 1...
October 2, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
E M Beckman, M J Connick, S M Tweedy
OBJECTIVES: Classification in Paralympic Sport aims to minimize the impact of 10 eligible types of impairment on the outcome of competition. Methods for assessing the extent to which a given body structure or function has been impaired are required, but are challenging because it is not possible to directly measure an absence or loss. Rather, impairment must be inferred by measurement of extant body structures or functions. METHODS: This manuscript reviews the literature concerning the assessment of strength with the aim of identifying and describing the most appropriate method for inferring strength impairment in para-athletes...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Viviana Rota, Maria Grazia Benedetti, Yusuke Okita, Marco Manfrini, Luigi Tesio
Knee rotationplasty (KRP) is a type of surgery in which the rotated ankle serves as a new knee after being removed for bone tumor. Although this limb salvage surgery is rarely indicated in properly selected patients, it may offer functional advantages over transfemoral amputation, and more durable results compared with a prosthesis. The walking mechanics of adult patients after KRP is believed to be close to that of below-knee amputees. In this study, we evaluated steady-state walking of KRP patients from the viewpoint of the overall muscle power needed to keep the body centre of mass in motion...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Stephen Pack, Sasha Kelly, Monna Arvinen-Barrow
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of swimming on Paralympic athletes' perceptions of self and identity development. METHOD: A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was taken. During semi-structured interviews, five Paralympic swimmers (aged 20-24 years) were asked questions about their swimming career, perceptions of self, integration, and impairment. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis yielded three superordinate themes: (a) "One of the crowd"; none of the participants viewed themselves as disabled, nor as supercrips; these perceptions stemmed from family-, school-, and swimming-related experiences, (b) "Becoming me"; participation in swimming facilitated self- and social-acceptance, and identity development, and c) "A badge of honor"; swimming presented opportunity to present and reinforce a positive identity...
September 27, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ioanna Athanasiadou, Sven Voss, Emmanouil Lyris, Amina Aljaber, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Costas Georgakopoulos
The 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, the biggest event in human sports, was held in Rio de Janeiro with more than 10,500 athletes from 206 countries over the world competing for the highest of sports honors, an Olympic medal. With the hope that the Olympic ideal accompanies all aspects of the XXXI Olympiad, WADA accredited antidoping laboratories use the spearhead of analytical technology as a powerful tool in the fight against doping. This review summarizes the main analytical developments applied in antidoping testing methodology combined with the main amendments on the WADA regulations regarding analytical testing starting from the 2012 London Olympics until the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro...
November 2016: Bioanalysis
Tom Shakespeare
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2016: Lancet
Nahla Khamis Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: To describe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming Mass Gathering (MG) events. METHODS: Electronic databases of PubMed, WHO, CDC, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Google, and Cochrane library were extensively searched for ZIKV. Articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant articles were utilized. RESULTS: ZIKV is an emerging Flavivirus which was first isolated from Uganda in 1947...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Radamés Maciel Vítor Medeiros, Eduardo da Silva Alves, Valdir de Aquino Lemos, Paulo Adriano Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre Silva Vieira, Murilo Moreira Barreto, Edilson Alves da Rocha, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello
CONTEXT: Body composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 months after training...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Susan P Smith, Joseph F Cosgrove, Peter J Driscoll, Andrew Smith, John Butler, Peter Goode, Carl Waldmann, Christopher J Vallis, Fiona Topham, Michael Monty Mythen
In the past three decades, mass casualty incidents have occurred worldwide at multiple sporting events and other mass gatherings. Organisational safety and healthcare provision can consequently be scrutinised post-event. Within the UK, such incidents in the 1980s provided incentives to improve medical services and subsequent high profile UK-based international sporting events (London Olympics and Paralympics 2012, Glasgow Commonwealth Games 2014, Rugby World Cup 2015) added a further catalyst for developing services...
September 9, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
K Griggs, V Goosey-Tolfrey, T Paulson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Kristina Fagher, Jenny Jacobsson, Toomas Timpka, Örjan Dahlström, Jan Lexell
BACKGROUND: Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS)...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
(no author information available yet)
In the MMWR report, "Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016," an error occurred throughout in reporting the number of countries participating in the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games without evidence of past Zika transmission: 18 countries (not 19 as stated) met this criterion. Thus, the fourth sentence of the fourth paragraph should have read, "For 14 of these countries, estimated aviation travel from Rio de Janeiro in August 2016 compared with total aviation travel from all countries with local Zika virus transmission in 2015 was 0...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Rachel Arnold, Christopher R D Wagstaff, Lauren Steadman, Yasmin Pratt
Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Irineu Loturco, Ciro Winckler, Thiago F Lourenço, Amaury Veríssimo, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Lucas A Pereira, Fábio Y Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Compression garments are thought to aid performance in some selected speed-power activities owing to improved sensory feedback and proprioception. The aim of this study was to test the effects of using compression garments on speed and power-related performances in elite sprinters with visual impairment, who rely more on proprioception to perform than their Olympic peers. Eight top-level Paralympic sprinters competing in 100- and 200-m races performed, in the following order: unloaded squat jump (SJ), loaded jump squat (JS) and sprint tests over 20- and 70-m distances; using or not the compression garment...
2016: SpringerPlus
Giuseppe Vita, Stefania La Foresta, Massimo Russo, Gian Luca Vita, Sonia Messina, Christian Lunetta, Anna Mazzeo
This study reports the positive physical, emotional and psychosocial changes induced by sport activity in a Paralympic swimmer with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 4A. When we compared evaluations before initiating sport activity with those after five years of competitive activity, we found: i) increased proximal muscles strength of upper limbs; ii) augmented ability to propel wheelchair independently; iii) improved quality of life; iv) reduced trait anxiety and striking improvement of depression; v) enhanced self-esteem...
September 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Gillian E Smith, Alex J Elliot, Sue Ibbotson, Roger Morbey, Obaghe Edeghere, Jeremy Hawker, Mike Catchpole, Tina Endericks, Paul Fisher, Brian McCloskey
BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance aims to provide early warning and real time estimates of the extent of incidents; and reassurance about lack of impact of mass gatherings. We describe a novel public health risk assessment process to ensure those leading the response to the 2012 Olympic Games were alerted to unusual activity that was of potential public health importance, and not inundated with multiple statistical 'alarms'. METHODS: Statistical alarms were assessed to identify those which needed to result in 'alerts' as reliably as possible...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Thomas Paulson, Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey
Despite the growing interest in Paralympic sport, the evidence-base for supporting elite wheelchair sport performance remains in its infancy when compared to able-bodied (AB) sport. Subsequently, current practice is often based on theory adapted from AB guidelines, with a heavy reliance on anecdotal evidence and practitioner experience. Many principles in training prescription and performance monitoring with wheelchair athletes are directly transferable from AB practice, including the periodisation and tapering of athlete loads around competition...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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