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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051334/case-studies-in-physiology-the-biomechanics-of-the-fastest-sprinter-with-a-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#1
Owen N Beck, Alena Marie Grabowski
People have debated whether athletes with transtibial amputations should compete with non-amputees in track events despite insufficient information regarding how the use of running-specific prostheses affects athletic performance. Thus, we sought to quantify the spatio-temporal variables, ground reaction forces, and spring-mass mechanics of the fastest athlete with a unilateral transtibial amputation using an RSP to reveal how he adapts his biomechanics to achieve elite running speeds. Accordingly, we measured ground reaction forces during treadmill running trials spanning 2...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030389/high-precompetition-injury-rate-dominates-the-injury-profile-at-the-rio-2016-summer-paralympic-games-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-51%C3%A2-198-athlete-days
#2
Wayne Derman, Phoebe Runciman, Martin Schwellnus, Esme Jordaan, Cheri Blauwet, Nick Webborn, Jan Lexell, Peter van de Vliet, Yetsa Tuakli-Wosornu, James Kissick, Jaap Stomphorst
OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of injury in the precompetition and competition periods of the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. METHODS: A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.4% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support. RESULTS: A total of 510 injuries were reported during the 14-day Games period, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 10...
October 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018542/spatiotemporal-characteristics-of-motor-actions-by-blind-long-jump-athletes
#3
Miguel Angel Torralba, José María Padullés, Jose Luis Losada, Jose Luis López
BACKGROUND: Blind people depend on spatial and temporal representations to perform activities of daily living and compete in sport. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of long jumps performed by blind athletes and compare findings with those reported for sighted athletes. METHODS: We analysed a sample of 12 male athletes competing in the F11 Long Jump Finals at the Paralympic Games in London 2012...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958175/the-impact-of-lower-limb-prosthetic-limb-use-in-international-c4-track-para-cycling
#4
Bryce Dyer
An investigation was undertaken to ascertain any impact or significance of athletes within the C4 paracycling classification between those who use a lower-limb prostheses and those who do not. A statistical evaluation of event completion time was undertaken to assess C4 cyclists when competing at the World Championships and the Paralympic Games in the 1 km track time trial. The C4 athletes who utilize a prostheses consistently outperformed non-amputees in the C4 classification from 2011 to 2016 on a competition-to-competition basis...
September 29, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946827/development-of-a-high-performance-transtibial-cycling-specific-prosthesis-for-the-london-2012-paralympic-games
#5
Bryce Dyer, Howard Woolley
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It has been reported that cycling-specific research relating to participants with an amputation is extremely limited in both volume and frequency. However, practitioners might participate in the development of cycling-specific prosthetic limbs. This technical note presents the development of a successful design of a prosthetic limb developed specifically for competitive cycling. TECHNIQUE: This project resulted in a hollow composite construction which was low in weight and shaped to reduce a rider's aerodynamic drag...
October 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904270/comparison-of-chemicals-in-mainstream-smoke-in-heat-not-burn-tobacco-and-combustion-cigarettes
#6
Kanae Bekki, Yohei Inaba, Shigehisa Uchiyama, Naoki Kunugita
Because of the health effects of secondhand smoke, the Japanese government is trying to establish an effective law for total avoidance of secondhand smoke in indoor environments for tobacco-free Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic games 2020, as requested by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Meanwhile, Philip Morris International has begun selling a new heat-not-burn tobacco, iQOS, which it claims is designed not to produce secondhand smoke. There is little scientific data, however, of the hazards and toxicity of iQOS...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813336/searching-for-the-elusive-gift-advances-in-talent-identification-in-sport
#7
REVIEW
David L Mann, Nima Dehghansai, Joseph Baker
The incentives for sport organizations to identify talented athletes from a young age continue to grow, yet effective talent identification remains a challenging task. This opinion paper examines recent advances in talent identification, focusing in particular on the emergence of new approaches that may offer promise to identify talent (e.g., small-sided games, genetic testing, and advanced statistical analyses). We appraise new multi-disciplinary and large-scale population studies of talent identification, provide a consideration of the most recent psychological predictors of performance, examine the emergence of new approaches that strive to diminish biases in talent identification, and look at the rise in interest in talent identification in Paralympic sport...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812396/the-influence-of-lower-limb-prostheses-technology-on-paracanoeing-time-trial-performance
#8
Shelley Ellis, Andrew Callaway, Bryce Dyer
Within the Paracanoeing discipline, it is important to ensure that appropriate control is achieved by a paddler with a disability. However, this Paralympic Games discipline has seen very little attention to date. The aims of this study were to understand the kinematic impact to a paracanoeist when not utilizing the use of a prosthetic lower-limb. A kayaker with a uni-lateral transfemoral amputation completed several 200 m maximal efforts both with and without their prosthesis. When the prosthetic limb was removed, there were significant differences found in stroke rate, stroke speed, stroke length and overall power output...
August 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804521/home-advantage-in-the-winter-paralympic-games-1976-2014
#9
Darryl Wilson, Girish Ramchandani
PURPOSE: There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. METHODS: Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014...
2017: Sport Sciences for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782993/where-science-meets-practice-olympic-coaches-crafting-of-the-tapering-process
#10
Darren Ritchie, Justine B Allen, Andrew Kirkland
Although there is research providing physiologically-based guidance for the content of the taper, this study was the first to examine how coaches actually implement the taper. The purpose of this study was to examine the taper planning and implementation processes of successful Olympic coaches leading up to major competitions and how they learned about tapering. Seven track and field coaches participated in semi-structured interviews exploring their tapering processes. To be considered for inclusion, coaches were required to have coached one or more athletes to an Olympic or Paralympic medal...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738670/antidoping-program-an-important-factor-in-the-promotion-and-protection-of-the-integrity-of-sport-and-athlete-s-health
#11
Filomena Mazzeo, Vincenzo Monda, Stefania Santamaria, Ersilia Nigro, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonietta Messina, Giovanni Messina
Use of performance-enhancing drugs concern not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the anti-doping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727507/the-paralympic-games-explained-2nd-editionby-ian-brittain-published-2016-by-routledge-abingdon-oxon-uk-54-95-paperback-233-pp-isbn-978-1-138-92716-2
#12
Jim Watkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659289/moving-forward-with-steady-strokes-in-paralympic-sports-medicine
#13
EDITORIAL
Hilde Moseby Berge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581692/examining-the-effects-of-rational-emotive-behavior-therapy-rebt-on-performance-outcomes-in-elite-paralympic-athletes
#14
Andrew G Wood, Jamie B Barker, Martin Turner, David Sheffield
Traditionally a psychotherapeutic intervention, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is receiving increasing attention within the extant literature as an intervention to enhance the athletic performance and psychological wellbeing of competitive athletes. Whilst the benefits of REBT on psychological health are established, less is understood about the effects on athletic performance. The present study aimed to examine the immediate and maintained effects of REBT on physiological, psychological, and performance outcomes with elite Paralympic athletes...
June 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543819/classifying-trunk-strength-impairment-according-to-the-activity-limitation-caused-in-wheelchair-rugby-performance
#15
Viola C Altmann, Brenda E Groen, Anne L Hart, Yves C Vanlandewijck, Noël L W Keijsers
International Federations in Paralympic sport should develop evidence based classification, based on the relative strength of association between impairment and activities that determine sport specific performance. The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between trunk strength impairment and three activities that determine performance in Wheelchair Rugby, and to determine whether this relationship supports the concept of "natural classes". Trunk muscle strength and three determinants of performance were assessed in 27 athletes The correlations between lateral trunk muscle strength and the determinant tilting the chair, and between forward trunk muscle strength and the determinants 1 m acceleration and sprint momentum were calculated...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475409/commitment-to-physical-activity-and-health-a-case-study-of-a-paralympic-gold-medallist
#16
Bridie Kean, Florin Oprescu, Marion Gray, Brendan Burkett
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been documented as both beneficial and detrimental for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The varied experience highlights challenges associated with physical activity and MS, requiring a greater understanding of the experiences of exercise for individuals with MS. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore how physical activity played a role in the life of a Paralympic Gold medallist. Carol was diagnosed with MS and went onto achieve the highest accolade in Paralympic sport...
May 5, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457670/implications-of-altered-autonomic-control-on-sports-performance-in-athletes-with-spinal-cord-injury
#17
REVIEW
Sebastian Cruz, Cheri A Blauwet
It is well known that athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience altered autonomic physiology that impacts their exercise capacity and sports performance. This is particularly relevant given the ever-increasing number of individuals with SCI who are actively engaged in sports at all levels, from community-based adaptive sports to elite Paralympic competitions. As such, the purpose of this article is to review the present literature regarding the implications of altered autonomic control on the safety and performance of athletes with SCI...
April 4, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452146/autonomic-testing-for-prediction-of-competition-performance-in-paralympic-athletes
#18
J W Squair, A A Phillips, K D Currie, C Gee, A V Krassioukov
While we now appreciate that autonomic dysfunction can impact wheelchair rugby performance, this is currently not being assessed during classification, largely due to lack of a standardized and evidence-based strategy to assess autonomic function. Our aim, therefore, was to establish the optimal autonomic testing protocol that best predicts cardiovascular capacity during competition by comprehensively examining autonomic function in elite wheelchair rugby athletes with cervical SCI and thereby enhance the standardized classification...
April 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216570/an-electromagnetic-sensor-for-the-autonomous-running-of-visually-impaired-and-blind-athletes-part-i-the-fixed-infrastructure
#19
Marco Pieralisi, Valentina Di Mattia, Valerio Petrini, Alfredo De Leo, Giovanni Manfredi, Paola Russo, Lorenzo Scalise, Graziano Cerri
Sport is one of the best ways to promote the social integration of people affected by physical disability, because it helps them to increase their self-esteem by facing difficulties and overcoming their disabilities. Nowadays, a large number of sports can be easily played by visually impaired and blind athletes without any special supports, but, there are some disciplines that require the presence of a sighted guide. In this work, the attention will be focused on marathons, during which athletes with visual disorders have to be linked to the sighted guide by means of a non-stretchable elbow tether, with an evident reduction of their performance and autonomy...
February 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149405/zika-virus-infection-summer-olympic-and-paralympic-games-in-rio-2016-and-sports-performance
#20
Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Marília Santos Andrade, Càssia Regina Vancini-Campanharo, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
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