Read by QxMD icon Read

Pneumocystis jiroveci in childrens

Heather E Machen, Zondiwe V Mwanza, Jocelyn K Brown, Kondwani M Kawaza, Laura Newberry, Rebecca R Richards-Kortum, Z Maria Oden, Elizabeth M Molyneux
OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of infants and young children with respiratory distress when treated with a novel, low-cost, stand-alone bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (bCPAP) system in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: A non-randomized, convenience sample study in a pediatric unit in Blantyre, Malawi, 2013. Patients weighing ≤10 kg with respiratory distress were eligible. We compared outcomes for patients with bronchiolitis, pneumonia and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) after treatment with bCPAP...
December 2015: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Aleksandra Szczawińska-Popłonyk, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Lidia Ossowska, Anna Bręborowicz, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Jacek Wachowiak
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by the absence of functional T lymphocytes and impairment of adaptive immunity. While heterogeneity of the genetic background in SCID leads to the variability of immune phenotypes, most of affected newborns appear healthy but within the first few months they develop life-threatening opportunistic respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections. The objective of the study was to define the presenting features and etiology of infections in children with SCID...
2014: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Birgit C P Koch, Sabina R Zabirova, Bart C H van der Nagel, Lidwien M Hanff
BACKGROUND: Sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim are frequently used antibiotics. They work synergistic. In infections with Pneumocystis jiroveci or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, higher dosages are indicated than in other infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is warranted to assure the efficacy while limiting toxicity. Although trimethoprim in combination with sulfamethoxazole is the most common combination with established TDM target concentrations, the intravenous formulation is not suited for children because of its additives ethanol and propylene glycol to increase solubility...
October 2015: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Bhunyabhadh Chaimay, Somkiattiyos Woradet, Sawanya Chantutanon, Supparaporn Phuntara, Kannika Suwanna
OBJECTIVE: The present study was to investigate clinical risk factors of survival among HIV-infected children born from HIV-infected mothers in the Southern region of Thailand. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Data from routine prospective cohort studies between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed In these studies, 1,549 HIV-infected children born to HIV-infected mothers were enrolled at birth and followed longitudinally. Information on demographic, clinical manifestations, and HIV-infection status factors was collected Survival analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality...
November 2013: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Simon Lam, Fotini Dimitriou Kavadas, Seemab Haider, Mary Elizabeth Noseworthy
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is considered to be a pediatric emergency, with respiratory distress being the most common presenting symptom. The authors present two cases of SCID in children <4 months of age with respiratory distress at a tertiary care centre due to a recently described homozygous CD3 delta mutation found only in the Mexican Mennonite population. Failure to respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics prompted investigation for possible SCID. Bronchial alveolar lavage fluid from both patients grew Pneumocystis jiroveci, and flow cytometry revealed absent T cells...
January 2014: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Etan Orgel, Teresa Rushing
Cancer therapy routinely requires Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis. In those intolerant of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, aerosolized pentamidine is convenient and effective. Intravenous pentamidine is often substituted in young children but its efficacy remains controversial. In this retrospective study of a large pediatric oncology cohort, we confirm intravenous pentamidine to be effective and well-tolerated as second-line prophylaxis across all ages.
March 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Andrew Cant, Alexandra Battersby
Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs), although rare, are serious and heightened clinical suspicion leads to earlier diagnosis and improved outcome. Recognition of PIDs may be difficult as infections are common in young children in particular. Clues to the diagnosis of PID may be found in history, examination and initial basic investigations such as lymphocyte count. Age at presentation, type of infective organism and family history help focus on likely PIDs. Type of infective organism may indicate a specific PID, for example Aspergillus and Chronic Granulomatous Disease and Pneumocystis Jiroveci and SCID amongst others...
2013: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M Pilar Gambra, Teresa Bidart
Pneumocystis jiroveci is an important pathogen in patients undergoing SOT and HSCT. Universal prophylaxis is recommended for all adults and children with SOT and HSCT, considering that its use significantly reduces the occurrence and mortality associated with pneumonia by this agent. The drug of choice is cotrimoxazole (A1) three times a week, low-dose scheme, that has proved equally effective and better tolerated than the daily regimen and/or at high doses. Prophylaxis starts 7 to 14 days post transplant in SOT recipients and post-implant in HSCT, with an average duration of 6 months except in liver and lung transplant as in HSCT with significant degree of immunosuppression, that lasts for 1 year...
September 2012: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Carmen L Avilés, Pamela Silva, Marcela Zubieta, Ana M Alvarez, Ana Becker, Carmen Salgado, M Elena Santolaya, Santiago Topelberg, Juan Tordecilla, Mónica Varas, Milena Villarroel, Tamara Viviani
INTRODUCTION: Lung infections are a serious complication in children with cancer. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been demonstrated to be an effective procedure for achieving etiologic diagnosis. METHOD: We did a retrospective analysis of BAL data performed between November 2005 and October 2008 in children with cancer, severe neutropenia and lung infiltrates for assessing its performance, clinical utility and safety. Thirty-seven BAL were evaluated in 35 patients...
June 2012: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Aditya H Gaur, Patricia M Flynn, Wally Bitar, Hua Liang
Current HIV guidelines recommend monitoring CD4 counts every 3-4 months. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HIV PCR, this retrospective study reexamines the required frequency of the CD4 assay. Predictor variables, including age, previous CD4 count, HIV viral load (VL), time interval since last VL and CD4 count (TINT), and antiretroviral history, were abstracted. A recursive partitioning-based regression tree analysis was used to determine if the absolute current CD4 count was above or below the age appropriate Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis cutoff...
March 2013: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mai Sato, Shuichi Ito, Masao Ogura, Koichi Kamei, Isao Miyairi, Ippei Miyata, Masataka Higuchi, Kentaro Matsuoka
BACKGROUND: Rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody that targets B cells, is a promising agent against steroid-dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We report a 3-year-old boy who presented with atypical Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) following administration of rituximab for refractory nephrotic syndrome. He had received cyclosporine and daily prednisolone for over 1 year. Following rituximab therapy, a hazy shadow was observed on his chest X-ray...
January 2013: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Omolemo P Kitchin, Refiloe Masekela, Piet Becker, Teshni Moodley, Sam M Risenga, Robin J Green
OBJECTIVE: Acute severe pneumonia with respiratory failure in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -exposed infants carries a high mortality. Pneumocystis jiroveci is one cause, but other organisms have been suggested to play a role. Our objective is to describe the coinfections and treatment strategies in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -exposed infants with respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome, in an attempt to improve survival. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study...
September 2012: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
T Sudjaritruk, P Oberdorfer, T Puthanakit, T Sirisanthana, V Sirisanthana
This study identified causes of first hospitalization among perinatally acquired HIV-infected children at Chiang Mai University Hospital between 1989 and 2009. Data were stratified into three seven-year time periods: pre-Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis, pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ART period. Over the 21-year study period, 1121 children were hospitalized. The mean age at admission was 2.7 years and had become older over time. Of the 1121 hospitalization causes, 50.6% were AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs), 48...
May 2012: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Warunee Punpanich, Michelle Groome, Lulu Muhe, Shamim A Qazi, Shabir Ahmed Madhi
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-exposed children. Administration of appropriate empirical antimicrobial and/or adjunctive systemic therapies may improve clinical outcomes. METHODOLOGY: To identify effective antimicrobial and/or adjunctive systemic therapy for pneumonia in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected children, we searched for published and unpublished studies from 11 databases including MedLine, Global Health Database, Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the World Health Organization Library Information System, AIDSLine, and the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, along with additional four regional databases including African Index Medicus, Latin America and Caribbean, Eastern Mediterranean, and South-East Asian databases...
February 2012: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Burke A Cunha, Uzma Syed, Jean E Hage
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised hosts, but RSV is a rare cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In patients with HIV, CAP is most frequently attributable to the usual bacterial respiratory pathogens that cause CAP in immunocompetent hosts, eg, Streptococcuspneumoniae or Hemophilus influenzae...
January 2012: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Jorge O Alarcón, Laura Freimanis-Hance, Margot Krauss, Mary F Reyes, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Edmundo Cardoso, Rohan Hazra
Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections...
March 2012: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mette Levinsen, Diana Shabaneh, Cathrine Bohnstedt, Arja Harila-Saari, Olafur G Jonsson, Jukka Kanerva, Anna Lindblom, Bendik Lund, Elisabeth W Andersen, Kjeld Schmiegelow
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is used in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We explored to which extent TMP/SMX influenced methotrexate (MTX)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP) dosage, myelosuppression, and event-free survival (EFS) during maintenance therapy. Of 447 study patients treated by the NOPHO ALL92 protocol, 120 patients received TMP/SMX continuously for 2-7 d/wk (TMP/SMX(2-7) ) and 287 patients never received TMP/SMX (TMP/SMX(never) ). Ten patients (all TMP/SMX(never) ) developed PCP, eight of which occurred within 7 months from the start of maintenance therapy...
January 2012: European Journal of Haematology
Evridiki K Vouloumanou, Drosos E Karageorgopoulos, Petros I Rafailidis, Argyris Michalopoulos, Matthew E Falagas
Emergence of resistance to widely used trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) as well as common adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients casts interest on combinations of TMP with other sulfonamides. Sulfametrole (SMT) combined with TMP could provide a choice for difficult-to-treat infections, particularly when administered intravenously. The objective of this review was to evaluate the available clinical and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) evidence regarding TMP/SMT, particularly in comparison with TMP/SMX...
September 2011: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Gemma Crighton, Gabrielle Haeusler, Nalini Pati, Tom G Connell
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is rare in immunocompetent children. Severe folate deficiency affects T cell function, potentially increasing susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We report the case of an 11-month-old child who developed P. jiroveci pneumonia in the setting of severe nutritional folate deficiency and review the literature regarding the influence of folate on immunity.
August 2011: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Rangsima Lolekha, Suchin Chunwimaleung, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Pimsiri Leawsrisook, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Pramot Srisamang, Jurai Wongsawat, Worawan Faikratok, Sarika Pattanasin, Bruce D Agins, Kimberley K Fox, Michelle S McConnell
BACKGROUND: As increasing numbers of children initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART), a systematic process is needed to measure and improve pediatric HIV care quality. METHODS: Pediatric HIVQUAL-T, a model for performance measurement and quality improvement (QI), was adapted from the U.S. HIVQUAL model by incorporating Thai national guidelines as standards. In each of five pilot-site hospitals in Thailand in 2005-2007, clinical data abstracted from patient records were used to identify priority areas for QI...
December 2010: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"