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Vitamin D and schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881965/fundamental-role-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-677-c%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-t-genotype-and-flavin-compounds-in-biochemical-phenotypes-for-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-psychosis
#1
Stephanie Fryar-Williams
The Mental Health Biomarker Project (2010-2016) explored variables for psychosis in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Blood samples from 67, highly characterized symptomatic cases and 67 gender and age matched control participants were analyzed for methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C → T gene variants and for vitamin B6, B12 and D, folate, unbound copper, zinc cofactors for enzymes in the methylation cycle, and related catecholamine pathways. Urine samples were analyzed for indole-catecholamines, their metabolites, and oxidative-stress marker, hydroxylpyrolline-2-one (HPL)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827293/vitamin-d-deficiency-behavioral-atypicality-anxiety-and-depression-in-children-with-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#2
L Kelley, A F P Sanders, E A Beaton
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex developmental disorder with serious medical, cognitive and emotional symptoms across the lifespan. This genetic deletion also imparts a lifetime risk for developing schizophrenia that is 25-30 times that of the general population. The origin of this risk is multifactorial and may include dysregulation of the stress response and immunological systems in relation to brain development. Vitamin D is involved in brain development and neuroprotection, gene transcription, immunological regulation and influences neuronal signal transduction...
December 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788194/the-relationship-between-symptom-severity-and-low-vitamin-d-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
Süheyla Doğan Bulut, Serdar Bulut, Dicle Görkem Atalan, Tonguç Berkol, Eda Gürçay, Türker Türker, Çiğdem Aydemir
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the relationship between schizophrenia and environmental factors has come into prominence. This study investigated the relationship between vitamin D levels and the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia by comparing vitamin D levels between patients with schizophrenia and a healthy control group. METHODS: The study included 80 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 74 age- and sex-matched controls. The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) were used to evaluate symptom severity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766084/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-adult-patients-with-schizophreniform-and-autism-spectrum-syndromes-a-one-year-cohort-study-at-a-german-tertiary-care-hospital
#4
Dominique Endres, Rick Dersch, Oliver Stich, Armin Buchwald, Evgeniy Perlov, Bernd Feige, Simon Maier, Andreas Riedel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D has many immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective functions, and previous studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and neuropsychiatric disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a 1-year cohort of adult inpatients with schizophreniform and autism spectrum syndromes in a naturalistic inpatient setting in Germany. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Our study was comprised of 60 adult schizophreniform and 23 adult high-functioning autism spectrum patients who were hospitalized between January and December of 2015...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692350/-epigenetics-implication-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#5
M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662458/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-adult-outpatients-with-bipolar-disorder-or-schizophrenia
#6
Remco Boerman, Dan Cohen, Peter F J Schulte, Annet Nugter
OBJECTIVE: Several studies show an association between schizophrenia and low levels of vitamin D. To date, there are only few studies about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency is less common among patients with bipolar disorder than among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A second hypothesis is that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorders than among the general Dutch population...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595553/low-vitamin-d-is-associated-with-negative-and-depressive-symptoms-in-psychotic-disorders
#7
Mari Nerhus, Akiah O Berg, Levi R Kvitland, Ingrid Dieset, Sigrun Hope, Sandra R Dahl, Melissa A Weibell, Kristin L Romm, Ann Faerden, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
BACKGROUND: There are indications that low S-25(OH)D is associated with increased disease severity in psychotic disorder. Our first aim was to investigate the relations between low S-25(OH)D and positive, negative and depressive symptoms. Our second aim was to explore if associations between S-25(OH)D and symptoms were influenced by levels of inflammatory markers. METHODS: Participants (N=358) with a medical history of one or more psychotic episodes were recruited...
August 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588034/multi-regression-analysis-revealed-a-relationship-between-l-serine-and-methionine-a-component-of-one-carbon-metabolism-in-the-normal-control-but-not-in-the-schizophrenia
#8
Yumiko Takano, Yuji Ozeki, Masae Sekine, Kumiko Fujii, Takashi Watanabe, Hiroaki Okayasu, Takahiro Shinozaki, Akiko Aoki, Kazufumi Akiyama, Hiroshi Homma, Kazutaka Shimoda
BACKGROUND: Alterations in one-carbon metabolism (OCM) have been observed in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), but a comprehensive study of OCM has not yet been conducted. A carbon atom is transferred from l-serine to methionine during OCM, but the relationship between l-serine and methionine in SZ is not yet known. We investigated the relationship between l-serine and methionine to obtain a comprehensive understanding of OCM in SZ. METHODS: We recruited forty-five patients with SZ and thirty normal controls (NC)...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317683/covariance-association-test-cvat-identifies-genetic-markers-associated-with-schizophrenia-in-functionally-associated-biological-processes
#9
Palle Duun Rohde, Ditte Demontis, Beatriz Castro Dias Cuyabano, Anders D Børglum, Peter Sørensen
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT)...
August 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215954/investigating-causality-in-the-association-between-25-oh-d-and-schizophrenia
#10
Amy E Taylor, Stephen Burgess, Jennifer J Ware, Suzanne H Gage, J Brent Richards, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. However, it is not known whether this association is causal or what the direction of causality is. We performed two sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with serum 25(OH)D to investigate the causal effect of 25(OH)D on risk of schizophrenia, and SNPs robustly associated with schizophrenia to investigate the causal effect of schizophrenia on 25(OH)D. We used summary data from genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses of schizophrenia and 25(OH)D to obtain betas and standard errors for the SNP-exposure and SNP-outcome associations...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073049/a-review-of-vulnerability-and-risks-for-schizophrenia-beyond-the-two-hit-hypothesis
#11
REVIEW
Justin Davis, Harris Eyre, Felice N Jacka, Seetal Dodd, Olivia Dean, Sarah McEwen, Monojit Debnath, John McGrath, Michael Maes, Paul Amminger, Patrick D McGorry, Christos Pantelis, Michael Berk
Schizophrenia risk has often been conceptualized using a model which requires two hits in order to generate the clinical phenotype-the first as an early priming in a genetically predisposed individual and the second a likely environmental insult. The aim of this paper was to review the literature and reformulate this binary risk-vulnerability model. We sourced the data for this narrative review from the electronic database PUBMED. Our search terms were not limited by language or date of publication. The development of schizophrenia may be driven by genetic vulnerability interacting with multiple vulnerability factors including lowered prenatal vitamin D exposure, viral infections, smoking intelligence quotient, social cognition cannabis use, social defeat, nutrition and childhood trauma...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010382/low-levels-of-vitamin-d-poorly-responsive-to-daylight-exposure-in-patients-with-therapy-resistant-schizophrenia
#12
Jan P A M Bogers, Tijmen Bostoen, Theo G Broekman
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D levels are associated with schizophrenia, but the possible association between vitamin D levels and illness severity or duration of exposure to daylight has barely been investigated. AIMS: To compare vitamin D levels in therapy-refractory severely ill schizophrenia patients and members of staff. To investigate the influence of daylight exposure on vitamin D levels in patients. METHODS: Vitamin D was measured in patients with therapy-resistant schizophrenia in April, after the winter, and in patients and staff members in June, after an exceptionally sunny spring...
2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26767392/vitamin-d-in-schizophrenia-a-clinical-review
#13
Mathew Chiang, Radhika Natarajan, Xiaoduo Fan
Vitamin D (vitD) is known for its essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone health. VitD is made endogenously in the skin from UVB radiation from sunlight. VitD is now considered as a potent neurosteroid hormone, critical to brain development and normal brain function, and is known for its anti-inflammatory property affecting various aspects of human health. VitD ligand-receptor, a receptor that mediates much of vitD's biological actions, has been found throughout the body including the central nervous system...
February 2016: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26704532/motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-as-a-new-model-for-the-study-of-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-the-brain
#14
Mokhtar Almokhtar, Kjell Wikvall, S J Kumari A Ubhayasekera, Jonas Bergquist, Maria Norlin
Vitamin D3 is a pro-hormone, which is sequentially activated by 25- and 1α-hydroxylation to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], respectively. Subsequent inactivation is performed by 24-hydroxylation. These reactions are carried out by a series of CYP450 enzymes. The 25-hydroxylation involves mainly CYP2R1 and CYP27A1, whereas 1α-hydroxylation and 24-hydroxylation are catalyzed by CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, respectively, and are tightly regulated to maintain adequate levels of the active vitamin D hormone, 1α,25(OH)2D3...
April 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26560996/developmental-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-schizophrenia-the-role-of-animal-models
#15
REVIEW
S A Schoenrock, L M Tarantino
Schizophrenia is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the US population. Based on twin and genome-wide association studies, it is clear that both genetics and environmental factors increase the risk for developing schizophrenia. Moreover, there is evidence that conditions in utero, either alone or in concert with genetic factors, may alter neurodevelopment and lead to an increased risk for schizophrenia. There has been progress in identifying genetic loci and environmental exposures that increase risk, but there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge...
January 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26411139/does-vitamin-d-deficiency-contribute-to-the-severity-of-asthma-in-children-and-adults
#16
REVIEW
Syed Zaryab Ahmed, Anila Jaleel, Kamran Hameed, Salman Qazi, Ahsan Suleman
Role of vitamin D in the health of bones has been well established for over decades; It was known that its deficiency caused rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Later it was discovered that these can be corrected by giving vitamin D. Researchers discovered that vitamin D can be synthesized by exposure to sun. Hence it was also named "the sunshine vitamin". As time passed it was observed that low levels of vitamin D were associated with multiple diseases. This sparked the interest of the scientific community to further the research on vitamin D which led to the studies that started associating vitamin D with various diseases like cancers (prostate, colon and breast), autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis), infectious diseases (tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV), cardiovascular diseases, mental illnesses (schizophrenia), diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2 and gestational) and allergic conditions like asthma...
April 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26260538/effects-of-omega-3-pufa-on-the-vitamin-e-and-glutathione-antioxidant-defense-system-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis
#17
Stefan Smesny, Berko Milleit, Miriam R Schaefer, Uta-Christina Hipler, Christine Milleit, Cornelia Wiegand, Jana Hesse, Claudia M Klier, Magdalena Holub, Ingrid Holzer, Michael Berk, Patrick D McGorry, Heinrich Sauer, G Paul Amminger
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses are reported in schizophrenia and are associated with disturbed neurodevelopment, brain structural alterations, glutamatergic imbalance, increased negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. There is evidence that oxidative stress predates the onset of acute psychotic illness. Here, we investigate the effects of omega-3 PUFA on the vitamin E and glutathione antioxidant defense system (AODS). METHOD: In 64 help-seeking UHR-individuals (13-25 years of age), vitamin E levels and glutathione were investigated before and after 12 weeks of treatment with either 1...
October 2015: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26210580/vitamin-d-regulates-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-n-cadherin-a-possible-mediator
#18
X Cui, R Pertile, P Liu, D W Eyles
Vitamin D is a neuroactive steroid. Its genomic actions are mediated via the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR emerges in the rat mesencephalon at embryonic day 12, representing the peak period of dopaminergic cell birth. Our prior studies reveal that developmental vitamin D (DVD)-deficiency alters the ontogeny of dopaminergic neurons in the developing mesencephalon. There is also consistent evidence from others that 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in models of dopaminergic toxicity...
September 24, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26163386/serum-vitamin-d-and-hippocampal-gray-matter-volume-in-schizophrenia
#19
Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V Kalmady, Anekal C Amaresha, Dania Jose, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Boban Joseph, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Vasanthapuram Ravi, Matcheri S Keshavan, Bangalore N Gangadhar
Disparate lines of evidence including epidemiological and case-control studies have increasingly implicated vitamin D in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to dysfunction of the hippocampus--a brain region hypothesized to be critically involved in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined for potential association between serum vitamin D level and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve or antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients (n = 35). Serum vitamin D level was estimated using 25-OH vitamin D immunoassay...
August 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26106052/high-levels-of-vitamin-d-in-relation-to-reduced-risk-of-schizophrenia-with-elevated-c-reactive-protein
#20
Dao-min Zhu, Yong Liu, Ai-guo Zhang, Zhao-xue Chu, Qing Wu, Hui Li, Jin-fang Ge, Yi Dong, Peng Zhu
There is growing evidence on the novel role of vitamin D in reducing inflammation. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia, and high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia and 93 family-matched controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Plasma concentrations of CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured using commercial kits...
August 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
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