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Yuan Liu, Guijian Liu, Zijiao Yuan, Houqi Liu, Paul K S Lam
The Yellow River Estuary is a significant fishery, but at present there are few studies about the concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and vanadium (V) in fish from this area, which might cause potential health risk to fish consumers. The aim of this study was to research on the accumulation and potential sources of heavy metals in the fish of the Yellow River Estuary. Arsenic, Hg, V and stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) in 11 species of 129 fish were analyzed. Results showed that the concentrations of As and Hg were all lower than the guideline levels established by international organizations and legal limits by several countries...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Urszula Solecka, Tomasz Bajda, Justyna Topolska, Sylwia Zelek-Pogudz, Maciej Manecki
Due to the great range of the application fields for apatites, there is a strong need to complete the data set determining the properties of these minerals. In this study, Raman and Infrared spectra of the phases from pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl - vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl series were investigated. Totally, 9 samples (2 end-members and 7 solid solutions of the series) were synthesized at 25°C and pH=3.5, and analyzed. In the Raman and Infrared spectra of the studied Pb-apatites, the bands typical for the vibrations in the PO4 and the VO4 tetrahedra appeared...
August 26, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Hui Liu, Baogang Zhang, Heyang Yuan, Yutong Cheng, Song Wang, Zhen He
Vanadium (V) pollution in groundwater has posed serious risks to the environment and public health. Anaerobic microbial reduction can achieve efficient and cost-effective remediation of V(V) pollution, but its interactions with coexisting common electron acceptors such as NO3(-), Fe(3+), SO4(2-) and CO2 in groundwater remain unknown. In this study, the interactions between V(V) reduction and reduction of common electron acceptors were examined with revealing relevant microbial community and identifying dominant species...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Craig P Marshall, Alison Olcott Marshall, Jade B Aitken, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Pierre Breuer, Philippe Steemans, Peter A Lay
The inability to unambiguously distinguish the biogenicity of microfossil-like structures in the ancient rock record is a fundamental predicament facing Archean paleobiologists and astrobiologists. Therefore, novel methods for discriminating biological from nonbiological chemistries of microfossil-like structures are of the utmost importance in the search for evidence of early life on Earth. This, too, is important for the search for life on Mars by in situ analyses via rovers or sample return missions for future analysis here on Earth...
September 14, 2017: Astrobiology
Mengyao Yuan, Simona Liguori, Kyoungjin Lee, Douglas G Van Campen, Michael F Toney, Jennifer Wilcox
Vanadium and its surface oxides were studied as a potential nitrogen-selective membrane material for indirect carbon capture from coal or natural gas power plants. The effects of minor flue gas components (SO2, NO, NO2, H2O, and O2) on vanadium at 500-600 °C were investigated by thermochemical exposure in combination with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that SO2, NO, and NO2 are unlikely to have adsorbed on the surface vanadium oxides at 600 °C after exposure for up to 10 hours, although NO and NO2 may have exhibited oxidizing effects (e...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Montaha Anjass, Katharina Kastner, Florian Naegele, Mark Ringenberg, John Boas, Jie Zhang, Alan Bond, Timo Jacob, Carsten Streb
Low valent iron centers are critical intermediates in chemical and bio-chemical processes. Here, we show the first example of a low-valent FeI center stabilized in a high-valent polyoxometalate framework. Electrochemical studies show that the FeIII-functionalized molecular vanadium(V) oxide (DMA)[FeIIIClVV12O32Cl]3- (DMA - dimethyl ammonium) features two well-defined, reversible, iron-based electrochemical reductions which cleanly yield the FeI species (DMA)[FeIClVV12O32Cl]5-. Experimental and theoretical studies including electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory computations verify the formation of the FeI species...
September 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Elyar Sedaghati, Henri M J Boffin, Ryan J MacDonald, Siddharth Gandhi, Nikku Madhusudhan, Neale P Gibson, Mahmoudreza Oshagh, Antonio Claret, Heike Rauer
As an exoplanet transits its host star, some of the light from the star is absorbed by the atoms and molecules in the planet's atmosphere, causing the planet to seem bigger; plotting the planet's observed size as a function of the wavelength of the light produces a transmission spectrum. Measuring the tiny variations in the transmission spectrum, together with atmospheric modelling, then gives clues to the properties of the exoplanet's atmosphere. Chemical species composed of light elements-such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sodium and potassium-have in this way been detected in the atmospheres of several hot giant exoplanets, but molecules composed of heavier elements have thus far proved elusive...
September 13, 2017: Nature
Gongde Chen, Haizhou Liu
Vanadium(V) is an emerging contaminant in the most recent EPA's candidate contaminant list (CCL4). The redox chemistry of vanadium controls its occurrence in the aquatic environment, but the impact of vanadium(V) speciation on its redox properties remains largely unknown. This study developed electrochemical techniques with a rotating ring disk electrode to examine the reduction kinetics of four pH-dependent vanadium(V) species in the presence and absence of phosphate. Results showed that the reduction of VO2+, HxV4O12+x(4+x)- (V4) and HVO42- proceeded via a one-electron transfer, while the reduction of NaxHyV10O28(6-x-y)- (V10) underwent a two-electron transfer process...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
María J Aragón, Pedro Lavela, Gregorio F Ortiz, Ricardo Alcántara, José L Tirado
A slight deviation of the stoichiometry has been introduced in Na3-3xV2+x(PO4)3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) samples to determine the effect on the structural and electrochemical behavior as a positive electrode in sodium-ion batteries. X-ray diffraction and XPS results provide evidence for the flexibility of the NASICON framework to allow a limited vanadium superstoichiometry. In particular, the Na2.94V2.02(PO4)3 formula reveals the best electrochemical performance at the highest rate (40C) and capacity retention upon long cycling...
September 13, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Bei Long, Muhammad-Sadeeq Balogun, Lei Luo, Yang Luo, Weitao Qiu, Shuqin Song, Lei Zhang, Yexiang Tong
Recently, researchers have made significant advancement in employing transition metal compound hybrids as anode material for lithium-ion batteries and developing simple preparation of these hybrids. To this end, this study reports a facile and scalable method for fabricating a vanadium oxide-nitride composite encapsulated in amorphous carbon matrix by simply mixing ammonium metavanadate and melamine as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. By tuning the annealing temperature of the mixture, different hybrids of vanadium oxide-nitride compounds are synthesized...
September 12, 2017: Small
Yuchen Gao, Jianguo Jiang, Sicong Tian, Kaimin Li, Feng Yan, Nuo Liu, Meng Yang, Xuejing Chen
Soil washing is an effective remediation method to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. However, it produces wastewater that contains large amounts of heavy metals, which lead to serious pollution. This study investigated the removal of vanadium (V) from synthetic soil washing effluent using BOF steel slag. The effects of particle size, slag dosage, initial pH, and initial vanadium concentration on removal behavior were studied. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms were also analyzed. The results showed that the vanadium removal efficiency increased as the steel slag particle size decreased and as the amount of slag increased...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hilary Afeseh Ngwa, Muhammet Ay, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Vanadium (V) is a transition metal that presents in multiple oxidation states and numerous inorganic compounds and is also an ultra-trace element considered to be essential for most living organisms. Despite being one of the lightest metals, V offers high structural strength and good corrosion resistance and thus has been widely adopted for high-strength steel manufacturing. High doses of V exposure are toxic, and inhalation exposure to V adversely affects the respiratory system. The neurotoxicological properties of V are just beginning to be identified...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Jinchao Li, Xiaodong Yuan, Suqin Liu, Zhen He, Zhi Zhou, Aikui Li
A novel side-chain-type fluorinated sulfonated polyimide (s-FSPI) membrane is synthesized for vanadium redox batteries (VRBs) by high-temperature polycondensation and grafting reactions. The s-FSPI membrane has a vanadium ion permeability that is over an order of magnitude lower and has a proton selectivity that is 6.8 times higher compared to those of the Nafion 115 membrane. The s-FSPI membrane possesses superior chemical stability compared to most of the linear sulfonated aromatic polymer membranes reported for VRBs...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Navjot Kaur, Shuchi Gupta, Neetu Goel
Metal catalyzed asymmetric oxidation of prochiral sulfides is one of the prevailing strategies to produce enantiopure sulfoxides. Keeping in view the reported reactivity of peroxo vanadium complexes towards asymmetric oxidation reactions, this study explores the reactivity of vanadia represented as a VO4 cluster with CH3-S-Ph through DFT computations. The mechanism of the oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides with unsupported VO4 is thoroughly investigated. The chiral centre in the VO4 cluster is introduced by grafting it on an SBA-15 support and two conformers of the supported cluster are thus obtained...
September 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Haidong Yao, Xia Zhao, Ruifeng Fan, Hamid Sattar, Jinxin Zhao, Wenchao Zhao, Ziwei Zhang, Yufeng Li, Shiwen Xu
Ion homeostasis plays important roles in development of metabolic diseases. In the present study, we examined the contents and distributions of 25 ions in chicken muscles following treatment with selenium (Se) deficiency for 25 days. The results revealed that in chicken muscles, the top ranked microelements were silicon (Si), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu) and boron (B), showing low contents that varied from 292.89 ppb to 100.27 ppm. After Se deficiency treatment, essential microelements [Cu, chromium (Cr), vanadium (V) and manganese (Mn)], and toxic microelements [cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)] became more concentrated (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
Jenna W J Wu, Ryoichi Moriyama, Motoyoshi Nakano, Keijiro Ohshimo, Fuminori Misaizu
Herein, the compositions and geometrical structures of niobium oxide cluster ions were studied and compared with those of the lighter Group 5 counterpart vanadium oxide cluster ions by ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). As a result of collision-induced dissociation in IM-MS, the compositions were found to be dependent on an odd and even number of niobium atoms, whereby the ions with (NbO2)(Nb2O5)(m-1)/2(+) and (NbO3)(Nb2O5)(m-1)/2(-) were identified as stable compositions for an odd number of Nb atoms, whereas (Nb2O5)m/2(±) and (Nb2O6)(Nb2O5)(m-2)/2(-) were identified as stable compositions for an even number of Nb atom clusters...
September 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jeremy P Coe, Nuno M S Almeida, Martin J Paterson
We investigate if a range of challenging spin systems can be described sufficiently well using Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) and the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) in a way that heads toward a more "black box" approach. Experimental results and other computational methods are used for comparison. The gap between the lowest doublet and quartet state of methylidyne (CH) is first considered. We then look at a range of first-row transition metal monocarbonyls: MCO when M is titanium, vanadium, chromium, or manganese...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Dean Fang, Xiang Liao, Xuefei Zhang, Aijun Teng, Xiangxin Xue
A novel resource utilization of the calcium-based semi-dry flue gas desulfurization ash is investigated. In the present study, the semi-dry desulfurization ash is used as a reductant for chromium and vanadium removal by chemical reduction precipitation, the byproduct gypsum and chromium-contained sludge are obtained. Besides, the effects of main operational parameters (reaction pH, desulfurization ash dosage and reaction time) on the heavy metal removal are investigated, and the main reaction mechanism for this treatment technology is also proposed...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
M Paula M Marques, Diego Gianolio, Susana Ramos, Luís A E Batista de Carvalho, Manuel Aureliano
EXAFS and XANES experiments were used to assess decavanadate interplay with actin, in both the globular and polymerized forms, under different conditions of pH, temperature, ionic strength, and presence of ATP. This approach allowed us to simultaneously probe, for the first time, all vanadium species present in the system. It was established that decavanadate interacts with G-actin, triggering a protein conformational reorientation that induces oxidation of the cysteine core residues and oxidovanadium (V(IV)) formation...
August 31, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Xing He, Napat Punpongjareorn, Weizheng Liang, Yuan Lin, Chonglin Chen, Allan J Jacobson, Ding-Shyue Yang
The complex phase transitions of vanadium dioxide (VO2) have drawn continual attention for more than five decades. Dynamically, ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) with atomic-scale spatiotemporal resolution has been employed to study the reaction pathway in the photoinduced transition of VO2, using bulk and strain-free specimens. Here, we report the UED results from 10-nm-thick crystalline VO2 supported on Al2O3(0001) and examine the influence of surface stress on the photoinduced structural transformation...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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