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Andrea Knöller, Christian P Lampa, Felix von Cube, Tingying Helen Zeng, David C Bell, Mildred S Dresselhaus, Zaklina Burghard, Joachim Bill
Nature has evolved hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with excellent mechanical properties. Inspired by nacre's architecture, a ternary nanostructured composite has been developed, wherein stacked lamellas of 1D vanadium pentoxide nanofibres, intercalated with water molecules, are complemented by 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The components self-assemble at low temperature into hierarchically arranged, highly flexible ceramic-based papers. The papers' mechanical properties are found to be strongly influenced by the amount of the integrated GO phase...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jie Jian, Xuejing Wang, Leigang Li, Meng Fan, Wenrui Zhang, Jijie Huang, Zhimin Qi, Haiyan Wang
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films with controlled thicknesses are deposited on c-cut sapphire substrates with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) buffer layers by pulsed laser deposition. The surface roughness of AZO buffer layers is varied by controlling oxygen pressure during growth. The strain in the VO2 lattice is found to be dependent on the VO2 thickness and the VO2/AZO interface roughness. The semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) properties of VO2 thin films are characterized and the transition temperature (Tc) is successfully tuned by the VO2 thickness as well as the VO2/AZO interface roughness...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tao Liu, Xianfeng Li, Chi Xu, Huamin Zhang
Vanadium flow batteries (VFBs) have received high attention for large scale energy storage due to their advantages of flexibility design, long cycle life, high efficiency and high safety. However, commercial progress of VFBs has so far been limited by its high cost induced by its low power density. Ultrathin carbon paper is believed to be a very promising electrode for VFB since it illustrates super low ohmic polarization, however, is limited by its low electrocatalytic activity. In this paper, a kind of carbon paper (CP) with super high electrocatalytic activity was fabricated via a universal and simple CO2 activation method...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
D Mikhailova, N N Kuratieva, Y Utsumi, A A Tsirlin, A M Abakumov, M Schmidt, S Oswald, H Fuess, H Ehrenberg
The substitution of vanadium in vanadium dioxide VO2 influences the critical temperatures of structural and metal-to-insulator transitions in different ways depending on the valence of the dopant. Rhenium adopts valence states between +4 and +7 in an octahedral oxygen surrounding and is particularly interesting in this context. Structural investigation of V1-xRexO2 solid solutions (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) between 80 and 1200 K using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction revealed only two polymorphs that resemble VO2: the low-temperature monoclinic MoO2-type form (space group P21/c), and the tetragonal rutile-like form (space group P42/mnm)...
January 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Isabel Garcia-Pelaez, Silvana Cervantes-Yepez, Nelly Lopez-Valdez, Teresa I Fortoul
The thymus is a vital immune system organ wherein selection of T-lymphocytes occurs in a process regulated by dendritic and epithelial thymic cells. Previously, we have reported that in a mouse model of vanadium inhalation, a decrease in CD11c dendritic cells was observed. In the present study, we report on a thymic cortex-medulla distribution distortion in these hosts due to apparent effects of the inhaled vanadium on cytokeratin-5 (K5(+)) epithelial cells in the same mouse model - after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of exposure - by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Zhenhua Zhang, Hua Guo, Wenqiang Ding, Bin Zhang, Yue Lu, Xiaoxing Ke, Weiwei Liu, Fu-Rong Chen, Manling Sui
Controlling phase transition in functional materials at nano-scale is not only of broad scientific interest, but also important for practical applications in the fields of renewable energy, information storage, transducer, sensor, etc. As a model functional material, vanadium dioxide (VO2) has its metal-insulator transition (MIT) usually at a sharp temperature around 68 °C. Here we report a focused electron beam can directly lower down the transition temperature of a nano-area to room temperature without pre-patterning the VO2...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
Samo K Fokter, Andrej Moličnik, Rajko Kavalar, Primož Pelicon, Rebeka Rudolf, Nenad Gubeljak
BACKGROUND: Increased modularity in total hip arthroplasty (THA) through extra junction between the neck and the femoral stem is gaining popularity among orthopaedic community. However, the advantage of the additional junction is shadowed by an increased risk of mechanical failure. The aim of this study was to describe the exact mechanism of fracture of the modular femoral neck in an uncemented stem. METHODS: Clinical, metallurgical, and mechanical analysis including finite-element modelling and elemental-sensitive tissue analysis with the micro-PIXE method was performed on two patients treated with fully modular primary THA made from Titanium alloy of the same oval taper-cone design...
December 27, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Xuelong Sha, Wei Ma, Fanqing Meng, Ren Wang, Tian Fuping, Linsen Wei
  In this study, we explored an effective and low-cost catalyst and its adsorption capacity and catalytic capacity for Methyl Orange Fenton oxidation degradation were investigated. The catalyst was directly prepared by reuse of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) after saturated adsorption of vanadium (V) from waste SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) catalyst. The obtained catalyst was characterized by FTIR, XPS and the results showed that vanadium (V) adsorption process of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was non-redox reaction...
December 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Guangyu Wang, Baogang Zhang, Shuang Li, Meng Yang, Changcheng Yin
Toxic vanadium (V) and chromium (VI) often co-exist in wastewater from vanadium ore smelting and their reductions by bacterial strain Shewanella loihica PV-4 is realized simultaneously. After 27-d operation, 71.3% of V(V) and 91.2% of Cr(VI) were removed respectively, with citrate as organic carbon source. Enhancement of Cr(VI) bioreduction was observed with the suppressed V(V) reduction. V(IV) and Cr(III), the main reduction products, precipitated inside the organisms and attached on cell surfaces. Both membrane components containing cytochrome c and cytoplasmic fractions containing soluble proteins as well as NADH may contribute to these microbial reductions...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Barbora Piknova, Ji Won Park, Katelyn S Cassel, Cameron N Gilliard, Alan N Schechter
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the main regulator molecules in vascular homeostasis and also a neurotransmitter. Enzymatically produced NO is oxidized into nitrite and nitrate by interactions with various oxy-heme proteins and other still not well known pathways. The reverse process, reduction of nitrite and nitrate into NO had been discovered in mammals in the last decade and it is gaining attention as one of the possible pathways to either prevent or ease a whole range of cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular disorders that are thought to be associated with decreased levels of NO...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jie Yang, Yanguo Teng, Jin Wu, Haiyang Chen, Guoqiang Wang, Liuting Song, Weifeng Yue, Rui Zuo, Yuanzheng Zhai
A detailed assessment of vanadium contamination characteristics in China was conducted based on the first national soil pollution survey. The map overlay analysis was used to evaluate the contamination level of vanadium and the non-carcinogenic risk assessment model was calculated to quantify the vanadium exposure risks to human health. The results showed that, due to the drastically increased mining and smelting activities, 26.49% of soils were contaminated by vanadium scattered in southwest of China. According to Canadian soil quality guidelines, about 8...
December 13, 2016: Chemosphere
Tiina Leiviskä, Muhammad Kamran Khalid, Arja Sarpola, Juha Tanskanen
This study investigated the removal of vanadium from real industrial wastewater by using six iron materials: commercial iron sorbent (CFH-12), commercial mineral sorbent (AQM), blast furnace sludge (BFS), steel converter sludge (SCS), ferrochrome slag (FeCr) and slag from a steel foundry (OKTO). Batch tests revealed that CFH-12 (ferric oxyhydroxide) removed vanadium most efficiently, which was explained by its high iron content and the amorphous form of the iron, and that the sorption followed the Langmuir isotherm...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Jisheng Zhang, Hang Yang, Tingting Sun, Zhuqi Chen, Guochuan Yin
Dioxygen activation toward efficient catalysis at ambient temperature is still a big challenge for industrial oxidations, while it proceeds smoothly in nature. This work presents an example of that adding nonredox metal ions as Lewis acid can enhance dioxygen activation by oxidovanadium(IV) complex, [V(IV)(O)Cl(TPA)]PF6 (where TPA is tris-[(2-pyridy)methyl]amine), which leads to efficient hydrogen abstraction at ambient temperature, whereas, in the absence of a Lewis acid, the catalytic hydrogen abstraction of the oxidovanadium(IV) complex is very sluggish...
January 5, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Francesca Maria Kerton, Ali Issa Elkurtehi
A series of vanadium compounds supported by tetradentate amino-bis(phenolate) ligands were screened for catalytic reactivity in the reaction of propylene oxide (PO) with carbon dioxide, [VO(OMe)(O2NOBuMeMeth)] (1), [VO(OMe)(ON2OBuMe)] (2), [VO(OMe)(O2NNBuBuPy)] (3), and [VO(OMe)(O2NOBuBuFurf)] (4) (where (O2NOBuMeMeth) = MeOCH2CH2N(CH2ArO-)2, Ar = 3,5-C6H2-Me, tBu]; (ON2OBuMe) = -OArCH2NMeCH2 CH2NMeCH2ArO-, Ar = 3,5-C6H2-Me, tBu; (O2NNBuBuPy) = C5H4NCH2N(CH2ArO-)2, Ar = 3,5-C6H2-tBu2; (O2NOBuBuFurf) = C4H3OCH2N(CH2ArO-)2, Ar = 3,5-C6H2-tBu2)...
January 3, 2017: ChemSusChem
S Han, Y Ji, K Kim, S Choi, H Jung, S Park
PURPOSE: A diagnostics Multileaf Collimator (MLC) was designed for diagnostic radiography dose reduction. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate efficiency of shielding material for producing leaves of Multileaf collimator. MATERIAL & METHODS: The general radiography unit (Rex-650R, Listem, Korea) was modeling with Monte Carlo simulation (MCNPX, LANL, USA) and we used SRS-78 program to calculate the energy spectrum of tube voltage (80, 100, 120 kVp). The shielding materials was SKD 11 alloy tool steel that is composed of 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Christina McGahan, Sampath Gamage, Jiran Liang, Brendan Cross, Robert E Marvel, Richard F Haglund, Yohannes Abate
The appearance of stripe phases is a characteristic signature of strongly correlated quantum materials, and its origin in phase-changing materials has only recently been recognized as the result of the delicate balance between atomic and mesoscopic materials properties. A vanadium dioxide (VO2) single crystal is one such strongly correlated material with stripe phases. Infrared nano-imaging on low-aspect-ratio, single-crystal VO2 microbeams decorated with resonant plasmonic nanoantennas reveals a novel herringbone pattern of coexisting metallic and insulating domains intercepted and altered by ferroelastic domains, unlike previous reports on high-aspect-ratio VO2 crystals where the coexisting metal/insulator domains appear as alternating stripe phases perpendicular to the growth axis...
January 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
Mitchell S Kostich, Robert W Flick, Angela L Batt, Heath E Mash, J Scott Boone, Edward T Furlong, Dana W Kolpin, Susan T Glassmeyer
We describe screening level estimates of potential aquatic toxicity posed by 227 chemical analytes that were measured in 25 ambient water samples collected as part of a joint USGS/USEPA drinking water plant study. Measured concentrations were compared to biological effect concentration (EC) estimates, including USEPA aquatic life criteria, effective plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals, published toxicity data summarized in the USEPA ECOTOX database, and chemical structure-based predictions. Potential dietary exposures were estimated using a generic 3-tiered food web accumulation scenario...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Robert Benson, Octavia D Conerly, William Sander, Angela L Batt, J Scott Boone, Edward T Furlong, Susan T Glassmeyer, Dana W Kolpin, Heath E Mash, Kathleen M Schenck, Jane Ellen Simmons
The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Marina Pereira Dore, Cássia Farias, Cláudia Hamacher
The exploration and production of oil and gas reserves often result to drill cutting accumulations on the seafloor adjacent to drill locations. In this study, the detection of drilling influence on marine sediments was performed by meta-analytical comparison between data from pre- and post-drilling surveys undertaken in offshore Campos Basin, southeast of Brazil. Besides this overall appraisal on the geochemical variables, a multivariate assessment, considering only the post-drilling data, was performed. Among the variables, fines content, carbonates, total organic carbon, barium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, only barium, copper, and hydrocarbons were related to drilling impacts...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
M B Sreedhara, Jay Ghatak, B Bharath, Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao
Ultrathin epitaxial films (10 to 90 nm thick) of V2O5 have been grown on c-Al2O3 by atomic layer deposition using vanadyl acetylacetonate as the vanadium precursor along with oxygen plasma. Various process parameters have been optimised for the purpose, and excellent crystalline films could be obtained below 200 °C, with out the need for post-heat treatment. With a moderate temperature window, the process yields a growth rate of 0.45 Å /cycle. The films have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and other means...
December 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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