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Leon Fürtges, David Conradt, Michael A Schätzle, Shailesh Kumar Singh, Nada Kraševec, Tea Lanišnik Rižner, Michael Müller, Syed Masood Husain
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSDcl) from the filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata (teleomorph Cochliobolus lunatus) catalyzes NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductions of androgens and estrogens. Despite detailed biochemical and structural characterization of 17β-HSDcl, its physiological function remains unknown. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignment, phylogenetic studies, and the recent identification of the physiological substrates of the homologous MdpC from Aspergillus nidulans and AflM from Aspergillus parasiticus, we propose an anthrahydroquinone as the physiological substrate of 17β-HSDcl...
December 1, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Mary Vineetha, Seena Palakkal, K Sobhanakumari, M I Celine, V Letha
A 57 year healthy farmer with congenital nail pterygium presented with a verrucous growth on nail bed since 8 months. He was not diabetic and HIV rapid card test negative. Our clinical diagnosis was chromoblastomycosis but culture showed growth of curvularia species on two occasions and histopathology showed hyphal and yeast forms of the pigmented fungus. After excision biopsy patient was started on oral itraconazole. This case is reported due to rarity of verrucous cutaneous lesions caused by curvularia in immunocompetent individuals...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Dimphna Nneka Ezike, Catherine V Nnamani, Oluwatoyin T Ogundipe, Olushola H Adekanmbi
The ambient atmosphere is dominated with pollen and spores, which trigger allergic reactions and diseases and impact negatively on human health. A survey of pollen and fungal spores constituents of the atmosphere of Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria) was carried out for 1 year (June 1, 2011-May 31, 2012). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and abundance of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere and their relationship with meteorological parameters. Airborne samples were trapped using modified Tauber-like pollen trap, and the recipient solutions were subjected to acetolysis...
2016: Aerobiologia
Aditi Chhonkar, Deepti Kataria, Swagata Tambe, Chitra S Nayak
Phaeohyphomycosis is a chronic infectious condition caused by dematiaceous fungi which usually involve the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is characterised by papulonodules, verrucous, hyperkeratotic or ulcerated plaques, cysts, abscesses, pyogranuloma, non-healing ulcers or sinuses. In India, commonly associated genera are Exophiala, Phialophora, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fonsecaea and Alternaria. This condition involves the presence of brown-walled hyphal structures in the dermis and epidermis...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Lili Fan, Kehe Fu, Chuanjin Yu, Meng Wang, Hai Xia, Jianan Sun, Yaqian Li, Jie Chen
Trichoderma harzianum is well known to exhibit induced systemic resistance (ISR) to Curvularia leaf spot. We previously reported that a C6 zinc finger protein (Thc6) is responsible for a major contribution to the ISR to the leaf disease, but the types of effectors and the signals mediated by Thc6 from Trichoderma are unclear. In this work, we demonstrated that two hydrolases, Thph1 and Thph2, from T. harzianum were regulated by Thc6. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) study revealed that Thc6 regulated mRNA expression by binding to GGCTAA and GGCTAAA in the promoters of the Thph1 and Thph2 genes, respectively...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tae Jin An, Kyu Seop Shin, Narayan Chandra Paul, Young Guk Kim, Seon Woo Cha, Yuseok Moon, Seung Hun Yu, Sang-Keun Oh
Adlay seed samples were collected from three adlay growing regions (Yeoncheon, Hwasun, and Eumseong region) in Korea during 2012. Among all the samples collected, 400 seeds were tested for fungal occurrence by standard blotter and test tube agar methods and different taxonomic groups of fungal genera were detected. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Fusarium, Phoma, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Cochliobolus and Leptosphaerulina. Fusarium species accounted for 45.6% of all species found; and, with phylogenetic analysis based on the combined sequences of two protein coding genes (EF-1α and β-tubulin), 10 Fusarium species were characterized namely, F...
October 27, 2016: Toxins
Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ashima Dua, Swati Joshi, T Satyanarayana
Chitinase from the thermophilic mould Myceliopthora thermophila BJA (MtChit) is an acid tolerant, thermostable and organic solvent stable biocatalyst which does not require any metal ions for its activity. In order to produce high enzyme titres, reduce fermentation time and overcome the need for induction, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed under GAP promoter in the GRAS yeast, Pichia pastoris. The production medium supplemented with the permeabilizing agent Tween-20 supported 2-fold higher rMtChit production (5...
September 30, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Fuyuki Aoyama, Takahisa Miyamoto
Filamentous fungi were isolated from the indoor environment of a soft drink manufacturing plant and ordinary residences. The isolated strains were identified based on morphological observation and the nucleotide sequences of the region near the D2 region of the 26S rDNA. Three genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium) accounted for 48.1% of the fungal strains detected in the manufacturing plant and 75.3% in residences. A DNA array for identification of 15 genera and 26 species of filamentous fungi that were most frequently isolated from the manufacturing plant was developed...
2016: Biocontrol Science
P Balashanmugam, M D Balakumaran, R Murugan, K Dhanapal, P T Kalaichelvan
An attempt was made to synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles from ten different Cassia spp. Among them, Cassia roxburghii aqueous leaf extract supported the synthesis of highly efficient and stable AgNPs. The synthesis of AgNPs was optimized at different physico-chemical condition and highly stable AgNPs were synthesized with 1.0mL of C. roxburghii leaf extract, pH 7.0, 1.0mM AgNO3 and at 37°C. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XPS, DLS and ZETA potential. DLS and ZETA potential analysis, the average AgNPs size was 35nm and the zeta potential was -18...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Maria Tomaso-Peterson, Young-Ki Jo, Phillip L Vines, Federico G Hoffmann
A novel species of Curvularia was identified as a foliar pathogen of Cynodon dactylon (bermudagrass) and Zoysia matrella (zoysiagrass), two important warm-season turfgrasses in the southeastern United States. Field symptoms were conspicuous chocolate brown to black spots in turf of both species on golf course putting greens and fairways. Leaves of plants within these spots exhibited prominent, black eyespot lesions from which a darkly pigmented fungus was consistently isolated. The fungus produced gray- to black-olivaceous mycelium within 10 d on potato dextrose agar at 25 C but never produced conidia despite numerous attempts to induce them...
September 2016: Mycologia
Michaela S Stokholm, Ednar G Wulff, Elisabeth P Zida, Ibié G Thio, James B Néya, Romain W Soalla, Sylwia E Głazowska, Marianne Andresen, Henrik B Topbjerg, Birte Boelt, Ole S Lund
Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA...
October 2016: Microbiological Research
Serine Baydoun, Atia-Tul Wahab, Saira Bano, Rehan Imad, M Iqbal Choudhary
Structural transformation of anticancer drug exemestane (1) with fungi Cunninghamella blakesleeana (ATCC 8688A), Curvularia lunata (ATCC 12017), Aspergillus niger (ATCC 10549), and Gibberella fujikuroi (ATCC 10704) yielded eleven metabolites 2-12, in which 2 and 8 were identified as new. Their structures were characterized as 6-methylene-5α-androstane-3β,16β,17β-triol (2), 17β-hydroxy-6-methyleneandrosta-4-ene-3-one (3), 6α-spiroxirandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (4), 6-methyleneandrosta-4-ene-3,17-dione (5), 6β,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (6), 17β-hydroxy-6α-spiroxirandrost-1,4-diene-3-one (7), 17β-hydroxy-6α-hydroxymethylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one (8), 6α-hydroxymethylandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (9), 17β-hydroxy-6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,16-dione (10), 6α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (11), and 6α-hydroxymethylandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (12)...
November 2016: Steroids
Chunlan Wang, Juan Wu, Xiwu Zhu, Jishuan Chen
Ten dsRNA segments were extracted from Sclerotium hydrophilum isolate (HZ11). The isolation of virus-like particles contained 10 dsRNA segments with the same number and migration as those extracted directly from the fungal mycelia. Two of these dsRNA segments, dsRNA2 and dsRNA7, were cloned and sequenced. They were 2121 and 1953 bp, respectively. The dsRNA2 encodes a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The dsRNA7 contains two open reading frames that encode putative proteins of unknown functions. Phylogenetic analysis of the putative proteins indicated that they are closely related to protein encoded by unclassified viruses, such as Cryphonectria parasitica bipartite mycovirus 1, Lactarius rufus RNA virus 1, Penicillium aurantiogriseum bipartite virus 1, and Curvularia thermal tolerance virus...
July 29, 2016: Virus Genes
Ameer Basha Shaik, Sajeli Begum Ahil, Ragavendra Govardhanam, Mahibalan Senthi, Rukaiyya Khan, Ravi Sojitra, Santhosh Kumar, Asalla Srinivas
In this study, investigation was carried out under in vitro as well as field conditions to explore inhibitors of sorghum grain mold. Phytochemicals, viz., methyl trans-p-coumarate (AIC-1), methyl caffeate (AIC-2), syringic acid (AIC-3), and ursolic acid (UA), at different concentrations (500, 750, and 1000 ppm) were tested on spore germination of Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, F. pallidoroseum, and Helminthosporium sp. Significant growth inhibition (P < 0.001) was observed against all fungi except A...
September 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Efaq Ali Noman, A A Al-Gheethi, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman, H Nagao, M O Ab Kadir
The study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in Penang Malaysia. Different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. One hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. They were purified by using single spore isolation technique. Subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on morphological and culture characteristics on different culture media...
October 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ana V Basso, Viviana E Nicotra, Andrés Parra, Antonio Martínez, Antonia Fernández-Vivas
Incubation of salpichrolide A (1) with Rhizomucor miehei produced hydroxylation in rings B and C (C-7 and C-12) and led to C-5-C-6 epoxide opening, while incubation of salpichrolides C (2) and G (3) with R. miehei led to epoxide opening at the C-24-C-25 and C-5-C-6 positions, respectively. Biotransformation of salpichrolide A (1) with Cunninghamella elegans produced stereoselective hydroxylated, oxidized, and reduced derivatives in different positions of the A, B, and C rings and C-5-C-6 epoxide opening. In addition, selective epoxide opening at the C-5-C-6 or C-24-C-25 positions was obtained from the incubation of salpichrolide A (1) with Curvularia lunata...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Akbar Eslami, Fatemeh Karimi, Zainab Karimi, Zahra Rajabi
INTRODUCTION: Bioaerosols are agents that can cause infection, allergy or induce other toxic effects in the human body. If the person exposed to such particles is not capable of their destruction or elimination from the body, the established chemical and physiological disorders can result in disease or death. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of bioaerosols in several wards of a teaching hospital. METHODS: Given that gas air-conditioners (split and window types) were used for ventilation in the eye operating room, internal intensive care unit, and the respiratory isolation room, these wards were selected for passive sampling...
April 2016: Electronic Physician
Shiv S Pandey, Sucheta Singh, C S Vivek Babu, Karuna Shanker, N K Srivastava, Ashutosh K Shukla, Alok Kalra
Not much is known about the mechanism of endophyte-mediated induction of secondary metabolite production in Catharanthus roseus. In the present study two fungal endophytes, Curvularia sp. CATDLF5 and Choanephora infundibulifera CATDLF6 were isolated from the leaves of the plant that were found to enhance vindoline content by 229-403%. The isolated endophytes did not affect the primary metabolism of the plant as the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, net CO2 assimilation, plant biomass and starch content of endophyte-inoculated plants was similar to endophyte-free control plants...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alan Couttolenc, Cesar Espinoza, José J Fernández, Manuel Norte, Gabriela B Plata, José M Padrón, Alla Shnyreva, Ángel Trigos
CONTEXT: It is well known that marine fungi are an excellent source of biologically active secondary metabolites, and by 2011, it was reported that over 400 bioactive metabolites were derived from marine fungi. OBJECTIVE: This study establishes the basis for future research on antiproliferative compounds of marine endophytes inhabited in the Veracruz Reef System. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolation of the 34 fungal strains was carried out by microbiological method from samples of sponges, corals, and other biological material from the Veracruz Reef System...
August 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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