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Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ashima Dua, Swati Joshi, T Satyanarayana
Chitinase from the thermophilic mould Myceliopthora thermophila BJA (MtChit) is an acid tolerant, thermostable and organic solvent stable biocatalyst which does not require any metal ions for its activity. In order to produce high enzyme titres, reduce fermentation time and overcome the need for induction, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed under GAP promoter in the GRAS yeast, Pichia pastoris. The production medium supplemented with the permeabilizing agent Tween-20 supported 2-fold higher rMtChit production (5...
September 30, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Fuyuki Aoyama, Takahisa Miyamoto
Filamentous fungi were isolated from the indoor environment of a soft drink manufacturing plant and ordinary residences. The isolated strains were identified based on morphological observation and the nucleotide sequences of the region near the D2 region of the 26S rDNA. Three genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium) accounted for 48.1% of the fungal strains detected in the manufacturing plant and 75.3% in residences. A DNA array for identification of 15 genera and 26 species of filamentous fungi that were most frequently isolated from the manufacturing plant was developed...
2016: Biocontrol Science
P Balashanmugam, M D Balakumaran, R Murugan, K Dhanapal, P T Kalaichelvan
An attempt was made to synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles from ten different Cassia spp. Among them, Cassia roxburghii aqueous leaf extract supported the synthesis of highly efficient and stable AgNPs. The synthesis of AgNPs was optimized at different physico-chemical condition and highly stable AgNPs were synthesized with 1.0mL of C. roxburghii leaf extract, pH 7.0, 1.0mM AgNO3 and at 37°C. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XPS, DLS and ZETA potential. DLS and ZETA potential analysis, the average AgNPs size was 35nm and the zeta potential was -18...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Maria Tomaso-Peterson, Young-Ki Jo, Phillip L Vines, Federico G Hoffmann
A novel species of Curvularia was identified as a foliar pathogen of Cynodon dactylon (bermudagrass) and Zoysia matrella (zoysiagrass), two important warm-season turfgrasses in the southeastern United States. Field symptoms were conspicuous chocolate brown to black spots in turf of both species on golf course putting greens and fairways. Leaves of plants within these spots exhibited prominent, black eyespot lesions from which a darkly pigmented fungus was consistently isolated. The fungus produced gray- to black-olivaceous mycelium within 10 d on potato dextrose agar at 25 C but never produced conidia despite numerous attempts to induce them...
September 2016: Mycologia
Michaela S Stokholm, Ednar G Wulff, Elisabeth P Zida, Ibié G Thio, James B Néya, Romain W Soalla, Sylwia E Głazowska, Marianne Andresen, Henrik B Topbjerg, Birte Boelt, Ole S Lund
Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA...
October 2016: Microbiological Research
Serine Baydoun, Atia-Tul Wahab, Saira Bano, Rehan Imad, M Iqbal Choudhary
Structural transformation of anticancer drug exemestane (1) with fungi Cunninghamella blakesleeana (ATCC 8688A), Curvularia lunata (ATCC 12017), Aspergillus niger (ATCC 10549), and Gibberella fujikuroi (ATCC 10704) yielded eleven metabolites 2-12, in which 2 and 8 were identified as new. Their structures were characterized as 6-methylene-5α-androstane-3β,16β,17β-triol (2), 17β-hydroxy-6-methyleneandrosta-4-ene-3-one (3), 6α-spiroxirandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (4), 6-methyleneandrosta-4-ene-3,17-dione (5), 6β,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (6), 17β-hydroxy-6α-spiroxirandrost-1,4-diene-3-one (7), 17β-hydroxy-6α-hydroxymethylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one (8), 6α-hydroxymethylandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (9), 17β-hydroxy-6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,16-dione (10), 6α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (11), and 6α-hydroxymethylandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (12)...
November 2016: Steroids
Chunlan Wang, Juan Wu, Xiwu Zhu, Jishuan Chen
Ten dsRNA segments were extracted from Sclerotium hydrophilum isolate (HZ11). The isolation of virus-like particles contained 10 dsRNA segments with the same number and migration as those extracted directly from the fungal mycelia. Two of these dsRNA segments, dsRNA2 and dsRNA7, were cloned and sequenced. They were 2121 and 1953 bp, respectively. The dsRNA2 encodes a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The dsRNA7 contains two open reading frames that encode putative proteins of unknown functions. Phylogenetic analysis of the putative proteins indicated that they are closely related to protein encoded by unclassified viruses, such as Cryphonectria parasitica bipartite mycovirus 1, Lactarius rufus RNA virus 1, Penicillium aurantiogriseum bipartite virus 1, and Curvularia thermal tolerance virus...
July 29, 2016: Virus Genes
Ameer Basha Shaik, Sajeli Begum Ahil, Ragavendra Govardhanam, Mahibalan Senthi, Rukaiyya Khan, Ravi Sojitra, Santhosh Kumar, Asalla Srinivas
In this study, investigation was carried out under in vitro as well as field conditions to explore inhibitors of sorghum grain mold. Phytochemicals, viz., methyl trans-p-coumarate (AIC-1), methyl caffeate (AIC-2), syringic acid (AIC-3), and ursolic acid (UA), at different concentrations (500, 750, and 1000 ppm) were tested on spore germination of Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, F. pallidoroseum, and Helminthosporium sp. Significant growth inhibition (P < 0.001) was observed against all fungi except A...
September 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Efaq Ali Noman, A A Al-Gheethi, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman, H Nagao, M O Ab Kadir
The study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in Penang Malaysia. Different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. One hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. They were purified by using single spore isolation technique. Subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on morphological and culture characteristics on different culture media...
October 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ana V Basso, Viviana E Nicotra, Andrés Parra, Antonio Martínez, Antonia Fernández-Vivas
Incubation of salpichrolide A (1) with Rhizomucor miehei produced hydroxylation in rings B and C (C-7 and C-12) and led to C-5-C-6 epoxide opening, while incubation of salpichrolides C (2) and G (3) with R. miehei led to epoxide opening at the C-24-C-25 and C-5-C-6 positions, respectively. Biotransformation of salpichrolide A (1) with Cunninghamella elegans produced stereoselective hydroxylated, oxidized, and reduced derivatives in different positions of the A, B, and C rings and C-5-C-6 epoxide opening. In addition, selective epoxide opening at the C-5-C-6 or C-24-C-25 positions was obtained from the incubation of salpichrolide A (1) with Curvularia lunata...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Akbar Eslami, Fatemeh Karimi, Zainab Karimi, Zahra Rajabi
INTRODUCTION: Bioaerosols are agents that can cause infection, allergy or induce other toxic effects in the human body. If the person exposed to such particles is not capable of their destruction or elimination from the body, the established chemical and physiological disorders can result in disease or death. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of bioaerosols in several wards of a teaching hospital. METHODS: Given that gas air-conditioners (split and window types) were used for ventilation in the eye operating room, internal intensive care unit, and the respiratory isolation room, these wards were selected for passive sampling...
April 2016: Electronic Physician
Shiv S Pandey, Sucheta Singh, C S Vivek Babu, Karuna Shanker, N K Srivastava, Ashutosh K Shukla, Alok Kalra
Not much is known about the mechanism of endophyte-mediated induction of secondary metabolite production in Catharanthus roseus. In the present study two fungal endophytes, Curvularia sp. CATDLF5 and Choanephora infundibulifera CATDLF6 were isolated from the leaves of the plant that were found to enhance vindoline content by 229-403%. The isolated endophytes did not affect the primary metabolism of the plant as the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, net CO2 assimilation, plant biomass and starch content of endophyte-inoculated plants was similar to endophyte-free control plants...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alan Couttolenc, Cesar Espinoza, José J Fernández, Manuel Norte, Gabriela B Plata, José M Padrón, Alla Shnyreva, Ángel Trigos
CONTEXT: It is well known that marine fungi are an excellent source of biologically active secondary metabolites, and by 2011, it was reported that over 400 bioactive metabolites were derived from marine fungi. OBJECTIVE: This study establishes the basis for future research on antiproliferative compounds of marine endophytes inhabited in the Veracruz Reef System. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolation of the 34 fungal strains was carried out by microbiological method from samples of sponges, corals, and other biological material from the Veracruz Reef System...
August 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Wen Bo Han, Ai Hua Zhang, Xin Zhao Deng, Xinxiang Lei, Ren Xiang Tan
Curvularia sp. IFB-Z10, a white croaker-associated fungus, generates a skeletally unprecedented indolizine alkaloid named curindolizine (1), which displays an anti-inflammatory action in lipopolyssacharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with an IC50 value of 5.31 ± 0.21 μM. The enzymatic transformation test demonstrated that the unique curindolizine architecture was most likely produced by the regiospecific in-cell Michael addition reaction between pyrrole alkaloids, curvulamine, and 3,5-dimethylindolizin-8(5H)-one...
April 15, 2016: Organic Letters
Tong Liu, Yuying Wang, Bingchen Ma, Jumei Hou, Yazhong Jin, Youli Zhang, Xiwang Ke, Lianmei Tai, Yuhu Zuo, Kishore Dey
Ras is a small GTPase that regulates numerous processes in the cellular development and morphogenesis of many organisms. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the Clg2p gene of Curvularia lunata, which is homologous with the Ras protein. The Clg2p deletion mutant (ΔClg2p) had altered appressorium formation and conidial morphology and produced fewer, smaller lesions compared with the wild-type strain. When a dominant Clg2p allele was introduced into the mutant, all of these defective phenotypes were completely restored...
2016: Scientific Reports
Latiffah Zakaria, Muhamad Izham Muhamad Jamil, Intan Sakinah Mohd Anuar
Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp...
February 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Helena M B Oliveira, Cledir Santos, R Russell M Paterson, Norma B Gusmão, Nelson Lima
Filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems are known to (a) block water pipes; (b) cause organoleptic biodeterioration; (c) act as pathogens or allergens and (d) cause mycotoxin contamination. Yeasts might also cause problems. This study describes the occurrence of several fungal species in a water distribution system supplied by groundwater in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected from four sampling sites from which fungi were recovered by membrane filtration. The numbers in all sampling sites ranged from 5 to 207 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL with a mean value of 53 CFU/100 mL...
March 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Debarati Dey, Bodhisattwa Saha, Gaurab Sircar, Kavita Ghosal, Swati Gupta Bhattacharya
The worldwide prevalence of fungal allergy in recent years has augmented mining allergens from yet unexplored ones. Curvularia pallescens (CP) being a dominant aerospore in India and a major sensitiser on a wide range of allergic population, pose a serious threat to human health. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel allergens from CP in our present study. A cohort of 22 CP-sensitised patients was selected by positive Skin prick grade. Individual sera exhibited elevated specific IgE level and significant histamine release on a challenge with antigenic extract of CP...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nikita Chapurin, Cynthia Wang, David M Steinberg, David W Jang
Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
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