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Chengke Liu, Blake Cleckler, Mustafa Morsy
Curvularia protuberata , an endophytic fungus in the Ascomycota, provides plants with thermotolerance only when it carries a mycovirus known as Curvularia thermotolerance virus (CThTV), and forms a three-way symbiotic relationship among these organisms. Under heat stress, several genes are expressed differently between virus-free C. protuberata (VF) and C. protuberata carrying CThTV (AN). We developed an expression vector, pM2Z-fun, carrying a zeocin resistance gene driven by the ToxA promoter, to study gene functions in C...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Haibo Xiang, Tao Zhang, Xu Pang, Yuzhen Wei, Hongyu Liu, Yuqin Zhang, Baiping Ma, Liyan Yu
In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW), and a novel clean process to prepare diosgenin from DZW was developed. A total of 123 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from different plant tissues of DZW. Among them, the strain Fusarium sp. (CPCC 400709) showed the best activity of hydrolyzing steroidal saponins in DZW into diosgenin. Thus, this strain was used to prepare diosgenin from DZW by solid-state fermentation. The fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology, and a high yield of diosgenin (2...
May 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Akira Yoshimi, Sigenari Yamaguchi, Tomonori Fujioka, Kiyoshi Kawai, Katsuya Gomi, Masayuki Machida, Keietsu Abe
A novel cyclic peptide compound, KK-1, was originally isolated from the plant-pathogenic fungus Curvularia clavata . It consists of 10 amino acid residues, including five N -methylated amino acid residues, and has potent antifungal activity. Recently, the genome-sequencing analysis of C. clavata was completed, and the biosynthetic genes involved in KK-1 production were predicted by using a novel gene cluster mining tool, MIDDAS-M. These genes form an approximately 75-kb cluster, which includes nine open reading frames, containing a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Nazar, M S Khan, M Ijaz, A A Anjum, S Sana, E M N Setyawan, M I Saleem, I Ahmad
Toxigenic potential of different candidate fungi, isolated from rice straw feed of Degnala disease affected bovines was analyzed along with species, age, gender and seasonal prevalence. Of 1,536 cases, 104 (6.77%) showed positive signs with a significant association (p less than 0.05) between this disease and rice straw feeding, in buffaloes, and bovine aged over 1 year in the winter season. Complete blood count showed a marked increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and all white blood cells numbers, except lymphocytes in positive cases...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Karoon Sadorn, Siriporn Saepua, Nattawut Boonyuen, Tanapong Boonruangprapa, Pranee Rachtawee, Pattama Pittayakhajonwut
Eleven previously undescribed compounds, including cytosporanthraxanthone, xanthoquinodins A7-A10, ketoxanthoquinodin A6, xanthoquinodins B6-B8, and spiroxanthoquinodins A and B, and one synthetically known compound, 2-methoxy pinselin, as well as ten known compounds, including xanthoquinodins A4-A6, B4, and B5, chrysophanol, physcion, (4S)-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-α-tetralone, (4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (or isosclerone), and gonytolide C were isolated from the fungus Cytospora eugeniae BCC42696. Their chemical structures were determined based on the analysis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data...
April 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
Caiping Yin, Liping Jin, Feifei Sun, Xiao Xu, Mingwei Shao, Yinglao Zhang
Four metabolites ( 1 ⁻ 4 ), including a new macrolide, O -demethylated-zeaenol ( 2 ), and three known compounds, zeaenol ( 1 ), adenosine ( 3 ), and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol ( 4 ) were isolated and purified from Curvularia crepinii QTYC-1, a fungus residing in the gut of Pantala flavescens . The structures of isolated compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the corresponding data with those reported in the literature previously. The new compound 2 showed good phytotoxic activity against Echinochloa crusgalli with an IC50 value of less than 5 µg/mL, which was comparable to that of positive 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)...
April 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kai-Ge Xu, Yu-Mei Jiang, Yang-Kun Li, Qiao-Qiao Xu, Ji-Shan Niu, Xin-Xin Zhu, Qiao-Yun Li
Fungi associated with black point were isolated from three highly susceptible wheat genotypes in the North China Plain. The 21 isolates represented 11 fungal genera. The most prevalent genera were Alternaria (isolation frequency of 56.7%), Bipolaris (16.1%), and Fusarium (6.0%). The other eight genera were Curvularia , Aspergillus , Cladosporium , Exserohilum , Epicoccum , Nigrospora , Penicillium , and Ulocladium ; their isolation frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 4.8%. The pathogenicity of the isolates was individually assessed in the greenhouse by inoculating wheat plants with spore suspensions...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Yin Liang, Shuang-Fei Ran, Jayarama Bhat, Kevin D Hyde, Yong Wang, De-Gang Zhao
An undescribed Curvularia sp. was isolated from the leaf spot disease of Barbados Lily ( Hippeastrum striatum (Lam.) Moore). Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, 28S, GPD1 and TEF1 sequence data place nine strains of this species in the trifolii -clade, but they clustered together as an independent lineage with strong support. This species was morphologically compared with related species in the trifolii -clade. Based on differences in morphology and phylogeny, it is concluded that this species is a new taxon, introduced as Curvularia microspora sp...
2018: MycoKeys
Satish K Verma, Kathryn L Kingsley, Marshall S Bergen, Kurt P Kowalski, James F White
Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium , Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusarium blights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ), or annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum ...
March 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Shalini Singh, Ankita Shrivastav, Manisha Agarwal, Arpan Gandhi, Rahul Mayor, Lagan Paul
BACKGROUND: Scleral buckling is an established modality of treating retinal detachment. Being an external implant the buckle may be prone to infections. We report such a case with a delayed presentation and a rare etiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45 year old male presented with redness, foreign body sensation and discharge for one month in his right eye. The patient had undergone a retinal detachment surgery elsewhere 14 years back without any visual gain. Right eye demonstrated no perception of light and the best corrected visual acuity in the left eye was 6/6, N6...
February 9, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Aline Maria Alves Vilarinho Oliveira, Rômulo Maia de Alencar, Jhonatas Cley Santos Porto, Isla Rita Brito Fontenele Ramos, Iraci Salmito Noleto, Tanit Clementino Santos, Mitra Mobin
This quantitative and qualitative study aimed to evaluate the level of fungal contamination in aerosols dispersed by high rotation pens in dental clinics from Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. The data were collected during the attendance at two dental clinics. Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol were opened for 15 min in the following places: in front of the chair, on the partitions to the right and left of the chair, and in the neighboring workbench. The plates were incubated at room temperature to allow the fungal growth and subsequent species identification...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Pei Lv, Yiliang Chen, Zheng Zhao, Taozhong Shi, Xiangwei Wu, Jiaying Xue, Qing X Li, Rimao Hua
Emerging fungal phytodiseases are increasingly becoming a food security threat. Twenty-six new 3-acylthiotetronic acid derivatives were designed, synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for activities against Valsa mali, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium graminearum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Among the 26 compounds, 6f was the most effective against V. mali, C. lunata, F. graminearum, and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with median effective concentrations (EC50 ) of 4.1, 3.1, 3.6, and 4.1 μg/mL, respectively, while the corresponding EC50 were 0...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jin-Xin Gao, Jie Chen
The clpks18 gene was first cloned and identified in Curvularia lunata. It contains 6571 base pairs (bp) and an 6276 bp open reading frame encoding 2091 amino acids. The ClPKS18 deletion mutant displayed an albino phenotype, and almost lost the ability to product 5-(hydroxymethyl) furan-2-carboxylate (M5HF2C) toxin, implying that clpks18 gene in C. lunata is not only involved in 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin synthesis, but also relatively associated with M5HF2C toxin biosynthesis of the pathogen. The pathogenicity assays revealed that ΔClPKS18 was impaired in colonizing the maize leaves, which corresponds to the finding that ClPKS18 controls the production of melanin and M5HF2C in C...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Qinghui Wei, Min Zhao, Xiaoyan Li
Background: Chemical fungicides are widely used to control crop diseases, but these chemicals have adverse effects. They destroy the ecological environment and even have toxic effects on human beings. In this context, the development of botanical pesticides is relevant. One potential botanical pesticide is chelerythrine, a main alkaloid of Chelidonium majus L., which has high antitumor, fungistasis, and antiphlogosis bioactivity. Objective: This study was designed to present an ultrasonic extraction method for chelerythrine and spore germination experiments to inhibit pathogenic fungi...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Min Lv, Jingchun Ma, Qin Li, Hui Xu
A series of benzotriazole-azo-phenol/aniline derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities against six phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternate, Valsa mali, Botrytis cinerea, and Curvularia lunata. Among them, compounds IIf, IIn, and IIr showed a broad-spectrum of potent antifungal activities. Especially some compounds displayed 3.5-10.8 folds more potent activities than carbendazim against A. alternata and C. lunata. Notably, compounds IIc, IIm, and IIr exhibited good protective and therapeutic effects against B...
January 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Sanjay Srivastava, Arnab Roy Chowdhury, Sudarshan Maurya
A natural red dye which is produced by the tiny insects Kerria lacca while feeding on host trees is popularly known as lac dye. Lac dye is a mixture of at least five closely related pure compounds all being anthraquinone derivatives designated as laccaic acid A, B, C, D and E. Anthraquinones isolated from different natural sources and reported to have potent antimicrobial activity. The lac dye, which is also a mixture of anthraquinone derivatives, is expected to exhibit antifungal and antibacterial activity...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Eszter Judit Tóth, Éva Boros, Alexandra Hoffmann, Csilla Szebenyi, Mónika Homa, Gábor Nagy, Csaba Vágvölgyi, István Nagy, Tamás Papp
Interaction of the human monocytic cell line, THP-1 with clinical isolates of three Curvularia species were examined. Members of this filamentous fungal genus can cause deep mycoses emerging in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It was found that monocytes reacted only to the hyphal form of Curvularia lunata . Cells attached to the germ tubes and hyphae and production of elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 and a low level of TNF-α were measured. At the same time, monocytes failed to produce IL-6...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Laureana V Sobral, Kelly N Melo, Cleciana M Souza, Sílvio F Silva, Gilvania L R Silva, Andressa L F Silva, Katharine A A Wanderley, Idjane S Oliveira, Roberta Cruz
To the fungal microbiota the UFPE and biotechnological potential enzymatic and antimicrobial production. Air conditioned environments were sampled using a passive sedimentation technique, the air I ratio and the presence of aflatoxigenic strains evaluated for ANVISA. Icelles were to determine the enzymatic activity of lipase, amylase and protease metabolic liquids to determine antimicrobial activity. Diversity was observed in all CAV environments, CFU/m3 ranged from 14 to 290 and I/E ratio from 0.1 to 1.5. The of the fungal genera were: Aspergillus (50%), Penicillium (21%), Talaromyces (14%), Curvularia and Paecilomyces (7% each)...
2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Katty Ogata-Gutiérrez, Carolina Chumpitaz-Segovia, Jesus Lirio-Paredes, Mariella M Finetti-Sialer, Doris Zúñiga-Dávila
Bacteria isolated from soil and rhizosphere samples collected in Peru from Andean crops were tested in vitro and in vivo to determine their potential as plant growth promoters and their ability to induce systemic resistance to Alternaria alternata in tomato plants. The isolates were identified by sequencing their 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Test for phosphate solubilization, and indolacetic acid were also carried out, together with in vitro antagonism assays in dual cultures towards the plant pathogens Fusarium solani, A...
October 27, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Amal Al-Aboudi, Belal Muneeb Kana'an, Musa Abu Zarga, Saira Bano, Atia-Tul-Wahab, Kulsoom Javed, M Iqbal Choudhary
Derivatives of spironolactone (1), a diuretic and antihypertensive drug, were synthesized by using fungal cells for the first time. Ten different fungi were screened for their ability to biotransform 1, four of which were able to produce metabolites 2-8. Gibberella fujikuroi produced canrenone (2), 1-dehydrocanrenone (3), Curvularia lunuta provided compound 2, and 7α-thio-spironolactone (4), Fusarium lini yielded compounds 2, 3, 1β-hydroxycanrenone (5), 1α-hydroxycanrenone (6), 1-dehydro-15α-hydroxycanrenone (7), and 15α-hydroxycanrenone (8), while Aspergillus alliaceus was able to produce all the seven metabolites...
October 14, 2017: Steroids
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