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Environmental epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456074/histone-deacetylases-hdacs-as-therapeutic-target-for-depressive-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Paulina Misztak, Patrycja Pańczyszyn-Trzewik, Magdalena Sowa-Kućma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents approximately 40% of the disability caused by mental illnesses globally. The poorly understood pathophysiology and limited efficiency of pharmacological treatment (based primarily on the principles of the monoaminergic hypothesis) make depression a serious medical, public and socio-economical problem. An increasing number of studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (alterations in gene expression that are not due to changes in DNA sequence) in certain brain regions and neural circuits represent a key mechanism through which environmental factors interact with individual's genetic constitution to affect risk of mental disorders...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455658/receptor-tyrosine-kinases-rtks-in-breast-cancer-signaling-therapeutic-implications-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Ramesh Butti, Sumit Das, Vinoth Prasanna Gunasekaran, Amit Singh Yadav, Dhiraj Kumar, Gopal C Kundu
Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and driven by aberrant regulation of cell signaling pathways due to the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic changes. An array of growth factors and their receptors is involved in cancer development and metastasis. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) constitute a class of receptors that play important role in cancer progression. RTKs are cell surface receptors with specialized structural and biological features which respond to environmental cues by initiating appropriate signaling cascades in tumor cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453446/environmental-genetic-and-epigenetic-contributions-to-cocaine-addiction
#3
REVIEW
R Christopher Pierce, Bruno Fant, Sarah E Swinford-Jackson, Elizabeth A Heller, Wade H Berrettini, Mathieu E Wimmer
Decades of research on cocaine has produced volumes of data that have answered many important questions about the nature of this highly addictive drug. Sadly, none of this information has translated into the development of effective therapies for the treatment of cocaine addiction. This review endeavors to assess the current state of cocaine research in an attempt to identify novel pathways for therapeutic development. For example, risk of cocaine addiction is highly heritable but genome-wide analyses comparing cocaine-dependent individuals to controls have not resulted in promising targets for drug development...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448178/modification-of-the-association-between-antipsychotic-treatment-response-and-childhood-adversity-by-mmp9-gene-variants-in-a-first-episode-schizophrenia-cohort
#4
Nathaniel McGregor, Nicole Thompson, Kevin Sean O'Connell, Robin Emsley, Lize van der Merwe, Louise Warnich
Antipsychotics remain the most effective, and wide used option for ameliorating the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, inter-individual differences in treatment outcome are vast and suggest a role for genetic and environmental factors in affording favourable outcomes. A notable epigenetic relationship which has gained considerable traction in recent literature is the way in which the severity of childhood trauma can modify associations seen between genetic variation and antipsychotic treatment response. A potential mechanism of action which may facilitate this relationship is synaptic plasticity...
February 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444308/integration-of-multi-omics-techniques-and-physiological-phenotyping-within-a-holistic-phenomics-approach-to-study-senescence-in-model-and-crop-plants
#5
Dominik K Großkinsky, Syahnada Jaya Syaifullah, Thomas Roitsch
The study of senescence in plants is complicated by diverse levels of temporal and spatial dynamics as well as the impact of external biotic and abiotic factors and crop plant management. Whereas the molecular mechanisms involved in developmentally regulated leaf senescence are very well understood, in particular in the annual model plant species Arabidopsis, senescence of other organs such as the flower, fruit, and root is much less studied as well as senescence in perennials such as trees. This review addresses the need for the integration of multi-omics techniques and physiological phenotyping into holistic phenomics approaches to dissect the complex phenomenon of senescence...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436922/breast-cancer-family-history-and-allele-specific-dna-methylation-in-the-legacy-girls-study
#6
Hui-Chen Wu, Catherine Do, Irene L Andrulis, Esther M John, Mary B Daly, Saundra S Buys, Wendy K Chung, Julia A Knight, Angela R Bradbury, Theresa H M Keegan, Lisa Schwartz, Izabela Krupska, Rachel L Miller, Regina M Santella, Benjamin Tycko, Mary Beth Terry
Family history, a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, can have both genetic and environmental contributions. Shared environment in families as well as epigenetic changes that also may be influenced by shared genetics and environment may also explain familial clustering of cancers. Epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation, can change the activity of a DNA segment without a change in the sequence; environmental exposures experienced across the life course can induce such changes. However, genetic-epigenetic interactions, detected as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs; a...
February 13, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435587/a-disease-associated-microrna-cluster-links-inflammatory-pathways-and-an-altered-composition-of-leukocyte-subsets-to-noninfectious-uveitis
#7
Fleurieke H Verhagen, Cornelis P J Bekker, Marzia Rossato, Sanne Hiddingh, Lieuwe de Vries, Abhinandan Devaprasad, Aridaman Pandit, Jeannette Ossewaarde-van Norel, Ninette Ten Dam, Maartje C A Moret-Pot, Saskia M Imhof, Joke H de Boer, Timothy R D J Radstake, Jonas J W Kuiper
Purpose: The cause of noninfectious uveitis (NIU) is poorly understood but is considered to be mediated by a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and-relatively unexplored-epigenetic factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding small RNAs that are important epigenetic regulators implicated in pathologic signaling. Therefore, we mapped the circulating miRNA-ome of NIU patients and studied miRNA perturbations within the broader context of the immune system. Methods: We designed a strategy to robustly identify changes in the miRNA profiles of two independent cohorts totaling 54 untreated patients with active and eye-restricted disease and 26 age-matched controls...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434904/epigenetic-actions-of-environmental-factors-and-promising-drugs-for-cancer-therapy
#8
Zhong-Tian Bai, Bing Bai, Jun Zhu, Cui-Xia Di, Xun Li, Wen-Ce Zhou
Carcinogenesis is known to be primarily associated with gene mutations. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that epigenetic events also serve crucial roles in tumor etiology. Environmental factors, including nutrition, toxicants and ethanol, are involved in carcinogenesis through inducing epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, histone deacetylase and miRNA regulation. Studying epigenetic mechanisms has facilitated the development of early diagnostic strategies and potential therapeutic avenues...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433637/-atopic-dermatitis-physiopathology
#9
J Waton
Our understanding of the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis has much improved over the recent years. Epidermal barrier alterations are integrated into 2 theories called inside out and outside in. They are related to complex immune abnormalities. Understanding their mechanism makes it possible to foresee new therapeutics. Moreover, environmental biodiversity, the diversity of cutaneous microbiota and genetic predispositions in atopic dermatitis lead to a new, more comprehensive theory, « the biodiversity theory », integrating epigenetics...
December 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430824/dna-methylation-analyses-of-the-candidate-genes-identified-by-a-methylome-wide-association-study-revealed-common-epigenetic-alterations-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#10
Hiroko Sugawara, Yui Murata, Tempei Ikegame, Rie Sawamura, Shota Shimanaga, Yusuke Takeoka, Takeo Saito, Masashi Ikeda, Akane Yoshikawa, Fumichika Nishimura, Yoshiya Kawamura, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Tsukasa Sasaki, Nakao Iwata, Mamoru Hashimoto, Kiyoto Kasai, Tadafumi Kato, Miki Bundo, Kazuya Iwamoto
AIM: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have been known to share genetic and environmental risk factors, and complex gene-environmental interactions may contribute to their pathophysiology. In contrast to high genetic overlap between SZ and BD, as revealed by genome-wide association studies, the extent of epigenetic overlap remains largely unknown. In the present study, we explore if SZ and BD share epigenetic risk factors in the same manner as they share genetic components...
February 11, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429127/tissue-and-strain-specific-effects-of-a-genotoxic-carcinogen-1-3-butadiene-on-chromatin-and-transcription
#11
Jennifer W Israel, Grace A Chappell, Jeremy M Simon, Sebastian Pott, Alexias Safi, Lauren Lewis, Paul Cotney, Hala S Boulos, Wanda Bodnar, Jason D Lieb, Gregory E Crawford, Terrence S Furey, Ivan Rusyn
Epigenetic effects of environmental chemicals are under intense investigation to fill existing knowledge gaps between environmental/occupational exposures and adverse health outcomes. Chromatin accessibility is one prominent mechanism of epigenetic control of transcription, and understanding of the chemical effects on both could inform the causal role of epigenetic alterations in disease mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that baseline variability in chromatin organization and transcription profiles among various tissues and mouse strains influence the outcome of exposure to the DNA damaging chemical 1,3-butadiene...
February 10, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426121/the-impact-of-human-activities-and-lifestyles-on-the-interlinked-microbiota-and-health-of-humans-and-of-ecosystems
#12
REVIEW
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425818/dna-methylation-of-the-klf14-gene-region-on-whole-blood-provide-prediction-for-the-chronic-inflammation-at-the-adipose-tissue
#13
Chihiro Iwaya, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Ken Yamamoto, Yasutaka Maeda, Noriyuki Sonoda, Hiroki Shibata, Toyoshi Inoguchi
Krüppel-Like Factor 14 (KLF14) gene, which appears to be a master regulator of gene expression on the adipose tissue and have previously been associated with BMI and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) by large GWAS studies. In order to find predictive biomarkers for the development of T2D, it is necessary to take into account changes in the epigenome affected by environmental factors. This study focused on aging and obesity, which are T2D risk factor, and examines epigenetic changes and inflammatory changes. Thus we investigated DNA methylation change at Klf14 promoter region of different organs using mice for comparing aging and weight...
February 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425374/an-epigenome-wide-association-study-of-dna-methylation-and-an-integrated-genetic-and-epigenetic-approach-for-narcolepsy
#14
Mihoko Shimada, Taku Miyagawa, Hiromi Toyoda, Katsushi Tokunaga, Makoto Honda
Narcolepsy with cataplexy, which is a hypersomnia characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Several genetic factors including HLA-DQB1*06:02 have been identified, however the disease etiology is still unclear. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Here we examined DNA methylation profiles of blood samples from narcolepsy and healthy control individuals, and performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) to investigate methylation loci associated with narcolepsy...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423662/environmental-exposures-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-what-role-does-the-gut-immune-brain-axis-play
#15
REVIEW
Shannon Delaney, Mady Hornig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422661/understanding-the-role-of-the-chromosome-15q25-1-in-copd-through-epigenetics-and-transcriptomics
#16
Ivana Nedeljkovic, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Lies Lahousse, Diana A van der Plaat, Kim de Jong, Judith M Vonk, Cleo C van Diemen, Alen Faiz, Maarten van den Berge, Ma'en Obeidat, Yohan Bossé, David C Nickle, Bios Consortium, Andre G Uitterlinden, Joyce J B van Meurs, Bruno C H Stricker, Guy G Brusselle, Dirkje S Postma, H Marike Boezen, Cornelia M van Duijn, Najaf Amin
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health burden in adults and cigarette smoking is considered the most important environmental risk factor of COPD. Chromosome 15q25.1 locus is associated with both COPD and smoking. Our study aims at understanding the mechanism underlying the association of chromosome 15q25.1 with COPD through epigenetic and transcriptional variation in a population-based setting. To assess if COPD-associated variants in 15q25.1 are methylation quantitative trait loci, epigenome-wide association analysis of four genetic variants, previously associated with COPD (P < 5 × 10 -8 ) in the 15q25...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421443/epigenetic-editing-how-cutting-edge-targeted-epigenetic-modification-might-provide-novel-avenues-for-autoimmune-disease-therapy
#17
Matlock A Jeffries
Autoimmune diseases are enigmatic and complex, and most been associated with epigenetic changes. Epigenetics describes changes in gene expression related to environmental influences mediated by a variety of effectors that alter the three-dimensional structure of chromatin and facilitate transcription factor or repressor binding. Recent years have witnessed a dramatic change and acceleration in epigenetic editing approaches, spurred on by the discovery and later development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a highly modular and efficient site-specific DNA binding domain...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421168/associations-of-urinary-phthalate-metabolites-and-lipid-peroxidation-with-sperm-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-deletions
#18
Alexandra M Huffman, Haotian Wu, Allyson Rosati, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia K Sites, Brian W Whitcomb, J Richard Pilsner
BACKGROUND: Phthalates, a chemical class of plasticizers, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been associated with oxidative stress. Mitochondria DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and DNA deletions (mtDNAdel) are emerging biomarkers for cellular oxidative stress and environment exposures. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of urinary phthalate metabolite and isoprostane concentrations on sperm mtDNAcn and mtDNAdel in male partners undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART)...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420714/the-dna-methylation-landscape-of-stickleback-reveals-patterns-of-sex-chromosome-evolution-and-effects-of-environmental-salinity
#19
David C H Metzger, Patricia M Schulte
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are a key component of dosage compensation on sex chromosomes and have been proposed as an important source of phenotypic variation influencing plasticity and adaptive evolutionary processes, yet little is known about the role of DNA methylation in an ecological or evolutionary context in vertebrates. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an ecological an evolutionary model system that has been used to study mechanisms involved in the evolution of adaptive phenotypes in novel environments as well as the evolution heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dosage compensation in vertebrates...
February 6, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416570/endurance-training-remodels-sperm-borne-small-rna-expression-and-methylation-at-neurological-gene-hotspots
#20
Lars R Ingerslev, Ida Donkin, Odile Fabre, Soetkin Versteyhe, Mie Mechta, Pattarawan Pattamaprapanont, Brynjulf Mortensen, Nikolaj Thure Krarup, Romain Barrès
Remodeling of the sperm epigenome by lifestyle factors before conception could account for altered metabolism in the next generation offspring. Here, we hypothesized that endurance training changes the epigenome of human spermatozoa. Using small RNA (sRNA) sequencing and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), we, respectively, investigated sRNA expression and DNA methylation in pure fractions of motile spermatozoa collected from young healthy individuals before, after 6 weeks of endurance training and after 3 months without exercise...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
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