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Environmental epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932783/influence-of-diet-and-metabolism-on-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-leukemia-development-following-ionizing-radiation-exposure
#1
Melis Karabulutoglu, Rosemary Finnon, Tatsuhiko Imaoka, Anna A Friedl, Christophe Badie
PURPOSE: The review aims to discuss the prominence of dietary and metabolic regulators in maintaining HSC function, long-term self-renewal and differentiation. RESULTS: Most adult stem cells are preserved in a quiescent, non-motile state in vivo which acts as a "protective state" for stem cells to reduce endogenous stress provoked by DNA replication and cellular respiration as well as exogenous environmental stress. The dynamic balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation is critical for supporting a functional blood system throughout life of an organism...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932347/the-epigenome-cell-cycle-and-development-in-toxoplasma
#2
Kami Kim
Toxoplasma gondii is a common veterinary and human pathogen that persists as latent bradyzoite forms within infected hosts. The ability of the parasite to interconvert between tachyzoite and bradyzoite is key for pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The transition between tachyzoites and bradyzoites is epigenetically regulated and coupled to the cell cycle. Recent epigenomic studies have begun to elucidate the chromatin states associated with developmental switches in T...
June 22, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932027/circulating-biomarkers-in-migraine-new-opportunities-for-precision-medicine
#3
Patrizia Ferroni, Piero Barbanti, Antonella Spila, Federica Fratangeli, Cinzia Aurilia, Luisa Fofi, Gabriella Egeo, Fiorella Guadagni
Background Migraine is the most common neurological disorder and the second most disabling human condition, whose pathogenesis is favored by a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, several efforts have been made to identify reliable biomarker(s) useful to monitor disease activity and/or ascertain the response to a specific treatment. Objective To review the current evidence on the potential biological markers associated with migraine. Methods A structured search of peer-reviewed research literature was performed by searching major publications databases up to December 2017...
June 22, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930742/multifactorial-analysis-of-the-stochastic-epigenetic-variability-in-cord-blood-confirmed-an-impact-of-common-behavioral-and-environmental-factors-but-not-of-in-vitro-conception
#4
D Gentilini, E Somigliana, L Pagliardini, E Rabellotti, P Garagnani, L Bernardinelli, E Papaleo, M Candiani, A M Di Blasio, P Viganò
Background: An increased incidence of imprint-associated disorders has been reported in babies born from assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, previous studies supporting an association between ART and an altered DNA methylation status of the conceived babies have been often conducted on a limited number of methylation sites and without correction for critical potential confounders. Moreover, all the previous studies focused on the identification of methylation changes shared among subjects while an evaluation of stochastic differences has never been conducted...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922517/transcriptional-regulation-of-metabolism-in-disease-from-transcription-factors-to-epigenetics
#5
Liam J Hawkins, Rasha Al-Attar, Kenneth B Storey
Every cell in an individual has largely the same genomic sequence and yet cells in different tissues can present widely different phenotypes. This variation arises because each cell expresses a specific subset of genomic instructions. Control over which instructions, or genes, are expressed is largely controlled by transcriptional regulatory pathways. Each cell must assimilate a huge amount of environmental input, and thus it is of no surprise that transcription is regulated by many intertwining mechanisms...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922454/use-of-integrative-epigenetic-and-mrna-expression-analyses-to-identify-significantly-changed-genes-and-functional-pathways-in-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#6
A He, Y Ning, Y Wen, Y Cai, K Xu, Y Cai, J Han, L Liu, Y Du, X Liang, P Li, Q Fan, J Hao, X Wang, X Guo, T Ma, F Zhang
Aim: Osteoarthritis (OA) is caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of genes and are likely to regulate the OA transcriptome. We performed integrative genomic analyses to define methylation-gene expression relationships in osteoarthritic cartilage. Patients and Methods: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of articular cartilage from five patients with OA of the knee and five healthy controls was conducted using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, California)...
May 2018: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921868/nr3c1-hypermethylation-in-depressed-and-bullied-adolescents
#7
Paschalis Efstathopoulos, Filip Andersson, Philippe A Melas, Liu L Yang, J Carlos Villaescusa, Joëlle Rȕegg, Tomas J Ekström, Yvonne Forsell, Maria Rosaria Galanti, Catharina Lavebratt
The disruption of key epigenetic processes during critical periods of brain development can increase an individual's vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. For instance, DNA methylation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adulthood is known to be associated with early-life adversities and has been suggested to mediate the development of stress-related disorders. However, the association between NR3C1 methylation and the emergence of internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence has not been studied extensively...
June 19, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921775/the-type-3-deiodinase-epigenetic-control-of-brain-thyroid-hormone-action-and-neurological-function
#8
REVIEW
Arturo Hernandez, J Patrizia Stohn
Thyroid hormones (THs) influence multiple processes in the developing and adult central nervous system, and their local availability needs to be maintained at levels that are tailored to the requirements of their biological targets. The local complement of TH transporters, deiodinase enzymes, and receptors is critical to ensure specific levels of TH action in neural cells. The type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) inactivates THs and is highly present in the developing and adult brain, where it limits their availability and action...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920926/climate-change-exacerbates-pest-damage-through-reduced-pesticide-efficacy
#9
Maor Matzrafi
Pesticide efficacy is strongly associated with environmental conditions. Conditional resistance defined as a reduction in pesticide sensitivity under changed environmental conditions has been widely detected under climatic changes such as elevated temperatures and CO2 enrichment. Given the effects of environmental conditions on pesticide sensitivity, many of the putative resistance reports made by farmers may be due to pesticide application followed by non-optimal environmental conditions rather than the evolution of resistance...
June 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920826/evolution-of-heat-shock-protein-expression-underlying-adaptive-responses-to-environmental-stress
#10
Bing Chen, Martin E Feder, Le Kang
Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and their cognates are primary mitigators of cell stress. With increasingly severe impacts of climate change and other human modifications of the biosphere, the ability of the heat-shock system to affect evolutionary fitness in environments outside the laboratory and to evolve in response are topics of growing importance. Since the last major reviews, several advances have occurred. First, demonstrations of the heat-shock response outside the laboratory now include many additional taxa and environments...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920823/genome-wide-dna-methylation-signatures-of-infection-status-in-trinidadian-guppies-poecilia-reticulata
#11
Juntao Hu, Felipe Pérez-Jvostov, Léa Blondel, Rowan D H Barrett
Epigenetic modification, especially DNA methylation, can play an important role in mediating gene regulatory response to environmental stressors, and may be a key process affecting phenotypic plasticity and adaptation. Parasites are potent stressors with profound physiological and ecological effects on their hosts, yet it remains unclear how parasites influence host methylation patterns. Here, we used a well-studied host-parasite system, the guppy Poecilia reticulata and its ectoparasitic monogenean Gyrodactylus turnbulli to gain mechanistic insight into the dynamics of DNA methylation in host-parasite interactions...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920734/systemic-hormonal-modulation-induces-sperm-nucleosomal-imbalance-in-rat-spermatozoa
#12
Mandar Ankolkar, Sharvari S Deshpande, Nafisa H Balasinor
Sperm chromatin packaging is a very complex and highly regulated phenomenon. While most of the sperm chromatin is replaced by protamines, some are retained in nucleosomes. It is recently being recognised that these nucleosomes are intentionally retained and could be contributing to the expression of genes in the very early stages of embryogenesis. Endocrine disruption has been previously shown to affect reproductive outcome and sperm DNA methylation. This study aims to decipher the possibility of changes in nucleosome occupancy in sperm chromatin, induced by tamoxifen (selective oestrogen receptor modulator) and cyproterone acetate (androgen antagonist)...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920687/chromatin-based-mechanisms-of-temperature-memory-in-plants
#13
Thomas Friedrich, Léa Faivre, Isabel Bäurle, Daniel Schubert
For successful growth and development, plants constantly have to gauge their environment. While plants are capable to monitor their current environmental conditions, they are also able to integrate environmental conditions over time and store the information induced by the cues. In a developmental context, such an environmental memory is used to align developmental transitions with favorable environmental conditions. One temperature-related example of this is the transition to flowering after experiencing winter conditions, i...
June 19, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916014/an-epigenetic-spin-to-als-and-ftd
#14
Mark T W Ebbert, Rebecca J Lank, Veronique V Belzil
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are two devastating and lethal neurodegenerative diseases seen comorbidly in up to 15% of patients. Despite several decades of research, no effective treatment or disease-modifying strategies have been developed. We now understand more than before about the genetics and biology behind ALS and FTD, but the genetic etiology for the majority of patients is still unknown and the phenotypic variability observed across patients, even those carrying the same mutation, is enigmatic...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915335/recent-advances-in-vertebrate-and-invertebrate-transgenerational-immunity-in-the-light-of-ecology-and-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Olivia Roth, Anne Beemelmanns, Seth M Barribeau, Ben M Sadd
Parental experience with parasites and pathogens can lead to increased offspring resistance to infection, through a process known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). Broadly defined, TGIP occurs across a wide range of taxa, and can be viewed as a type of phenotypic plasticity, with hosts responding to the pressures of relevant local infection risk by altering their offspring's immune defenses. There are ever increasing examples of both invertebrate and vertebrate TGIP, which go beyond classical examples of maternal antibody transfer...
June 18, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913328/impact-of-environmental-conditions-and-chemicals-on-the-neuronal-epigenome
#16
REVIEW
Beatriz Del Blanco, Angel Barco
During development, chromatin changes contribute to establishing and maintaining the distinct gene-expression profiles of each individual cell type in a multicellular organism. This feat is especially remarkable in the human brain considering the sheer number of distinct cell types that make up this organ. This epigenetic programing is sensitive to environmental influences such as the presence of toxicants, diet, temperature, maternal behavior and many other external factors that can lead to sustained differences in neuronal gene expression...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909803/at-the-heart-of-programming-the-role-of-micro-rnas
#17
B Siddeek, C Mauduit, C Yzydorczyk, M Benahmed, U Simeoni
Epidemiological and experimental observations tend to prove that environment, lifestyle or nutritional challenges influence heart functions together with genetic factors. Furthermore, when occurring during sensitive windows of heart development, these environmental challenges can induce an 'altered programming' of heart development and shape the future heart disease risk. In the etiology of heart diseases driven by environmental challenges, epigenetics has been highlighted as an underlying mechanism, constituting a bridge between environment and heart health...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909200/epigenetic-control-of-variation-and-stochasticity-in-metabolic-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ilaria Panzeri, John Andrew Pospisilik
BACKGROUND: The alarming rise of obesity and its associated comorbidities represents a medical burden and a major global health and economic issue. Understanding etiological mechanisms underpinning susceptibility and therapeutic response is of primary importance. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic diseases are complex trait disorders with only partial genetic heritability, indicating important roles for environmental programing and epigenetic effects. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: We will highlight some of the reasons for the scarce predictability of metabolic diseases...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906262/exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-accelerated-dna-methylation-aging
#19
Jun Li, Xiaoyan Zhu, Kuai Yu, Haijing Jiang, Yizhi Zhang, Biqi Wang, Xuezhen Liu, Siyun Deng, Jie Hu, Qifei Deng, Huizhen Sun, Huan Guo, Xiaomin Zhang, Weihong Chen, Jing Yuan, Meian He, Yansen Bai, Xu Han, Bing Liu, Chuanyao Liu, Yanjun Guo, Bing Zhang, Zhihong Zhang, Frank B Hu, Wenjing Gao, Liming Li, Mark Lathrop, Catherine Laprise, Liming Liang, Tangchun Wu
BACKGROUND: Aging is related to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality and is affected by environmental factors. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with adverse health outcomes; but the association of such exposure with DNA methylation aging, a novel aging marker, is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association of PAH exposure with methylation aging. METHODS: We trained and validated a methylation age predictor suitable for Chinese populations using whole blood methylation data in 989 Chinese and 160 Caucasians...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905488/effects-of-interaction-between-drd4-methylation-and-prenatal-maternal-stress-on-methylphenidate-induced-changes-in-continuous-performance-test-performance-in-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Inkyung Shin, Bung-Nyun Kim
OBJECTIVES: Environmental factors may interact with genetic factors via the epigenetic process, and this interaction can contribute to inter-individual variability in the treatment response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction effects between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) methylation and prenatal maternal stress on the methylphenidate (MPH) response of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This study was an 8-week open-label trial of MPH that included 74 ADHD youth...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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