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Environmental epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221570/neohormones-in-milk
#1
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Neohormone systems evolved specifically to regulate those mammalian traits, such as internal fertilization, pregnancy and lactation, which have proved to be central to the success, environmental independence, and adaptability of mammals as a vertebrate group. Neohormones such as oxytocin or relaxin are not only involved in the regulation of mammary gland development and function, but are also significant components of milk itself. Particularly for the latter hormone, it has been shown for the pig that relaxin in the first milk is taken up by the gastrointestinal tract of the offspring, enters the neonatal circulation and can have specific physiological and epigenetic effects on target organs such as the female reproductive system...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218402/linking-inter-individual-variability-to-endocrine-disruptors-insights-for-epigenetic-inheritance
#2
Sarah E Latchney, Ashley M Fields, Martha Susiarjo
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can induce a myriad of adverse health effects. An area of active investigation is the multi- and transgenerational inheritance of EDC-induced adverse health effects referring to the transmission of phenotypes across multiple generations via the germline. The inheritance of EDC-induced adverse health effects across multiple generations can occur independent of genetics, spurring much research into the transmission of underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in the development of an organism and are responsive to environmental exposures...
December 7, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217223/temporal-variability-of-global-dna-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation-in-buccal-cells-of-healthy-adults-association-with-air-pollution
#3
Siemon De Nys, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Tim Nawrot, Peter Hoet, Bart Van Meerbeek, Kirsten L Van Landuyt, Lode Godderis
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are observed in response to environmental exposure and in the development of several chronic diseases. Consequently, DNA methylation alterations might serve as indicators of early effects. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the temporal variability of global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels in buccal cells from healthy adult volunteers. METHODS: Global DNA methylation (%5mdC) and hydroxymethylation (%5hmdC) levels in human buccal cells, collected from 26 healthy adults at different time points, were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS...
December 4, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216878/adaptive-phenotype-drives-resistance-to-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Nicoletta Ferrari, Ilaria Granata, Matteo Capaia, Marina Piccirillo, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Roberta Venè, Antonella Brizzolara, Andrea Petretto, Elvira Inglese, Martina Morini, Simonetta Astigiano, Adriana Agnese Amaro, Francesco Boccardo, Cecilia Balbi, Paola Barboro
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa), the second most common cancer affecting men worldwide, shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behaviour representing the epiphenomenon of an extreme heterogeneity. Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced forms but after few years the majority of patients progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form that poses considerable therapeutic challenges. METHODS: Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, invasion and reporter assays, and in vivo studies were performed to characterize androgen resistant sublines phenotype in comparison to the parental cell line LNCaP...
December 8, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214162/current-tissue-molecular-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-a-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Gaia Peluso, Paola Incollingo, Armando Calogero, Vincenzo Tammaro, Niccolò Rupealta, Gaetano Chiacchio, Maria Laura Sandoval Sotelo, Gianluca Minieri, Antonio Pisani, Eleonora Riccio, Massimo Sabbatini, Umberto Marcello Bracale, Concetta Anna Dodaro, Nicola Carlomagno
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most spread neoplasia types all around the world, especially in western areas. It evolves from precancerous lesions and adenomatous polyps, through successive genetic and epigenetic mutations. Numerous risk factors intervene in its development and they are either environmental or genetic. Aim of the Review: Alongside common screening techniques, such as fecal screening tests, endoscopic evaluation, and CT-colonography, we have identified the most important and useful biomarkers and we have analyzed their role in the diagnosis, prevention, and prognosis of CRC...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213996/gut-microbiota-epigenetic-modification-and-colorectal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Sama Rezasoltani, Hamid Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Hossein Dabiri, Reza Ghanbari, Mohammad Reza Zali
Micro-organisms contain 90% of cells in human body and trillions foreign genes versus less than 30 thousand of their own. The human colon host various species of microorganisms, appraised at more than 1014 microbiota and contained of over a thousand species. Although each one's profile is separable, the relative abundance and distribution of bacterial species is the same between healthy ones, causing conservation of each person's overall health. Germline DNA mutations have been attributed to the less than 5% of CRC occurrence while more than 90% is associated with the epigenetic regulation...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209557/line-1-in-response-to-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation
#7
COMMENT
Igor Koturbash
It is becoming increasingly recognized that Long Interspersed Nuclear Element, 1 (LINE-1), the most ubiquitous repetitive element in the mammalian genomes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of disease and in the response to exposure to environmental stressors. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic stressor, but it is capable of targeting the cellular epigenome as well. Radiation-induced alterations in LINE-1 DNA methylation are the most frequently observed epigenetic effects of exposure. The extent of this aberrant DNA methylation, however, strongly depends on a number of factors, including the type and dose of radiation...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205998/diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, Stavroula A Paschou, Nikolaos Marketos, Sofia Adamidi, Sotiris Adamidis, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) also named diabetic kidney disease (DN) is one of the leading causes of mortality in people with diabetes. The aim of this review is to update the medical literature, the theories behind its early natural history, the pathways of its pathogenesis, its diagnosis and treatment. Poor glycemic control, hyperlipidemia, smoking, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycated end products, environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors play an important role in the pathophysiological development of DN...
December 4, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203518/dna-methylation-in-epigenetic-inheritance-of-metabolic-diseases-through-the-male-germ-line
#9
Louise Rh Illum, Stine T Bak, Sten Lund, Anders Lade Nielsen
The global rise in metabolic diseases can be attributed to a complex interplay between biology, behavior and environmental factors. This article reviews the current literature concerning DNA methylation-based epigenetic inheritance (intergenerational and transgenerational) of metabolic diseases through the male germ line. Included are a presentation of the basic principles for DNA methylation in developmental programming, and a description of windows of susceptibility for the inheritance of environmentally induced aberrations in DNA methylation and their associated metabolic disease phenotypes...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203322/effects-of-in-ovo-exposure-to-benzo-k-fluoranthene-bkf-on-cyp1a-expression-and-promoter-methylation-in-developing-chicken-embryos
#10
Jonas Brandenburg, Jessica A Head
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are potent teratogens. Recent research suggests that early life exposure to PAHs can affect health outcomes later in life. Some of these latent responses may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. The role of DNA methylation in regulating responses to PAHs in birds is currently unknown. Here, we assess the effect of in ovo exposure to the model PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediated cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) gene expression and promoter methylation in chicken embryos...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203242/an-actin-based-nucleoskeleton-involved-in-gene-regulation-and-genome-organization
#11
Xin Xie, Piergiorgio Percipalle
In eukaryotic cells gene regulation is dependent on global genome organization. This is achieved, in response to favorable environmental conditions, through spatial redistribution of chromatin and changes in global epigenetic levels. This eventually drives movement of gene-rich chromatin loops and formation of DNA loops, consolidating neighborhoods of gene expression and silencing. One of the challenges for future work is to examine how these neighborhoods are formed and whether they host genes involved in the same cellular functions for sustained expression or silencing over time...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203226/innately-versatile-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-17%C3%A2-t-cells-in-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Pedro H Papotto, Annika Reinhardt, Immo Prinz, Bruno Silva-Santos
IL-17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells form a versatile subset of cells that respond rapidly to innate stimuli and support the pro-inflammatory functions of different myeloid and lymphoid lineages, being particularly critical in the early stages of inflammatory and autoimmune responses. In mice, under homeostatic conditions, these innate-like lymphocytes are pre-programmed in the fetal thymus, through an intricate process involving both T cell receptor-dependent and -independent signals, which allows them to readily produce IL-17 upon stimulation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202112/epigenetic-effects-of-environmental-chemicals-insights-from-zebrafish
#13
Neelakanteswar Aluru
Zebrafish have been extensively used for studying vertebrate development and modeling human diseases such as cancer. In the last two decades, they have also emerged as an important model for developmental toxicology research and, more recently, for studying the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). It is widely recognized that epigenetic mechanisms mediate the persistent effects of exposure to chemicals during sensitive windows of development. There is considerable interest in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms associated with DOHaD using zebrafish as a model system...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202007/epigenetic-advances-in-behavioral-and-brain-sciences-have-relevance-for-public-policy
#14
Tania L Roth
Nature and nurture work together to drive development, behavior, and health. Behavioral epigenetics research has uncovered the underlying mechanisms for how this happens. Children's early years in development may offer the greatest opportunity for environmental and experiential factors to influence epigenome (chemical compounds telling our genes what to do), but evidence suggests it is never too late. The policy implications of this research are vast, including relevance for child development, health, and disease intervention and prevention...
2017: Policy Insights From the Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198470/parental-advisory-maternal-and-paternal-stress-can-impact-offspring-neurodevelopment
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer C Chan, Bridget M Nugent, Tracy L Bale
Parental stress exposures are implicated in the risk for offspring neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, prompting critical examination of preconception and prenatal periods as vulnerable to environmental insults such as stress. Evidence from human studies and animal models demonstrates the influence that both maternal and paternal stress exposures have in changing the course of offspring brain development. Mechanistic examination of modes of intergenerational transmission of exposure during pregnancy has pointed to alterations in placental signaling, including changes in inflammatory, nutrient-sensing, and epigenetic pathways...
October 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197628/towards-the-application-of-precision-medicine-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
REVIEW
Raffaella Cascella, Claudia Strafella, Valerio Caputo, Valeria Errichiello, Stefania Zampatti, Filippo Milano, Saverio Potenza, Silvestro Mauriello, Giuseppe Novelli, Federico Ricci, Andrea Cusumano, Emiliano Giardina
The review essentially describes genetic and non-genetic variables contributing to the onset and progression of exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Italian population. In particular, AMD susceptibility within Italian population is contributed to by genetic variants, accounting for 23% of disease and non-genetic variants, accounting for 10% of AMD. Our data highlighted prominent differences concerning genetic and non-genetic contributors to AMD in our cohort with respect to worldwide populations...
November 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197086/methylation-of-oprl1-mediates-the-effect-of-psychosocial-stress-on-binge-drinking-in-adolescents
#17
Barbara Ruggeri, Christine Macare, Serena Stopponi, Tianye Jia, Fabiana M Carvalho, Gabriel Robert, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Nora C Vetter, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Wolfgang H Sommer, Georgy Bakalkin, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Gunter Schumann
BACKGROUND: Nociceptin is a key regulator linking environmental stress and alcohol drinking. In a genome-wide methylation analysis, we recently identified an association of a methylated region in the OPRL1 gene with alcohol-use disorders. METHODS: Here, we investigate the biological basis of this observation by analysing psychosocial stressors, methylation of the OPRL1 gene, brain response during reward anticipation and alcohol drinking in 660 fourteen-year-old adolescents of the IMAGEN study...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194997/piecing-together-cis-regulatory-networks-insights-from-epigenomics-studies-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
Shao-Shan Huang, Joseph Ecker
5-Methylcytosine, a chemical modification of DNA, is a covalent modification found in the genomes of both plants and animals. Epigenetic inheritance of phenotypes mediated by DNA methylation is well established in plants. Most of the known mechanisms of establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation have been worked out in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Major functions of DNA methylation in plants include regulation of gene expression and silencing of transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences, both of which have parallels in mammalian biology, involve interaction with the transcriptional machinery, and may have profound effects on the regulatory networks in the cell...
November 30, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190865/-c677t-snp-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-gene-and-breast-cancer-in-mexican-women
#19
Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ricardo Martín Cerda-Flores, Ana Lilia Castruita-Ávila, Juan Francisco González-Guerrero, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña
BACKGROUND: Low-penetrance susceptibility genes such as 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been considered in the progression of breast cancer (BC). Cancer is a result of genetic, environmental and epigenetic interactions; therefore, these genes should be studied in environmental context, because the results can vary between populations and even within the same country. The objective was to analyze the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the MTHFR C667T SNP in Mexican Mestizo patients with BC and controls from Northeastern Mexico...
November 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189349/role-of-epigenetics-and-dna-damage-in-asthma
#20
Adil S Zahiruddin, J Andrew Grant, Sanjiv Sur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although asthma is a common disease worldwide, its pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. There is increasing evidence of the interaction between epigenetics, DNA-damage, and environmental allergens in the development of asthma. In this review, we will focus on the role of epigenetics and DNA-damage in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: There is growing evidence of environmental allergens, particularly house dust mite, stimulating oxidative DNA damage in airway epithelial cells...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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