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Environmental epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666616/stem-cell-transcription-factor-foxo-controls-microbiome-resilience-in-hydra
#1
Benedikt M Mortzfeld, Jan Taubenheim, Sebastian Fraune, Alexander V Klimovich, Thomas C G Bosch
The aging process is considered to be the result of accumulating cellular deterioration in an individual organism over time. It can be affected by the combined influence of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors including life-style-associated events. In the non-senescent freshwater polyp Hydra , one of the classical model systems for evolutionary developmental biology and regeneration, transcription factor FoxO modulates both stem cell proliferation and innate immunity. This provides strong support for the role of FoxO as a critical rate-of-aging regulator...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666451/exploring-the-extent-and-scope-of-epigenetic-inheritance
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Radford
Environmental factors, particularly during early life, are important for the later metabolic health of the individual. In our obesogenic environment, it is of major socio-economic importance to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the risk of metabolic ill health. Increasing evidence from a variety of model organisms suggests that non-genetically determined phenotypes, including metabolic effects such as glucose intolerance and obesity, can be passed between generations, which encourages us to revisit heredity...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666409/exposure-to-phthalate-an-endocrine-disrupting-chemical-alters-the-first-trimester-placental-methylome-and-transcriptome-in-women
#3
N M Grindler, L Vanderlinden, R Karthikraj, K Kannan, S Teal, A J Polotsky, T L Powell, I V Yang, T Jansson
Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors and associated with decreased fecundity, pregnancy loss, and adverse obstetrical outcomes, however the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. Environmental factors can influence gene expression and cell function by modifying epigenetic marks, impacting the developing embryo as well as future generations of offspring. The impact of phthalates on placental gene methylation and expression is largely unknown. We studied the effect of maternal phthalate exposure on the human placental DNA methylome and transcriptome...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666116/critical-influences-on-the-pathogenesis-of-follicular-lymphoma
#4
Ralf Küppers, Freda K Stevenson
The development of follicular lymphoma (FL) from a founder B cell with an upregulation of BCL2, via the t(14;18) translocation, to a proliferating clone, poised to undergo further transformation to an aggressive lymphoma, illustrates the opportunistic Darwinian process of tumorigenesis. Protection against apoptosis allows an innocent cell to persist and divide, with dangerous accumulation of further mutational changes, commonly involving inactivation of chromatin-modifying genes. But this is not all. FL cells reflect normal B cells in relying on expression of surface Ig...
April 17, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662502/sex-dependent-effects-of-developmental-lead-exposure-on-the-brain
#5
REVIEW
Garima Singh, Vikrant Singh, Marissa Sobolewski, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Jay S Schneider
The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb) exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks for developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life. Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662485/our-environment-shapes-us-the-importance-of-environment-and-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-autoantibody-production
#6
REVIEW
Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661859/mitochondria-and-the-dynamic-control-of-stem-cell-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Pawel Lisowski, Preethi Kannan, Barbara Mlody, Alessandro Prigione
The maintenance of cellular identity requires continuous adaptation to environmental changes. This process is particularly critical for stem cells, which need to preserve their differentiation potential over time. Among the mechanisms responsible for regulating cellular homeostatic responses, mitochondria are emerging as key players. Given their dynamic and multifaceted role in energy metabolism, redox, and calcium balance, as well as cell death, mitochondria appear at the interface between environmental cues and the control of epigenetic identity...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655816/sex-specific-transcription-and-dna-methylation-profiles-of-reproductive-and-epigenetic-associated-genes-in-the-gonads-and-livers-of-breeding-zebrafish
#8
L V Laing, J Viana, E Dempster, T M Uren Webster, R van Aerle, J Mill, E M Santos
Reproduction is an essential process for life and is regulated by complex hormone networks and environmental factors. To date, little is known about the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the regulation of reproduction, particularly in lower vertebrates. We used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model to investigate the sex-specific transcription and DNA methylation profiles for genes involved in the regulation of reproduction and in epigenetic signalling in the livers and gonads. We found evidence for associations between DNA promotor methylation and transcription for esr1 (gonads and female livers), amh (gonads) and dnmt1 (livers)...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649576/epigenetic-alterations-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-an-overview
#9
Juliana Imgenberg-Kreuz, Johanna K Sandling, Gunnel Nordmark
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation of exocrine glands, mainly salivary and lacrimal glands. In addition, pSS may affect multiple other organs resulting in systemic manifestations. Although the precise etiology of pSS remains elusive, pSS is considered to be a multi-factorial disease, where underlying genetic predisposition, environmental factors and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to disease development. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs, may constitute a dynamic link between genome, environment and phenotypic manifestation by their modulating effects on gene expression...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649575/the-interaction-between-environmental-triggers-and-epigenetics-in-autoimmunity
#10
Bruce Richardson
Systemic lupus erythematosus flares when genetically predisposed people encounter environmental agents that cause oxidative stress, such as infections and sunlight. How these modify the immune system to initiate flares is unclear. Drug induced lupus models demonstrate that CD4+ T cells epigenetically altered with DNA methylation inhibitors cause lupus in animal models, and similar T cells are found in patients with active lupus. How infections and sun exposure inhibit T cell DNA methylation is unclear. DNA methylation patterns are replicated each time a cell divides in a process that requires DNA methyltransferase one (Dnmt1), which is upregulated as cells enter mitosis, as well as the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine, created from dietary sources...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649151/dna-methylation-and-histone-modification-in-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Shaunrick Stoll, Charles Wang, Hongyu Qiu
Systemic hypertension, which eventually results in heart failure, renal failure or stroke, is a common chronic human disorder that particularly affects elders. Although many signaling pathways involved in the development of hypertension have been reported over the past decades, which has led to the implementation of a wide variety of anti-hypertensive therapies, one half of all hypertensive patients still do not have their blood pressure controlled. The frontier in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying hypertension has now advanced to the level of epigenomics...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643765/mirna-long-term-response-to-early-metabolic-environmental-challenge-in-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#12
Charlotte Benoit, Soraya Doubi-Kadmiri, Xavier Benigni, Delphine Crepin, Laure Riffault, Ghislaine Poizat, Claire-Marie Vacher, Mohammed Taouis, Anne Baroin-Tourancheau, Laurence Amar
Epidemiological reports and studies using rodent models indicate that early exposure to nutrient and/or hormonal challenges can reprogram metabolism at adulthood. Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) integrates peripheral and central signals to adequately regulate energy homeostasis. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the control of gene expression of large regulatory networks including many signaling pathways involved in epigenetics regulations. Here, we have characterized and compared the miRNA population of ARC of adult male rats continuously exposed to a balanced metabolic environment to the one of adult male rats exposed to an unbalanced high-fat/high-carbohydrate/moderate-protein metabolic environment during the perinatal period and/or at adulthood that consequently displayed hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperleptinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643512/innate-immune-memory-in-the-brain-shapes-neurological-disease-hallmarks
#13
Ann-Christin Wendeln, Karoline Degenhardt, Lalit Kaurani, Michael Gertig, Thomas Ulas, Gaurav Jain, Jessica Wagner, Lisa M Häsler, Katleen Wild, Angelos Skodras, Thomas Blank, Ori Staszewski, Moumita Datta, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Vincenzo Capece, Md Rezaul Islam, Cemil Kerimoglu, Matthias Staufenbiel, Joachim L Schultze, Marc Beyer, Marco Prinz, Mathias Jucker, André Fischer, Jonas J Neher
Innate immune memory is a vital mechanism of myeloid cell plasticity that occurs in response to environmental stimuli and alters subsequent immune responses. Two types of immunological imprinting can be distinguished-training and tolerance. These are epigenetically mediated and enhance or suppress subsequent inflammation, respectively. Whether immune memory occurs in tissue-resident macrophages in vivo and how it may affect pathology remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to differential epigenetic reprogramming of brain-resident macrophages (microglia) that persists for at least six months...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642537/epigenetic-mechanisms-impacting-aging-a-focus-on-histone-levels-and-telomeres
#14
REVIEW
Shufei Song, F Brad Johnson
Aging and age-related diseases pose some of the most significant and difficult challenges to modern society as well as to the scientific and medical communities. Biological aging is a complex, and, under normal circumstances, seemingly irreversible collection of processes that involves numerous underlying mechanisms. Among these, chromatin-based processes have emerged as major regulators of cellular and organismal aging. These include DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and telomere regulation, including how these are influenced by environmental factors such as diet...
April 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642382/a-low-glycaemic-index-diet-in-pregnancy-induces-dna-methylation-variation-in-blood-of-newborns-results-from-the-rolo-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Aisling A Geraghty, Alexandra Sexton-Oates, Eileen C O'Brien, Goiuri Alberdi, Peter Fransquet, Richard Saffery, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
The epigenetic profile of the developing fetus is sensitive to environmental influence. Maternal diet has been shown to influence DNA methylation patterns in offspring, but research in humans is limited. We investigated the impact of a low glycaemic index dietary intervention during pregnancy on offspring DNA methylation patterns using a genome-wide methylation approach. Sixty neonates were selected from the ROLO (Randomised cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet to prevent macrosomia) study: 30 neonates from the low glycaemic index intervention arm and 30 from the control, whose mothers received no specific dietary advice...
April 6, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624291/neonatal-genistein-exposure-and-glucocorticoid-signaling-in-the-adult-mouse-uterus
#16
Shannon D Whirledge, Edwina P Kisanga, Robert H Oakley, John A Cidlowski
BACKGROUND: Female reproductive tract development is sensitive to the endocrine-disrupting potential of environmental estrogens. Early-life exposure to the dietary phytoestrogen genistein impairs fertility and persistently alters the transcriptome in the oviduct and uterus of rodents. Glucocorticoid signaling, which has recently been shown to be essential for normal fertility in the female mouse uterus, is antagonized by genistein. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine whether early-life exposure to genistein disrupts glucocorticoid signaling in the mouse uterus, which may contribute to infertility...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623456/use-of-5-azacytidine-in-a-proof-of-concept-study-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-pre-natal-and-post-natal-exposures-as-well-as-within-generation-persistent-dna-methylation-changes-in-daphnia
#17
Camila Gonçalves Athanasio, Ulf Sommer, Mark R Viant, James Kevin Chipman, Leda Mirbahai
Short-term exposures at critical stages of development can lead to delayed adverse effects long after the initial stressor has been removed, a concept referred to as developmental origin of adult disease. This indicates that organisms' phenotypes may epigenetically reflect their past exposure history as well as reflecting chemicals currently present in their environment. This concept has significant implications for environmental monitoring. However, there is as yet little or no implementation of epigenetics in environmental risk assessment...
April 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623448/recent-genetics-and-epigenetics-approaches-to-ptsd
#18
REVIEW
Nikolaos P Daskalakis, Chuda M Rijal, Christopher King, Laura M Huckins, Kerry J Ressler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following a life-threatening traumatic exposure, about 10% of those exposed are at considerable risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a severe and disabling syndrome characterized by uncontrollable intrusive memories, nightmares, avoidance behaviors, and hyperarousal in addition to impaired cognition and negative emotion symptoms. This review will explore recent genetic and epigenetic approaches to PTSD that explain some of the differential risk following trauma exposure...
April 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621424/oxidative-and-genotoxic-damages-in-plants-in-response-to-heavy-metal-stress-and-maintenance-of-genome-stability
#19
Subhajit Dutta, Mehali Mitra, Puja Agarwal, Kalyan Mahapatra, Sayanti De, Upasana Sett, Sujit Roy
Plants, being sessile in nature, are constantly exposed to various environmental stresses, such as solar UV radiations, soil salinity, drought and desiccation, rehydration, low and high temperatures and other vast array of air and soil borne chemicals, industrial waste products, metals and metalloids. These agents, either directly or indirectly via the induction of oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), frequently perturb the chemical or physical structures of DNA and induce both cytotoxic or genotoxic stresses...
April 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618057/lsd1-mediates-metabolic-reprogramming-by-glucocorticoids-during-myogenic-differentiation
#20
Kotaro Anan, Shinjiro Hino, Noriaki Shimizu, Akihisa Sakamoto, Katsuya Nagaoka, Ryuta Takase, Kensaku Kohrogi, Hirotaka Araki, Yuko Hino, Shingo Usuki, Shinya Oki, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Fumio Endo, Mitsuyoshi Nakao
The metabolic properties of cells are formed under the influence of environmental factors such as nutrients and hormones. Although such a metabolic program is likely initiated through epigenetic mechanisms, the direct links between metabolic cues and activities of chromatin modifiers remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) controls the metabolic program in myogenic differentiation, under the action of catabolic hormone, glucocorticoids. By using transcriptomic and epigenomic approaches, we revealed that LSD1 bound to oxidative metabolism and slow-twitch myosin genes, and repressed their expression...
March 29, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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