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Environmental epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092102/micrornas-potential-candidates-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Abdullah Moridikia, Hamed Mirzaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Jafar Salimian
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as the third common cancer worldwide and an important public health problem in different populations. Several genetics and environmental risk factors are involved in the development and progression of CRC including chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic alterations, and unhealthy lifestyle. Identification of risk factors and biomarkers could lead to a better understanding of molecular pathways involved in CRC pathogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulatory molecules which could affect a variety of cellular and molecular targets in CRC...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090662/adolescent-depression-linked-to-socioeconomic-status-molecular-approaches-for-revealing-premorbid-risk-factors
#2
Monica Uddin, Stefan Jansen, Eva H Telzer
The means by which social environmental exposures influence risk of mental disorders is a persistent and still open question. A key candidate mechanism for the biologic mediation of environmental effects involves epigenetic factors, which regulate gene function without altering underlying DNA sequence. Recent work has shown that environmental exposures such as childhood abuse, family history of mental disorder, and low socioeconomic status (SES) associate with differential DNA methylation (5mC) - a relatively stable, but modifiable, epigenetic factor...
January 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090287/transcription-factors-transcriptional-coregulators-and-epigenetic-modulation-in-the-control-of-pulmonary-vascular-cell-phenotype-therapeutic-implications-for-pulmonary-hypertension-2015-grover-conference-series
#3
REVIEW
Soni S Pullamsetti, Frédéric Perros, Prakash Chelladurai, Jason Yuan, Kurt Stenmark
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex and multifactorial disease involving genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Numerous stimuli and pathological conditions facilitate severe vascular remodeling in PH by activation of a complex cascade of signaling pathways involving vascular cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Multiple signaling cascades modulate the activity of certain sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) and coregulators that are critical for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression that facilitates PH-associated vascular cell phenotypes, as demonstrated by several studies summarized in this review...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089486/molecular-genetics-of-human-obesity-a-comprehensive-review
#4
Rajan Kumar Singh, Permendra Kumar, Kulandaivelu Mahalingam
Obesity and its related health complications is a major problem worldwide. Hypothalamus and their signalling molecules play a critical role in the intervening and coordination with energy balance and homeostasis. Genetic factors play a crucial role in determining an individual's predisposition to the weight gain and being obese. In the past few years, several genetic variants were identified as monogenic forms of human obesity having success over common polygenic forms. In the context of molecular genetics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach and their findings signified a number of genetic variants predisposing to obesity...
January 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087834/environmental-deflection-the-impact-of-toxicant-exposures-on-the-aging-epigenome
#5
Joseph Kochmanski, Luke Montrose, Jaclyn M Goodrich, Dana C Dolinoy
Epigenetic drift and age-related methylation have both been used in the literature to describe changes in DNA methylation that occurs with aging. However, ambiguity remains regarding the exact definition of both of these terms, and neither of these fields of study explicitly considers the impact of environmental factors on the aging epigenome. Recent twin studies have demonstrated longitudinal, pair-specific discordance in DNA methylation patterns, suggesting an effect of the environment on age-related methylation and/or epigenetic drift...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#6
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074555/pediatric-stress-from-neuroendocrinology-to-contemporary-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Stavroula Stavrou, Nicolas C Nicolaides, Elena Critselis, Christina Darviri, Evangelia Charmandari, George P Chrousos
BACKGROUND: Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis. A broad spectrum of extrinsic or intrinsic, real or perceived stressful stimuli, called "stressors", activates a highly conserved system, the "stress system", which adjusts homeostasis through central and peripheral neuroendocrine responses. Inadequate, excessive or prolonged adaptive responses to stress may underlie the pathogenesis of several disease states prevalent in modern societies. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073928/evidence-of-epigenetic-admixture-in-the-colombian-population
#8
Konrad Rawlik, Amy Rowlatt, María Carolina Sanabria-Salas, Gustavo Hernández-Suárez, Martha Lucía Serrano López, Jovanny Zabaleta, Albert Tenesa
DNA methylation (DNAm) measured in lymphoblastoid cell lines has been repeatedly demonstrated to differ between various human populations. Due to the role that DNAm plays in controlling gene expression, these differences could significantly contribute to ethnic phenotypic differences. However, because previous studies have compared distinct ethnic groups where genetic and environmental context are confounded, their relative contribution to phenotypic differences between ethnicities remains unclear. Using DNAm assayed in whole blood and colorectal tissue of 132 admixed individuals from Colombia, we identified sites where differential DNAm levels were associated with the local ancestral genetic context...
January 10, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070760/the-generation-r-study-design-and-cohort-update-2017
#9
Marjolein N Kooijman, Claudia J Kruithof, Cornelia M van Duijn, Liesbeth Duijts, Oscar H Franco, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Johan C de Jongste, Caroline C W Klaver, Aad van der Lugt, Johan P Mackenbach, Henriëtte A Moll, Robin P Peeters, Hein Raat, Edmond H H M Rings, Fernando Rivadeneira, Marc P van der Schroeff, Eric A P Steegers, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Frank C Verhulst, Eppo Wolvius, Janine F Felix, Vincent W V Jaddoe
The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life, childhood and young adulthood. This multidisciplinary study focuses on several health outcomes including behaviour and cognition, body composition, eye development, growth, hearing, heart and vascular development, infectious disease and immunity, oral health and facial growth, respiratory health, allergy and skin disorders of children and their parents...
December 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather E Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068485/obesity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-burden-drivers-and-emerging-challenges
#11
Nicole D Ford, Shivani A Patel, K M Venkat Narayan
We have reviewed the distinctive features of excess weight, its causes, and related prevention and management efforts, as well as data gaps and recommendations for future research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Obesity is rising in every region of the world, and no country has been successful at reversing the epidemic once it has begun. In LMICs, overweight is higher in women compared with men, in urban compared with rural settings, and in older compared with younger individuals; however, the urban-rural overweight differential is shrinking in many countries...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067316/long-term-exposure-to-a-safe-dose-of-bisphenol-a-reduced-protein-acetylation-in-adult-rat-testes
#12
Zhuo Chen, Xuezhi Zuo, Dongliang He, Shibin Ding, Fangyi Xu, Huiqin Yang, Xin Jin, Ying Fan, Li Ying, Chong Tian, Chenjiang Ying
Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical, induces epigenetic inheritance. Whether histone acetylation plays a role in these effects of BPA is largely unknown. Here, we investigated histone acetylation in male rats after long-term exposure to a 'safe' dose of BPA. Twenty adult male rats received either BPA (50 μg/kg·bw/day) or a vehicle diet for 35 weeks. Decreased protein lysine-acetylation levels at approximately ~17 kDa and ~25 kDa, as well as decreased histone acetylation of H3K9, H3K27 and H4K12, were detected by Western blot analysis of testes from the treated rats compared with controls...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067237/environmental-stresses-induce-transgenerationally-inheritable-survival-advantages-via-germline-to-soma-communication-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Saya Kishimoto, Masaharu Uno, Emiko Okabe, Masanori Nono, Eisuke Nishida
Hormesis is a biological phenomenon, whereby exposure to low levels of toxic agents or conditions increases organismal viability. It thus represents a beneficial aspect of adaptive responses to harmful environmental stimuli. Here we show that hormesis effects induced in the parental generation can be passed on to the descendants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Animals subjected to various stressors during developmental stages exhibit increased resistance to oxidative stress and proteotoxicity. The increased resistance is transmitted to the subsequent generations grown under unstressed conditions through epigenetic alterations...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061846/map4k4-and-il-6-th17-cells-play-important-roles-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Huai-Chia Chuang, Tse-Hua Tan
Obesity is a causal factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, people without obesity (including lean, normal weight, or overweight) may still develop T2D. Non-obese T2D is prevalent in Asia and also frequently occurs in Europe. Recently, multiple evidences oppose the notion that either obesity or central obesity (visceral fat accumulation) promotes non-obese T2D. Several factors such as inflammation and environmental factors contribute to non-obese T2D. According to the data derived from gene knockout mice and T2D clinical samples in Asia and Europe, the pathogenesis of non-obese T2D has been unveiled recently...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060197/identical-twins-discordant-for-metopic-craniosynostosis-evidence-of-epigenetic-influences
#15
Suresh N Magge, Kendall Snyder, Aparna Sajja, Tiffani A DeFreitas, Sean E Hofherr, Richard E Broth, Robert F Keating, Gary F Rogers
Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the cranial sutures, occurs in approximately 1 in 2500 live births. The genetic causes and molecular basis of these disorders have greatly expanded over the last 2 decades, with numerous causative and contributory mutations having been identified. The role of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) mutations in the etiology of certain eponymous forms of craniosynostosis is now well elucidated; the most common syndromes associated with craniosynostosis are Pfeifer (FGFR1, FGFR2), Apert (FGFR2), Crouzon (FGFR2), Saethre-Chotzen (TWIST1), Jackson-Weiss (FGFR2), Greig (GL13), and Muenke (FGFR3) syndromes...
January 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057210/epigenetic-changes-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#16
O Fogel, C Richard-Miceli, J Tost
The number of people diagnosed with chronic inflammatory diseases has increased noteworthy in the last 40 years. Spondyloarthritis (SpA), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and psoriasis are the most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small and long noncoding RNAs. They are influenced by environmental exposure, life-style, and aging and have recently been shown to be altered in many complex diseases including inflammatory diseases...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057208/chromatin-remodeling-in-monocyte-and-macrophage-activation
#17
J L Schultze
Increasing evidence collected during the last years supports the idea that monocyte and macrophage activation is not only associated with transcriptional changes but also changes in the chromatin landscape. Moreover, the introduction of a multidimensional model of macrophage activation allows a more precise description of monocytes and macrophages under homeostatic and pathophysiological conditions. Monocytes and macrophages are masters of integrating microenvironmental signals, thereby reshaping their chromatin landscape and as a consequence their transcriptional and functional programs...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056824/the-emerging-landscape-of-dynamic-dna-methylation-in-early-childhood
#18
Cheng-Jian Xu, Marc Jan Bonder, Cilla Söderhäll, Mariona Bustamante, Nour Baïz, Ulrike Gehring, Soesma A Jankipersadsing, Pieter van der Vlies, Cleo C van Diemen, Bianca van Rijkom, Jocelyne Just, Inger Kull, Juha Kere, Josep Maria Antó, Jean Bousquet, Alexandra Zhernakova, Cisca Wijmenga, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Jordi Sunyer, Erik Melén, Yang Li, Dirkje S Postma, Gerard H Koppelman
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been found to associate with disease, aging and environmental exposure, but it is unknown how genome, environment and disease influence DNA methylation dynamics in childhood. RESULTS: By analysing 538 paired DNA blood samples from children at birth and at 4-5 years old and 726 paired samples from children at 4 and 8 years old from four European birth cohorts using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k chip, we have identified 14,150 consistent age-differential methylation sites (a-DMSs) at epigenome-wide significance of p < 1...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055307/a-comparison-of-existing-global-dna-methylation-assays-to-low-coverage-whole-genome-bisulfite-sequencing-for-epidemiological-studies
#19
Florence K Crary-Dooley, Mitchell E Tam, Keith W Dunaway, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Janine M LaSalle
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark at the interface of genetic and environmental factors relevant to human disease. Quantitative assessments of global DNA methylation levels have therefore become important tools in epidemiology research, particularly for understanding effects of environmental exposures in complex diseases. Among the available methods of quantitative DNA methylation measurements, bisulfite sequencing is considered the gold standard, but whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has previously been considered too costly for epidemiology studies with high sample numbers...
January 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055272/rs12603332-is-associated-with-male-asthma-patients-specifically-in-urban-areas-of-lahore-pakistan
#20
Muhammad Farooq Sabar, Mariam Shahid, Iqbal Bano, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Muhammad Akram, Farheena Iqbal, Samra Kousar, Zafar Iqbal, Saba Altaf, Tayyab Husnain
OBJECTIVE: rs12603332, an important regulatory site variant, is known to alter the regulatory motif E2A that is involved in maturation of B-lymphocytes. The study was designed to check whether different environmental exposures alter its risk allele association with asthma or not. METHODS: 200 Physician diagnosed asthma patients and 108 healthy individuals were enrolled from hospitals of Lahore. After quantitation of DNA extracted from their peripheral blood samples, amplification of genomic region with rs12603332 was performed followed by single base extension...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
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