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Environmental epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028941/dysregulation-of-cortical-neuron-dna-methylation-profile-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Stefano Nardone, Dev Sharan Sams, Antonino Zito, Eli Reuveni, Evan Elliott
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome whose etiology includes genetic and environmental components. Since epigenetic marks are sensitive to environmental insult, they may be involved in the development of ASD. Initial brain studies have suggested a dysregulation of epigenetic marks in ASD. However, due to cellular heterogeneity in the brain, these studies have not determined if there is a true change in the neuronal epigenetic signature. Here, we report a genome-wide methylation study on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted neuronal nuclei from the frontal cortex of 16 male ASD and 15 male control subjects...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028630/ezh2-regulates-dental-pulp-inflammation-by-direct-effect-on-inflammatory-factors
#2
Tianqian Hui, Peng A, Yuan Zhao, Jing Yang, Ling Ye, Chenglin Wang
OBJECTIVE: Pulpitis is a multi-factorial disease that could be caused by complex interactions between genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors. We aimed to evaluate the role of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) in the inflammatory response of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and dental pulp tissues. METHODS: The expressions of inflammatory cytokines in HDPCs treated by EZH2 complex or EZH2 siRNA with or without rhTNF-α were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR)...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027833/trichostatin-a-and-5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-influence-the-expression-of-cold-induced-genes-in-arabidopsis
#3
Yuan Song, Lijun Liu, Gaopeng Li, Lizhe An, Lining Tian
The expression of cold-induced genes is critical for plants to survive under freezing stress. However, the underlying mechanisms for the decision of when, where, and which genes to express are unclear when a plant meets a sudden temperature drop. Previous studies have demonstrated epigenetics to play a central role in the regulation of gene expression in plant responses to environmental stress. DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are the two most important epigenetic modifications. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of inhibiting DNA methylation and histone deacetylation on gene expression, and to explore the potential role of epigenetics in plant responses to cold stress...
October 13, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026447/epigenome-alterations-in-aortic-valve-stenosis-and-its-related-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#4
REVIEW
Igor Gošev, Martina Zeljko, Željko Đurić, Ivana Nikolić, Milorad Gošev, Sanja Ivčević, Dino Bešić, Zoran Legčević, Frane Paić
Aortic valve stenosis is the most common cardiac valve disease, and with current trends in the population demographics, its prevalence is likely to rise, thus posing a major health and economic burden facing the worldwide societies. Over the past decade, it has become more than clear that our traditional genetic views do not sufficiently explain the well-known link between AS, proatherogenic risk factors, flow-induced mechanical forces, and disease-prone environmental influences. Recent breakthroughs in the field of epigenetics offer us a new perspective on gene regulation, which has broadened our perspective on etiology of aortic stenosis and other aortic valve diseases...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026446/dna-methylation-links-genetics-fetal-environment-and-an-unhealthy-lifestyle-to-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Emma Nilsson, Charlotte Ling
Type 2 diabetes is a complex trait with both environmental and hereditary factors contributing to the overall pathogenesis. One link between genes, environment, and disease is epigenetics influencing gene transcription and, consequently, organ function. Genome-wide studies have shown altered DNA methylation in tissues important for glucose homeostasis including pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue from subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with nondiabetic controls. Factors predisposing for type 2 diabetes including an adverse intrauterine environment, increasing age, overweight, physical inactivity, a family history of the disease, and an unhealthy diet have all shown to affect the DNA methylation pattern in target tissues for insulin resistance in humans...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024969/preconception-urinary-phthalate-concentrations-and-sperm-dna-methylation-profiles-among-men-undergoing-ivf-treatment-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Haotian Wu, Molly S Estill, Alexander Shershebnev, Alexander Suvorov, Stephen A Krawetz, Brian W Whitcomb, Holly Dinnie, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia K Sites, J Richard Pilsner
STUDY QUESTION: Are preconception phthalate and phthalate replacements associated with sperm differentially methylated regions (DMRs) among men undergoing IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ten phthalate metabolites were associated with 131 sperm DMRs that were enriched in genes related to growth and development, cell movement and cytoskeleton structure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several phthalate compounds and their metabolites are known endocrine disrupting compounds and are pervasive environmental contaminants...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024790/dna-methylation-and-potential-multigenerational-epigenetic-effects-linked-to-uranium-chronic-low-dose-exposure-in-gonads-of-males-and-females-rats
#7
REVIEW
G Elmhiri, C Gloaguen, S Grison, D Kereselidze, C Elie, K Tack, M Benderitter, P Lestaevel, A Legendre, M Souidi
INTRODUCTION: An increased health problem in industrialised countries is the contemporary concern of public and scientific community as well. This has been attributed in part to accumulated environmental pollutants especially radioactive substances and the use of nuclear power plants worldwide. However, the outcome of chronic exposure to low doses of a radionuclide such as uranium remains unknown. Recently, a paradigm shift in the perception of risk of radiotoxicology has emerged through investigating the possibility of transmission of biological effects over generations, in particular by epigenetic pathways...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021748/binge-like-sucrose-self-administration-experience-inhibits-cocaine-and-sucrose-seeking-behavior-in-offspring
#8
Qiumin Le, Yanqing Li, Weiqing Hou, Biao Yan, Xiangchen Yu, Haikun Song, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Recent studies show that emotional and environmental stimuli promote epigenetic inheritance and influence behavioral development in the subsequent generations. Caloric mal- and under-nutrition has been shown to cause metabolic disturbances in the subsequent generation, but the incentive properties of paternal binge-like eating in offspring is still unknown. Here we show that paternal sucrose self-administration experience could induce inter-generational decrease in both sucrose and cocaine-seeking behavior, and sucrose responding in F1 rats, but not F2, correlated with the performance of F0 rats in sucrose self-administration...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021174/nutritional-geometry-of-paternal-effects-on-embryo-mortality
#9
Michal Polak, Leigh W Simmons, Joshua B Benoit, Kari Ruohonen, Stephen J Simpson, Samantha M Solon-Biet
Well-established causal links exist between maternal nutritional deficits and embryo health and viability. By contrast, environmental effects operating through the father that could influence embryo mortality have seldom been examined. Yet, ejaculates can require non-trivial resource allocation, and seminal plasma components are increasingly recognized to exert wide-ranging effects on females and offspring, so paternal dietary effects on the embryo should be expected. We test for effects of varying levels of protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and caloric load in adult male diet on embryo mortality in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrate that macronutrient balance and caloric restriction exert significant effects, and that nutritional effects are more impactful when a prior mating has occurred...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020607/epigenetic-regulation-of-motivated-behaviors-by-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#10
REVIEW
Lindsay Elvir, Florian Duclot, Zuoxin Wang, Mohamed Kabbaj
Growing evidence has begun to elucidate the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in the modulation and maintenance of gene expression and behavior. Histone acetylation is one such epigenetic mechanism, which has been shown to profoundly alter gene expression and behaviors. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major epigenetic mechanisms including histones acetylation. We next focus on recent evidence about the influence of environmental stimuli on various motivated behaviors through histone acetylation and highlight how histone deacetylase inhibitors can correct some of the pathologies linked to motivated behaviors including substance abuse, feeding and social attachments...
October 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019419/prenatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disruptors-and-reprogramming-of-adipogenesis-an-early-life-risk-factor-for-childhood-obesity
#11
Ayman El-Sayed Shafei, Enas Samir Nabih, Kirolos Atalla Shehata, Emad Sherif Mohamed Abd Elfatah, Abou Bakr Ahmed Sanad, Mohamed Yehia Marey, Abd Alla Mohamed Ahmed Hammouda, Mounir Mostafa Moussa Mohammed, Randa Mostafa, Mahmoud A Ali
Obesity is a global health problem. It is characterized by excess adipose tissue that results from either increase in the number of adipocytes or increase in adipocytes size. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly regulated process that involves the activation of several transcription factors culminating in the removal of adipocytes from the cell cycle and induction of highly specific proteins. Several other factors, including hormones, genes, and epigenetics, are among the most important triggers of the differentiation process...
October 11, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018096/the-distinct-roles-of-class-i-and-ii-rpd3-like-histone-deacetylases-in-salinity-stress-response
#12
Minoru Ueda, Akihiro Matsui, Maho Tanaka, Tomoe Nakamura, Takahiro Abe, Kaori Sako, Taku Sasaki, Jong-Myong Kim, Akihiro Ito, Norikazu Nishino, Hiroaki Shimada, Minoru Yoshida, Motoaki Seki
Histone acetylation is an essential process in the epigenetic regulation of diverse biological processes including environmental stress responses in plants. Previously, our research group identified a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (HDI) that confers salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. In the present study, we demonstrate that class I HDAC (HDA19) and class II HDACs (HDA5/14/15/18) control responses to salt stress through different pathways. The screening of 12 different selective HDIs indicated that seven newly reported HDIs enhance salt tolerance...
October 10, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017033/russia-s-new-lysenkoism
#13
Edouard I Kolchinsky, Ulrich Kutschera, Uwe Hossfeld, Georgy S Levit
During the late 1940s and 1950s, a pseudo-scientific concept based on Marxist-Leninist ideology became internationally known as 'Lysenkoism'. Lysenkoism was a neo-Lamarckian idea, claiming that in crop plants, such as wheat, environmental influences are heritable via all cells of the organism. Lysenkoism was applied to agriculture during the Stalin era with disastrous consequences. Despite the triumphs of modern genetics, and the disproval of Lysenkoism, recent years have seen a 're-thinking' of this doctrine in Russia...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016956/chickpea-wrky70-regulates-the-expression-of-a-homeodomain-leucine-zipper-hd-zip-i-transcription-factor-cahdz12-which-confers-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco-and-chickpea
#14
Senjuti Sen, Joydeep Chakraborty, Prithwi Ghosh, Debabrata Basu, Sampa Das
Drought and salinity are the two major environmental constraints that severely affect global agricultural productivity. Plant-specific HD-Zip transcription factors are involved in plant growth, development and stress responses. In the present study, we explored the functional characteristics and regulation of a novel HD-Zip (I) gene from chickpea, CaHDZ12, in response to water-deficit and salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing CaHDZ12 exhibited improved tolerance to osmotic stresses and increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA)...
September 11, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016385/a-history-into-genetic-and-epigenetic-evolution-of-food-tolerance-how-humanity-rapidly-evolved-by-drinking-milk-and-eating-wheat
#15
Carine Blanchard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human exposure to wheat and milk is almost global worldwide. Yet the introduction of milk and wheat is very recent (5000-10 000 years) when compared to the human evolution. The last 4 decades have seen a rise in food allergy and food intolerance to milk and wheat. Often described as plurifactorial, the cause of allergic diseases is the result from an interplay between genetic predisposition and epigenetic in the context of environmental changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic and epigenetic understanding and their contribution to allergy or other antigen-driven diseases have considerably advanced in the last few years...
October 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992739/pharmacogenetic-and-pharmacogenomic-considerations-of-asthma-treatment
#16
Maria Gabriella Matera, Barbara Rinaldi, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola
Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic approaches are already utilized in some areas, such as oncology and cardiovascular disease, for selecting appropriate patients and/or establishing treatment and dosing guidelines. This is not true in asthma although many patients have different responses to drug treatment due to genetic factors. Areas covered: Several genetic factors that affect the pharmacotherapeutic responses to asthma medications, such as β2-AR agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene modifiers and could contribute to significant between-person variability in response are described...
October 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990703/effects-of-maternal-separation-and-antidepressant-drug-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-the-bdnf-exon-i-promoter-in-the-adult-rat-hippocampus
#17
Mi Kyoung Seo, Jung Goo Lee, Le Thi Hien, Sung Woo Park, Young Hoon Kim
AIM: Early life stress can induce epigenetic changes through genetic and environmental interactions and is a risk factor for depression. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant drug action. We investigated epigenetic changes at the BDNF exon I promoter in the hippocampus of adult rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) during early life and treated with an antidepressant drug as adults. METHODS: Rat pups were subjected to MS from postnatal day 1 to 21 and received chronic escitalopram (ESC) as adults...
October 9, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990514/bisphenol-a-in-reproduction-epigenetic-effects
#18
Rosanna Chianese, Jacopo Troisi, Sean Richards, Marika Scafuro, Silvia Fasano, Maurizio Guida, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resin to produce a multitude of consumer products, food and drink containers, and medical devices. BPA is similar to estradiol in structure and thus interferes in steroid signalling with different outcomes on reproductive health depending on doses, life stage, mode, and timing of exposure. In this respect, it has an emerging and controversial role as a "reproductive toxicant" capable of inducing short and long-term effects including the modulation of gene expression through epigenetic modification (i...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990418/redox-mechanisms-in-migraine-novel-therapeutics-and-dietary-interventions
#19
Patrizia Ferroni, Piero Barbanti, David Della-Morte, Raffaele Palmirotta, Emilio Jirillo, Fiorella Guadagni
Significance Migraine represents the third most prevalent and the seventh most disabling human disorder. Approximately 30% of migraine patients experience transient, fully reversible, focal neurological symptoms (aura) preceding the attack. Recent advances Awareness of the hypothesis that migraine actually embodies a spectrum of illnesses - ranging from episodic to chronic forms - is progressively increasing and poses novel challenges for clarifying the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine as well as for the development of novel therapeutic interventions...
October 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986864/sex-specific-epigenetics-implications-for-environmental-studies-of-brain-and-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the current state of knowledge on sex differences in the epigenetic regulation in the brain and highlights its relevance for the environmental studies of brain and behavior. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence shows that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the control of brain sexual differentiation and in memory-enhancing effects of estradiol in females. In addition, several studies have implicated epigenetic dysregulation as an underlying mechanism for sex-specific neurobehavioral effects of environmental exposures...
October 6, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
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