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Anus cancer

Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Michitaka Honda, Takashi Akiyoshi, Hisashi Noma, Atsushi Ogura, Toshiya Nagasaki, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Satoshi Nagayama, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno
BACKGROUND: For patients with low-lying rectal cancer, the feasibility of anus-preserving surgery in combination with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) has been not well established from the perspective of patient-centered outcomes. METHODS: We investigated 278 patients with low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2012. We compared their symptoms and QOL scores of patients who underwent anus-preserving surgery with (n = 88) and without (n = 143) NACRT according to the Wexner scale, EORTC QLQ C-30, CR29, and the modified fecal incontinence quality life scale (mFIQL)...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Evie H Carchman, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Louise Meske, Paul F Lambert
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients...
2016: PloS One
Takeshi Nishikawa, Soichiro Ishihara, Tetsuo Ushiku, Keisuke Hata, Kazuhito Sasaki, Koji Murono, Koji Yasuda, Kensuke Otani, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa, Toshiaki Watanabe
The metastasis of rectal cancer to the anus is rare. Here, we report a case of advanced rectal cancer, which had a diffuse venous invasion with anal metastasis and multiple lymph node and liver metastases. The patient was a 72-year-old woman who complained of perianal pain and fresh blood in the stools for 6 months. She had neither history of fistula-in-ano nor anal surgery. Digital examination revealed a 2-cm tumor at the 7 o'clock position, and the barium enema and colonoscopy confirmed advanced rectal cancer...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Angel M Mayor, Eduardo J Santiago-Rodriguez, Eddy Rios-Olivares, Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, Robert F Hunter-Mellado
BACKGROUND: The study describes the cancer trends in a Puerto Rican Hispanic HIV/AIDS cohort for three different time periods as defined by the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Island: pre (1992-1995), early (1996-2002, and recent (2003-2009). METHODS: AIDS and non-AIDS related malignancies risk, standardized incidence rate and one year mortality was evaluated in the cohort before and after cART. RESULTS: Of the 281 malignancies found in 265 persons; 72% were in men, 38% in injecting drug users and 42...
2016: International Journal of Cancer Research
Dania Bucchi, Fabrizio Stracci, Nicola Buonora, Giuseppe Masanotti
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
A Vinayan, R Glynne-Jones
Radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5FU and Mitomycin C is the standard-of-care for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). Phase III trials combined radiation doses of 50-60 Gy with concurrent Fluoropyrimidines, Mitomycin C and Cisplatin in various doses and schedules. CRT is highly successful for early T1/T2 cancers, but results in appreciable late morbidities and still fails to control larger and node-positive tumours. Compliance to chemotherapy is important for local control. Modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), rotational IMRT, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) have enabled smaller margins and highly conformal plans, resulting in decreased radiation doses to the organs at risk and ensuring a shorter overall treatment time...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Sheela V Godbole, Karabi Nandy, Mansi Gauniyal, Pallavi Nalawade, Suvarna Sane, Shravani Koyande, Joy Toyama, Asha Hegde, Phil Virgo, Kishor Bhatia, Ramesh S Paranjape, Arun R Risbud, Sam M Mbulaiteye, Ronald T Mitsuyasu
We utilized computerized record-linkage methods to link HIV and cancer databases with limited unique identifiers in Pune, India, to determine feasibility of linkage and obtain preliminary estimates of cancer risk in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) as compared with the general population.Records of 32,575 PLHIV were linked to 31,754 Pune Cancer Registry records (1996-2008) using a probabilistic-matching algorithm. Cancer risk was estimated by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) in the early (4-27 months after HIV registration), late (28-60 months), and overall (4-60 months) incidence periods...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Timothy J Ridolfi, Nicholas Berger, Kirk A Ludwig
Outcomes for rectal cancer surgery have improved significantly over the past 20 years with increasing rates of survival and recurrence, specifically local recurrence. These gains have been realized during a period of time in which there has been an increasing emphasis on sphincter preservation. As we have become increasingly aggressive in avoiding resection of the anus, we have begun accepting bowel dysfunction as a normal outcome. Low anterior resection syndrome, defined as a constellation of symptoms including incontinence, frequency, urgency, or feelings of incomplete emptying, has a significant impact on quality of life and results in many patients opting for a permanent colostomy to avoid these symptoms...
September 2016: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Pedro Martinez-Castro, Andrés Poveda, José Luis Guinot, Lucas Minig
Vulvar cancer is a rare disease affecting elderly women that is commonly treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. When tumors compromise the urethra and the anus, or when it is in the groin lymph nodes, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both are necessary after surgery.The treatment of locally advanced vulvar cancer has suffered significant changes though the recent decades. So far, the best sequence of treatment is not known: surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. The radical surgeries usually need a long recovery term both in the region of the vulva and in the area of the groin lymph nodes...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: The retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and development, and has been widely documented to be inactivated in human cancer. A recent study using RB1 knockout mice suggested a new role for RB1 in the normal regulation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), because of knockout mice showing ENS abnormalities and severe intestinal dysmotility. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of RB1 in the normal human colon and in Hirschsprung's disease (HD)...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Gaurav Gupta, Viviana Giannino, Narayan Rishi, Reinhard Glueck
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Yongxiu Yang, Tiansheng Qin, Wei Zhang, Qiyan Wu, Aihong Yang, Feixue Xu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (LNRH) for bulky-stage cervical cancer (lesion ≥ 6 cm) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: This study prospective recruited patients with pathology-confirmed cervical cancer presenting as a bulky mass (lesion ≥ 6 cm). Subjects included patients who underwent laparoscopic radical surgery. They were assigned to one of two groups by surgical method: patients who underwent LNRH after NAC and patients who underwent classical laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) after NAC...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Jill Tinmouth, Valentina Peeva, Henok Amare, Sandra Blitz, Janet Raboud, Marie Sano, Leah Steele, Irving E Salit
BACKGROUND: High-grade intraepithelial neoplasia is known to progress to invasive squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus. There are limited reports on the rate of progression from high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia to anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe in HIV-positive men who have sex with men with perianal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia the rate of progression to anal cancer and the factors associated with that progression...
September 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Yi Li, Ji Wang, Xiaowei Ma, Li Tan, Yanli Yan, Chaofan Xue, Beina Hui, Rui Liu, Hailin Ma, Juan Ren
Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy not only can reduce tumor size and recurrence, but also increase the tumor resection rate and anus retention rate with very slight side effect. Comparing with preoperative chemotherapy, preoperative chemoradiotherapy can further reduce the local recurrence rate and downstage. Middle and low rectal cancers can benefit more from neoadjuvant chemradiotherapy than high rectal cancer...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Seraina Faes, Olivier Gié, Nicolas Demartines, Dieter Hahnloser
Treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer remains challenging. Preoperative imaging with pelvic MRI allows to identify patients for multimodal treatment including induction chemothe- rapy or neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy and an extended surgical resection. With multidisciplinary approach and an experienced team, excellent oncologic results may be achieved, as well as a good function and quality of life, even with preservation of the anus in the majority of patients.
June 15, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Lin Xiao, Xin Yu, Yujia Zhu, Weiwei Xiao, Zhifan Zeng, Mengzhong Liu, Rong Zhang, Yuanhong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term efficacy and treatment-related adverse reaction between preoperative three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) concurrently combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced rectal carcinoma (LARC). METHODS: Clinical data of 334 patients with LARC undergoing preoperative 3D-CRT(172 cases) or VMAT(162 cases) with concurrent Xelox chemotherapy (main protocol: capecitabine plus oxaliplatin) and surgery in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from May 2007 to April 2013 were retrospectively analyzed...
July 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Zhao Ma, Xuebin Bao, Junbao Gu
The effects of laparoscopic radical gastrectomy were observed, and changes in immune function and inflammatory factors of gastric cancer patients were examined. In total, 236 cases of laparoscopic radical gastrectomy were selected between March 2014 and October 2015 and divided into the control and experimental groups. The control group was treated using open radical gastrectomy, while laparoscopic radical gastrectomy was used in the experimental group. Treatment effects, immune function and inflammatory factor in the two groups were compared...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Svetozar Antovic, Aleksandar Mitevski, Aleksandar Karagozov, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Nikola Jankulovski
AIM: Clinical evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of compression anastomosis with ColonRing™ for large-bowel end-to-end anastomosis for rectal cancer and explanation of the procedure and the device itself since this device is used for the first time in our clinic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In November, 2012, a team of surgeons from our clinic attended the Clinical practice workshop in Belgrade, Serbia which was organized by the World Congress of Compression Anastomosis (WCCA) and held by its President Prof...
2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Hilary P Bagshaw, William T Sause, Ute Gawlick, H Tae Kim, Jonathan Whisenant, George M Cannon
OBJECTIVES: The objective is to determine localregional control (LRC), distant metastasis free survival, disease-free survival, overall survival (OS), and toxicity for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated with definitive chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients treated using IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus at our institution since 2005. Patients with local recurrences were identified and reviewed...
July 19, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
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