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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889038/treatment-of-the-primary-tumor-in-anal-canal-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Rob Glynne-Jones, Sheela Rao
Radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C (MMC) remains the standard of care for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Phase III trials over 2 decades have used combined radiation doses of 50 to 60 Gy with concurrent fluoropyrimidines, MMC, or cisplatin in various doses and schedules. Modern radiotherapy techniques allow the production of highly conformal plans, decreasing radiation doses to the organs at risk and ensuring a shorter overall treatment time without the need for treatment breaks...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864489/protecting-women-against-human-papillomavirus-benefits-barriers-and-evidence-based-strategies-to-increase-vaccine-uptake
#2
Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Bridget E Hochwalt
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection significantly impacts women, as it can cause cancers and precancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, oropharynx, and anus. However, many of these cancers can be prevented by HPV vaccination. Despite evidence of vaccine effectiveness and safety, vaccination rates remain low. Evidence-based strategies should be utilized to reduce barriers and increase vaccination rates.
November 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862129/anogenital-distance-a-biomarker-of-prenatal-androgen-exposure-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer-severity
#3
Ana B Maldonado-Cárceles, Carlos Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva M Vera-Porras, Julián J Árense-Gonzalo, Julián Oñate-Celdrán, Paula Samper-Mateo, Damián García-Escudero, Marcos Torres-Roca, Francisco Martínez-Díaz, Jaime Mendiola, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the centre of the anus to the genitals, is a sexually dimorphic phenotype in mammals. Experimental studies have shown that AGD is a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure during the masculinisation period of development. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between anogenital distance (AGD), as an indirect marker of prenatal hormonal environment, and prostate cancer (PCa) severity. MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a total of 120 PCa patients with confirmed biopsy of the tumour from April 2007 to July 2015...
November 16, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858861/laparoscopic-assisted-low-anterior-resection-for-advanced-rectal-cancer-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#4
Zenan Xia, Weijie Chen, Ru Yao, Guole Lin, Huizhong Qiu
INTRODUCTION: Development of de novo malignancy has become a major cause of late mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Surgery is currently the most important treatment of choice for transplant patients with resectable CRC. However, conventional open surgery represents a great risk to these high-risk patients. They seem to benefit more from laparoscopic surgery, based on the favorable oncological outcome and remarkable short-term advantages of this approach. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study, we have reported a case of a 50-year-old man who had underwent kidney transplantation for 4 years...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831506/causes-of-death-among-cancer-patients
#5
N G Zaorsky, T M Churilla, B L Egleston, S G Fisher, J A Ridge, E M Horwitz, Je Meyer Md
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to characterize the causes of death among cancer patients as a function of objectives: (I) calendar year, (II) patient age, and (III) time after diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: US death certificate data in SEER Stat 8.2.1 were used to categorize cancer patient death as being due to index-cancer, non-index-cancer, and non-cancer cause from 1973 to 2012. In addition, data were characterized with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), which provide the relative risk of death compared to all persons...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830391/robotically-assisted-laparoscopic-ovarian-transposition-in-women-with-lower-gastrointestinal-cancer-undergoing-pelvic-radiotherapy
#6
Vasileios D Sioulas, Soledad Jorge, Jing-Yi Chern, Maria B Schiavone, Martin R Weiser, Joanne F Kelvin, Ginger J Gardner, Yukio Sonoda, Nadeem R Abu-Rustum, Karyn A Goodman, Mario M Leitao
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is a standard component of the management for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer or squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Pelvic RT leads to permanent and irreversible ovarian failure in young women. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of robotically assisted laparoscopic ovarian transposition (OT) before RT in women with rectal or anal cancer who wanted to preserve normal ovarian function. METHODS: The study reviewed the medical records of all patients treated at our institution from August 2009 to October 2014 who received robotically assisted laparoscopic OT for rectal or anal cancer before RT...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830320/pilot-study-of-fmc-5-fluorouracil-mitomycin-c-and-cisplatin-with-radiotherapy-for-patients-with-anal-cancer
#7
In Hee Lee, Soo Jung Lee, Byung Woog Kang, Yee Soo Chae, Dongwon Baek, Soyoon Hwang, Hye Jin Kim, Su Yeon Park, Jun Seok Park, Gyu Seog Choi, Jae Chul Kim, Jong Gwang Kim
OBJECTIVES: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the current standard of treatment for anal squamous carcinoma. However, local or metastatic recurrences remain significant after CRT with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC). Therefore, the present study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of adding cisplatin to the classic CRT (5-FU, MMC, and radiotherapy). METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the anus without metastatic disease were enrolled at Kyungpook National University Medical Center (Daegu, Korea) between January 2005 and December 2014...
November 9, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829942/safety-and-usefulness-of-needle-guided-resection-of-levator-muscles-in-laparoscopic-abdominoperineal-resection-for-low-rectal-cancer
#8
Takehito Yamamoto, Akiyoshi Kanazawa, Hiroyuki Matsubara, Takuya Okamoto
INTRODUCTION: During laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) for low rectal cancer, it is difficult to resect the levator muscles and remove a cylindrical specimen without venturing close to the rectal wall to ensure negative circumferential resection margins (CRM). To solve this problem, we developed a needle-guided, laparoscopic, abdominoperineal resection (LAPR) technique. AIM: To present the safety and superiority of our technique, "needle-guided LAPR"...
2016: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813395/precise-hepatectomy-based-on-the-optimized-technique-of-hepatic-blood-flow-occlusion-combined-with-the-curettage-and-cut-technique-by-electrotome
#9
Bin Huang, Yu Yu, Shaoyong Zhao, Changsong Wang, Wenhao Zhou, Huashan Jiang, Min Chen, Xiaozhong Jiang, Youjiang Tao, Tao Lv, Hong Luo, Xiao Cui, Yi Zhang, Xiaoqin Guo
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcome of precise hepatectomy based on the optimized technique of hepatic blood flow occlusion combined with the curettage and cut technique by electrotome. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with primary liver cancer treated in our hospital were included in this study and all patients (n=61) were numbered according to the inclusion sequence and were randomized into group A and group B: (1) group A: precise liver resection by using simplified blocking combining with electrotome; (2) group B: precise liver resection by using half-hepatic occlusion + CUSA assisting liver parenchyma transection+ lower central venous pressure controlled by the anesthesiologist...
November 4, 2016: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768599/a-role-for-the-vitamin-d-pathway-in-non-intestinal-lesions-in-genetic-and-carcinogen-models-of-colorectal-cancer-and-in-familial-adenomatous-polyposis
#10
Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761895/patient-centered-outcomes-to-decide-treatment-strategy-for-patients-with-low-rectal-cancer
#11
Michitaka Honda, Takashi Akiyoshi, Hisashi Noma, Atsushi Ogura, Toshiya Nagasaki, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Satoshi Nagayama, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno
BACKGROUND: For patients with low-lying rectal cancer, the feasibility of anus-preserving surgery in combination with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) has been not well established from the perspective of patient-centered outcomes. METHODS: We investigated 278 patients with low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2012. We compared their symptoms and QOL scores of patients who underwent anus-preserving surgery with (n = 88) and without (n = 143) NACRT according to the Wexner scale, EORTC QLQ C-30, CR29, and the modified fecal incontinence quality life scale (mFIQL)...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706233/dysregulation-of-autophagy-contributes-to-anal-carcinogenesis
#12
Evie H Carchman, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Louise Meske, Paul F Lambert
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696277/anal-metastasis-from-rectal-adenocarcinoma
#13
Takeshi Nishikawa, Soichiro Ishihara, Tetsuo Ushiku, Keisuke Hata, Kazuhito Sasaki, Koji Murono, Koji Yasuda, Kensuke Otani, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa, Toshiaki Watanabe
The metastasis of rectal cancer to the anus is rare. Here, we report a case of advanced rectal cancer, which had a diffuse venous invasion with anal metastasis and multiple lymph node and liver metastases. The patient was a 72-year-old woman who complained of perianal pain and fresh blood in the stools for 6 months. She had neither history of fistula-in-ano nor anal surgery. Digital examination revealed a 2-cm tumor at the 7 o'clock position, and the barium enema and colonoscopy confirmed advanced rectal cancer...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695577/malignancies-trends-in-a-hispanic-cohort-of-hiv-persons-in-puerto-rico-before-and-after-cart
#14
Angel M Mayor, Eduardo J Santiago-Rodriguez, Eddy Rios-Olivares, Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, Robert F Hunter-Mellado
BACKGROUND: The study describes the cancer trends in a Puerto Rican Hispanic HIV/AIDS cohort for three different time periods as defined by the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Island: pre (1992-1995), early (1996-2002, and recent (2003-2009). METHODS: AIDS and non-AIDS related malignancies risk, standardized incidence rate and one year mortality was evaluated in the cohort before and after cART. RESULTS: Of the 281 malignancies found in 265 persons; 72% were in men, 38% in injecting drug users and 42...
2016: International Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672265/human-papillomavirus-and-gastrointestinal-cancer-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Dania Bucchi, Fabrizio Stracci, Nicola Buonora, Giuseppe Masanotti
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644911/anal-cancer-what-is-the-optimum-chemoradiotherapy
#16
REVIEW
A Vinayan, R Glynne-Jones
Radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5FU and Mitomycin C is the standard-of-care for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). Phase III trials combined radiation doses of 50-60 Gy with concurrent Fluoropyrimidines, Mitomycin C and Cisplatin in various doses and schedules. CRT is highly successful for early T1/T2 cancers, but results in appreciable late morbidities and still fails to control larger and node-positive tumours. Compliance to chemotherapy is important for local control. Modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), rotational IMRT, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) have enabled smaller margins and highly conformal plans, resulting in decreased radiation doses to the organs at risk and ensuring a shorter overall treatment time...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631245/hiv-and-cancer-registry-linkage-identifies-a-substantial-burden-of-cancers-in-persons-with-hiv-in-india
#17
Sheela V Godbole, Karabi Nandy, Mansi Gauniyal, Pallavi Nalawade, Suvarna Sane, Shravani Koyande, Joy Toyama, Asha Hegde, Phil Virgo, Kishor Bhatia, Ramesh S Paranjape, Arun R Risbud, Sam M Mbulaiteye, Ronald T Mitsuyasu
We utilized computerized record-linkage methods to link HIV and cancer databases with limited unique identifiers in Pune, India, to determine feasibility of linkage and obtain preliminary estimates of cancer risk in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) as compared with the general population.Records of 32,575 PLHIV were linked to 31,754 Pune Cancer Registry records (1996-2008) using a probabilistic-matching algorithm. Cancer risk was estimated by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) in the early (4-27 months after HIV registration), late (28-60 months), and overall (4-60 months) incidence periods...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582649/low-anterior-resection-syndrome-current-management-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Timothy J Ridolfi, Nicholas Berger, Kirk A Ludwig
Outcomes for rectal cancer surgery have improved significantly over the past 20 years with increasing rates of survival and recurrence, specifically local recurrence. These gains have been realized during a period of time in which there has been an increasing emphasis on sphincter preservation. As we have become increasingly aggressive in avoiding resection of the anus, we have begun accepting bowel dysfunction as a normal outcome. Low anterior resection syndrome, defined as a constellation of symptoms including incontinence, frequency, urgency, or feelings of incomplete emptying, has a significant impact on quality of life and results in many patients opting for a permanent colostomy to avoid these symptoms...
September 2016: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575631/treatment-of-inoperable-vulvar-cancer-where-we-come-from-and-where-are-we-going
#19
Pedro Martinez-Castro, Andrés Poveda, José Luis Guinot, Lucas Minig
Vulvar cancer is a rare disease affecting elderly women that is commonly treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. When tumors compromise the urethra and the anus, or when it is in the groin lymph nodes, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both are necessary after surgery.The treatment of locally advanced vulvar cancer has suffered significant changes though the recent decades. So far, the best sequence of treatment is not known: surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. The radical surgeries usually need a long recovery term both in the region of the vulva and in the area of the groin lymph nodes...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567306/altered-expression-of-retinoblastoma-1-in-hirschsprung-s-disease
#20
Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: The retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and development, and has been widely documented to be inactivated in human cancer. A recent study using RB1 knockout mice suggested a new role for RB1 in the normal regulation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), because of knockout mice showing ENS abnormalities and severe intestinal dysmotility. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of RB1 in the normal human colon and in Hirschsprung's disease (HD)...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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