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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650894/-chemoradiotherapy-the-standard-treatment-at-present
#1
Sadamoto Zenda
Chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy has been widely used in clinical practice because the additional benefit on radiotherapy alone had shown. Head and neck cancer: CDDP concurrent with radiotherapy has been a standard treatment for 15years both in definitive setting and postoperative setting. Esophageal cancer: 5-FU/CDDP is the best partner for radiotherapy and appropriate radiation dose has been discussed. Anal cancer: Radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5-FU and mitomycin C(MMC)remains the standard of care for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643063/evaluation-of-prexasertib-a-checkpoint-kinase-1-inhibitor-in-a-phase-ib-study-of-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
David S Hong, Kathleen N Moore, Manish R Patel, Stefan C Grant, Howard A Burris, William N William, Suzanne Jones, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Jeffrey Infante, Lisa Golden, Wei Zhang, Ricardo Martinez, Sameera R Wijayawardana, Richard P Beckmann, Aimee Bence Lin, Cathy Eng, Johanna C Bendell
PURPOSE: Prexasertib, a checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor, demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the dose-escalation portion of a Phase I study (NCT01115790). Monotherapy prexasertib was further evaluated in patients with advanced SCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients were given prexasertib 105 mg/m2 as a 1-hour infusion on day 1 of a 14-day cycle. Expansion cohorts were defined by tumor and treatment line. Safety, tolerability, efficacy, and exploratory biomarkers were analyzed...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577210/-transanal-conformal-resection-for-super-low-rectal-cancer
#3
Zheng Lou, Wei Zhang
Intersphincteric resection(ISR) is a valuable anus-preserving operation that avoids the need for permanent stoma in patients with super low rectal cancer. Recently, with the application and promotion of ISR, the rate of anus-preservation has been greatly elevated, however, some patients following ISR had poor anal function. Based on the knowledge of anal canal anatomical features for better anal function, we propose conformal sphincter-preserving operation (CSPO) for super low rectal cancer, which is a new integrated anus-preservation procedure with total mesorectal excision (TME), coloanal anastomosis, pull through resection, anal canal dissection, local resection and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technology...
March 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527660/impact-of-socioeconomic-status-on-survival-for-patients-with-anal-cancer
#4
Daniel Lin, Heather T Gold, David Schreiber, Lawrence P Leichman, Scott E Sherman, Daniel J Becker
BACKGROUND: Although outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) have improved, the gains in benefit may not be shared uniformly among patients of disparate socioeconomic status. In the current study, the authors investigated whether area-based median household income (MHI) is predictive of survival among patients with SCCA. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with SCCA from 2004 through 2013 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry were included...
March 12, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484620/air-pollution-from-industrial-waste-gas-emissions-is-associated-with-cancer-incidences-in-shanghai-china
#5
Xiaowei Cong
Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO2 , and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484001/para-and-intraurethral-penile-tumor-like-condilomatosis
#6
Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva, Uwe Wollina, Torello Lotti, Georgi Konstantinov Maximov, Ilia Lozev, Georgi Tchernev
Condyloma acuminata represents an epidermal manifestation, associated with the epidermotropic human papillomavirus (HPV). They have been reported as the most common sexually transmitted disease, with prevalence exceeding 50%, increased up to 4 times, within the last two decades, as the most common side of affection are the penis, vulva, vagina, cervix, perineum, and perianal area, with increased prevalence in young, sexually active individuals. Increased attention should be focused on lesions, caused by types, with moderate (33, 35, 39, 40, 43, 45, 51-56, 58) or high risk potential (types 16, 18) for malignant transformation, leading to further development of cancers of anus, vagina, vulva and penis, as well as cancers of the head and neck...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476768/a-viral-map-of-gastrointestinal-cancers
#7
Natália R Costa, Rui M Gil da Costa, Rui Medeiros
Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are expected to account for approximately 20% of all cancers in 2017. Apart from their high incidence, GIT cancers show high mortality rates, placing these malignancies among the most prominent public health issues of our time. Cancers of the GIT are the result of a complex interplay between host genetic factors and environmental factors and frequently arise in the context of a continued active inflammatory response. Several tumor viruses are able to elicit such chronic inflammatory responses...
February 21, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476028/long-term-incidence-trends-of-hpv-related-cancers-and-cases-preventable-by-hpv-vaccination-a-registry-based-study-in-norway
#8
Bo T Hansen, Suzanne Campbell, Mari Nygård
OBJECTIVES: Examine long-term incidence trends of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer in Norway, and estimate the number of cancer cases preventable by vaccines against HPV 16/18 or HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58. DESIGN: Observational registry-based study. We extracted incident cases of HPV-related cancer during 1953-2015 from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Tumour HPV prevalence estimates from large international meta-analyses or from Norway were used to estimate the protective potential of HPV vaccines...
February 23, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435742/information-needs-expressed-during-patient-oriented-oncology-consultations-quantity-variation-and-barriers
#9
Anesa Ahamad, Paul Wallner, Sharon Salenius, Rudi Ross, Eduardo Fernandez
High-quality oncology consultation includes patient-oriented communication tailored to patients' individualized needs. Common methods used in studies to increase question-asking are prompt lists and coaching pre-consultations. However, our patients were encouraged to ask questions by the physician during their visit. We aimed to estimate the quantity, nature, and variation of their questions when they were invited to ask by their oncologist. During radiotherapy consultations from 2012 to 2016, patient's questions were deliberately elicited and physician-transcribed...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416670/genomic-landscape-of-colitis-associated-cancer-indicates-the-impact-of-chronic-inflammation-and-its-stratification-by-mutations-in-the-wnt-signaling
#10
Masashi Fujita, Nagahide Matsubara, Ikuo Matsuda, Kazuhiro Maejima, Ayako Oosawa, Tomoki Yamano, Akihiro Fujimoto, Mayuko Furuta, Kaoru Nakano, Aya Oku-Sasaki, Hiroko Tanaka, Yuichi Shiraishi, Raúl Nicolás Mateos, Kenta Nakai, Satoru Miyano, Naohiro Tomita, Seiichi Hirota, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Hidewaki Nakagawa
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increases the risk of colorectal cancer, known as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). It is still unclear what driver mutations are caused by chronic inflammation and lead to CAC development. To get insight into this issue, we investigated somatic alterations in CAC. We performed exome sequencing of 22 fresh CACs and targeted sequencing of 43 genes on 90 archive specimens from Japanese CAC patients, of which 58 were ulcerative colitis (UC) and 32 were Crohn's disease (CD). Consistently with the previous reports, TP53 was commonly mutated (66%) whereas APC, KRAS and SMAD4 were mutated less frequently (16%, 11% and 11%, respectively)...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394624/-a-case-report-of-adenocarcinoma-with-pagetoid-growth-secondary-paget-s-disease-of-the-anal-canal
#11
Wataru Okajima, Yoshiaki Kuriu, Tomohiro Arita, Yasutoshi Murayama, Masayoshi Nakanishi, Tokunari Okayama, Toshiyuki Kosuga, Hirotaka Konishi, Ryo Morimura, Atsushi Shiozaki, Hisashi Ikoma, Takeshi Kubota, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Kazuma Okamoto, Eigo Otsuji
Differentiating primary Paget's disease from secondary Paget's disease, which is also known as Pagetoid growth of other cancers, in the perianal region is difficult. Given that the treatment strategies of both disease are significantly different, diagnosis of such conditions should be performed with caution. We report a case of secondary Paget's disease. A 76-year-old man previously visited a hospital because of erythematous plaque around the anus. It was diagnosed as extramammary Paget's disease based on skin biopsy results; consequently, perianal skin resection was performed...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372108/complete-pathologic-response-after-chemoradiotherapy-in-a-patient-with-rectal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-case-report
#12
Zaied Sonia, Daldoul Amira, Bhiri Hanene, Ammar Nouha, Khechine Wiem, Toumi Omar, Abbes Ibtissem, Ben Salem Amina, Njima Manel, Mhabrech Houda
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is a rare disease. A 59-year-old man presented with SCC of the middle rectum located 10 cm from the anus. The stage of the tumor was revealed to be T3N+M0. The patient received a combined treatment with cisplatin and fluorouracil in concomitance with external radiation therapy. He then underwent an anterior resection of the rectum. The postoperative histopathological findings classified the tumor as ypT0N0 with cancer-free margins and lymph nodes. Treatment of SCC remains very challenging, and the acquisition of more consistent data is needed...
November 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363525/hybrid-capture-based-genomic-profiling-of-circulating-tumor-dna-from-patients-with-advanced-cancers-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-or-anus
#13
Alexa B Schrock, Dean C Pavlick, Samuel J Klempner, Jon H Chung, Brady Forcier, Allison Welsh, Lauren Young, Brian Leyland-Jones, Rodolfo Bordonii, Richard D Carvajal, Joseph Chao, Razelle Kurzrock, Jason K Sicklick, Jeffrey S Ross, Philip J Stephens, Craig E Devoe, Fadi Braiteh, Siraj M Ali, Vincent Miller
PURPOSE: Genomic profiling of tumor biopsies from advanced gastrointestinal (GI) and anal cancers is increasingly used to inform treatment. In some cases, tissue biopsy can be prohibitive, and we sought to investigate whether analysis of blood-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may provide a minimally invasive alternative. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Hybrid capture-based genomic profiling of 62 genes was performed on blood-based ctDNA from 417 patients with GI carcinomas to assess the presence of genomic alterations (GA) and compare with matched tissue samples...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362337/-a-case-of-metastatic-carcinoma-of-anal-fistula
#14
Atsuo Imagawa, Satoshi Okumura, Sho Toyoda, Hiroshi Kawashima, Hiroshi Yasuda, Kansuke Yamamoto, Aya Ito, Naoto Mizumura, Ken Yoo, Hiromitsu Maehira, Masao Ogawa, Masayasu Kawasaki, Masao Kameyama, Genichiro Yoneda
A 58-year-old man underwent rectal resection(D2 dissection)for rectal cancer and liver/lung metastases in August 2009. Histopathological findings were Ra, type 2, 70×80mm, tub1>tub2, int, pSI(peritoneum), INF b, ly1, v1, pN1(2/13), pPM0, pDM0, M1a(H1, PUL1), fStage IV . The lung metastasis had disappeared on chest CT after postoperative chemotherapy and we were able to perform radical resection of the liver metastasis by performing hepatectomy twice. In October 2013, anal pain appeared and a painful tumor approximately 2 cm in size was found in the 5 o'clock direction of the anus...
January 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362331/-surgical-case-of-ulcerative-colitis-accompanied-with-rectal-cancer-combined-with-transanal-minimally-invasive-surgery
#15
Hideaki Kawakita, Kenji Katsumata, Yoshiaki Osaka, Hitoshi Saito, Kazuhiko Tamura, Tomoki Shirota, Kenta Kasahara, Minoru Kuwabara, Masatoshi Shigoka, Takaaki Matsudo, Masanobu Enomoto, Tetsuo Ishizaki, Masayuki Hisada, Kazuhiko Kasuya, Akihiko Tsuchida
A46 -year-old man developed ulcerative colitis at the age of 19 years. Although the colitis was medically treated, it relapsed and repeated over time. Periodic lower gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed lower rectal cancer, and he was referred to our department of surgery. Previous steroid therapy induced diabetes, and he was obese, with a height of 170.3 cm, weight of 89.6 kg, and BMI of 30.89 kg/m2, indicating that laparoscopic dissection near the anus would be difficult to perform. Therefore, the patient was scheduled for transanal minimally invasive surgery(TAMIS)...
January 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362310/-a-case-of-anal-canal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-detected-with-anal-stenosis-eight-years-following-resection-for-rectal-adenocarcinoma
#16
Takashi Fukao, Tomoko Matsumoto, Shiho Kuriyama, Tomohiro Toji, Yutaka Hirano, Yasuyuki Ohtawa, Toshihiko Waku, Kazuhiro Washio
An 89-year-old woman underwent low anterior resection for rectal adenocarcinoma(Ra, pT3N0M0, pStage II , Cur A)in 2008. In February 2016, she underwent an outpatient examination because of a defecation disturbance. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and the stenotic region was biopsied. However, no malignancy was detected and the stenotic site expanded. However, the patient experienced recurrence of the same symptoms, developed severe anal stenosis, and underwent another examination in December 2016...
January 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353855/-sigmoid-colon-cancer-with-intussusception-prolapsing-through-the-anus-treated-by-elective-laparoscopic-radical-surgery
#17
Sho Toyoda, Katsuhiko Horii, Satoshi Okumura, Naoto Mizumura, Atsuo Imagawa, Masao Ogawa, Masayasu Kawasaki
An 86-year-old man was brought in ambulance to our hospital because of sudden hematochezia and abdominal pain during defecation. Intestinal prolapse approximately 80mm from the anus and a type 1 tumor 50mm in size on the mucosal surface were detected. The intestinal prolapse was manually repositioned, and the reduction of the intussusception was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). Following colonoscopy and abdominal-enhanced CT, a sigmoid colon cancer without distant metastases was detected. Elective laparoscopic radical surgery was performed...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340993/laparoscopic-assisted-modified-intersphincter-resection-for-ultralow-rectal-cancer
#18
Haiyang Zhou, Canping Ruan, Zhiguo Wang, Zhiqian Hu
BACKGROUND: Intersphincter resection (ISR) is considered to be a superior technique offering sphincter preservation in patients with ultralow rectal cancer.1 Because high-definition laparoscopy offers wider and clearer vision into the narrow pelvic cavity and intersphincteric space, ISR has been further refined.2 However, functional outcome after ISR has not been optimal. More than half of patients receiving ISR suffer partial or even complete anal incontinence.3 We therefore propose a laparoscopic-assisted modified ISR, with the aim of improving sphincter function following ISR...
April 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239195/-immunotherapy-of-colorectal-and-anal-carcinoma
#19
J Tomášek, I Kiss
BACKGROUND: The lower part of the digestive tract includes the large intestine, rectum and anus. Treatment algorithms of cancers in these localities have significant differences in both early and advanced stages. The vast majority of metastatic cases are incurable. A few years ago, it was generally accepted that gastrointestinal tumors are poorly immunogenic and modern immunotherapy would not work in gastrointestinal cancers. The breakthrough has become the recognition of the mismatch repair system (MMR) that affects the microsatellite instability (MSI) and its role in the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC)...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182899/five-year-experience-of-the-treatment-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-anus
#20
C A Leo, C Santorelli, J D Hodgkinson, O Bidovaneta, F Baldelli, F Cantarella, E Cavazzoni
OBJECTIVES: The best treatment of early stage anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is under debated. Wide local excision (WLE) may be considered adequate for stage 1 anal margin cancer. This study demonstrates our experience in treatment of patients with SCC over 5 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who had undergone anal screening or anal cancer surveillance between October 2010 and 2015 in our department. Each patient underwent anal Pap test, HPV test PCR HPV DNA and cytology by Thin Prep...
July 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
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