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Acquired language disorder

Fiona J Rowe, Kerry Hanna, Jennifer R Evans, Carmel P Noonan, Marta Garcia-Finana, Caroline S Dodridge, Claire Howard, Kathryn A Jarvis, Sonia L MacDiarmid, Tallat Maan, Lorraine North, Helen Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury can cause eye movement disorders which may include: strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus, causing visual symptoms of double, blurred or 'juddery' vision and reading difficulties. A wide range of interventions exist that have potential to alleviate or ameliorate these symptoms. There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions and the timing of their implementation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of any intervention and determine the effect of timing of intervention in the treatment of strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus due to acquired brain injury...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M M Jiménez de la Peña, L Gómez Vicente, R García Cobos, V Martínez de Vega
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder due to a cerebral lesion; it is characterized by errors in production, denomination, or comprehension of language. Although most aphasias are mixed, from a practical point of view they are classified into different types according to their main clinical features: Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia, transcortical aphasia, and alexia with or without agraphia. We present the clinical findings for the main subtypes of aphasia, illustrating them with imaging cases, and we provide an up-to-date review of the language network with images from functional magnetic resonance imaging and tractography...
February 10, 2018: Radiología
Jennifer Chesters, Riikka Möttönen, Kate E Watkins
Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting 5% of children, and persisting in 1% of adults. Promoting lasting fluency improvement in adults who stutter is a particular challenge. Novel interventions to improve outcomes are of value, therefore. Previous work in patients with acquired motor and language disorders reported enhanced benefits of behavioural therapies when paired with transcranial direct current stimulation. Here, we report the results of the first trial investigating whether transcranial direct current stimulation can improve speech fluency in adults who stutter...
January 31, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Emma Malmström, Stellan Hertegård
OBJECTIVE: Vocal fold scarring (VFS) and sulcus vocalis (SV) often result in severe and chronic voice disorders. This study compares subjective voice complaints as rated with the Voice Handicap Index and etiological factors for patients with VFS and SV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, for 27 VFS patients and 27 SV patients. Descriptive background factors were compared between the groups and data were compared from the Swedish Voice Handicap Index (Sw-VHI) questionnaires...
January 18, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Vasiliki Chondrogianni, Nerys John
BACKGROUND: Grammatical morphology has been shown to be problematic for children with specific language impairment (SLI) or developmental language disorder (DLD). Most research on this topic comes from widely spoken languages, such as English. Despite Welsh being the most extensively spoken indigenous in the UK after English, and Wales being the only official bilingual country in the UK, our knowledge about the morphosyntactic areas of Welsh that may pose problems for Welsh-speaking children with SLI is limited...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Arne Nagels, Maurice Cabanis, Andrea Oppel, Andre Kirner-Veselinovic, Christian Schales, Tilo Kircher
Structural and functional changes in the lateral temporal language areas have been related to formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia. Continuous, natural speech production activates the right lateral temporal lobe in schizophrenia, as opposed to the left in healthy subjects. Positive and negative FTD can be elicited in healthy subjects by glutamatergic NMDA blockade with ketamine. It is unclear, whether the glutamate system is related to the reversed hemispheric lateralization during speaking in patients...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Marinda Brooks, Emma McLaughlin, Nora Shields
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of expiratory muscle strength training on communication and swallowing outcomes in adults with acquired motor based communication and/or swallowing difficulties of any aetiology. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted. Six databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPEECHBYTE, AMED and PUBMED) were searched from inception until end of May 2016. Randomised and non-randomised controlled studies and pre-test/post-test studies published in English that investigated the effects of expiratory muscle strength training were included...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Susan Mizen
This paper builds upon Britton's recent writing on 'models in the mind', in which he gives an account of preverbal metaphoric structures based on object relations (Britton 2015). These correspond with Jung's theory of innate unconscious structures. These innate models are considered alongside current linguistic theory following Chomsky and post-Chomskyan views about language acquisition. Neuroscience evidence linking language and abstract thinking with structures involved in tool use are presented. The implications of these findings, and our understanding of the relational context within which language, metaphor and abstract thought are acquired, will be discussed along with the failures of symbolization and verbal communication common amongst those with severe narcissistic disorders...
November 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Samuel Ka-Kin Ling, Tun Hing Lui
BACKGROUND: Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a commonly seen condition with a large clinical spectrum. It ranges from asymptomatic subjects to severely disabled arthritic patients. Posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. METHODS: This article systematically reviews the published literature from books and journals that were either originally written or later translated into the English language regarding the subject of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
Shin-Young Yim, Chung-Yong Yang, Joo Hyun Park, Min Young Kim, Yong-Beom Shin, Eun-Young Kang, Zee-Ihn Lee, Bum-Sun Kwon, Ji Chan Chang, Seong Woo Kim, Myeong-Ok Kim, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Han-Young Jung, In Young Sung
OBJECTIVE: To introduce the Korean Database of Cerebral Palsy (KDCP) and to provide the first report on characteristics of subjects with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: The KDCP is a nationwide database of subjects with CP, which includes a total of 773 subjects. Characteristics such as demography, birth history, onset and type of CP, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, functional ability and accompanying impairments, were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Preterm delivery and low birth weight were found in 59...
August 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Sylvie Serret, Stéphanie Hun, Susanne Thümmler, Prescillia Pierron, Andreia Santos, Jérémy Bourgeois, Florence Askenazy
Learning to read is very challenging for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but also very important, as it can give them access to new knowledge. This is even more challenging in minimally verbal children, who do not have the verbal abilities to learn through usual methods. To address the learning of literacy skills in French minimally verbal school-aged children with ASD, we designed the serious game SEMA-TIC, which relies on non-verbal cognitive skills and uses specific learning strategies adapted to the features of autistic individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Kayla H Finch, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
Atypical neural responses to language have been found in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in their unaffected siblings. However, given that language difficulties are often seen in these children, it is difficult to interpret whether these neural differences are a result of the diagnosis of ASD or impairments in their language abilities. In this study, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from four groups of 36-month-olds: low-risk control (LRC), high risk for ASD defined as having an older sibling with ASD (HRA) but who do not have ASD or milder autism-like symptoms (HRA-Typ), HRA children who do not have ASD but exhibit milder autism-like symptoms (HRA-Atyp) and HRA children diagnosed with ASD (ASD)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
April R Levin, Kandice J Varcin, Heather M O'Leary, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain development during infancy may precede the behavioral manifestation of developmental disorders. Infants at increased risk for autism are also at increased risk for other developmental disorders, including, quite commonly, language disorders. Here we assess the extent to which electroencephalographic (EEG) differences in infants at high versus low familial risk for autism are present by 3 months of age, and elucidate the functional significance of EEG power at 3 months in predicting later development...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Saeid Shahrabi, Elahe Khodadi, Fakhredin Saba, Mohammad Shahjahani, Najmaldin Saki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sex chromosome loss (SCL) can occur in older men as a physiological phenomenon or as an acquired abnormality in leukemia. Loss of chromosome Y and loss of chromosome X are acquired disorders that are mainly observed in patients over 80 years as well as in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. In this review, we examine the cytogenetic and molecular changes of sex chromosomes in leukemia. METHODS: Relevant English language literature were searched and retrieved from PubMed search engine (1990-2016)...
September 10, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Martin Christian Bucher, Tatjana Petkovic, Arthur Helbling, Urs Christian Steiner
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic non-histaminergic acquired angioedema (InH-AAE) is a rare disease for which there are no available laboratory parameters to clearly define the disorder. Therapy is often difficult and various treatment options have been proposed. In this paper, we have evaluated the most effective therapies for InH-AAE on the basis of current literature and report the therapeutic effect of omalizumab in three patients with InH-AAE. METHODS: Literature was searched with a combination of MeSH/EMTREE terms and freetext search for angioedema and therapy/omalizumab in the databases Medline (Ovid), PubMed/Premedline, Embase, Cochrane library and Scopus with no time or language restrictions...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Donna L Murdaugh, Jose O Maximo, Claire E Cordes, Sarah E O'Kelley, Rajesh K Kana
BACKGROUND: Children with ASD show a unique reading profile characterized by decoding abilities equivalent to verbal abilities, but with lower comprehension skills. Neuroimaging studies have found recruitment of regions primarily associated with visual processing (e.g., fusiform gyrus and medial parietal cortex), but reduced activation in frontal and temporal regions, when reading in adults with ASD. The purpose of this study was to assess neural changes associated with an intense reading intervention program in children with ASD using three fMRI tasks of reading...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
Claudine Sculier, Anne-Sophie Tilmant, Xavier De Tiège, Sanda Giurgea, Philippe Paquier, Gabrielle Rudolf, Gaetan Lesca, Patrick Van Bogaert
Epileptic encephalopathies with continuous spike-and-waves during sleep (CSWS) are characterized by cognitive or language impairment, and are occasionally associated with pathogenic variants of the GRIN2A gene. In these disorders, speech dysfunction could be either related to cerebral dysfunction caused by the GRIN2A deleterious variant or intense interictal epileptic activity. Here, we present a patient with apraxia of speech, clearly linked to severity of epilepsy, carrying a GRIN2A variant. A 6-year-old boy developed acute regression of expressive language following epileptic seizures, leading to complete mutism, at which time EEG revealed CSWS...
September 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Michael Wang, Anissa Cyhaniuk, David L Cooper, Neeraj N Iyer
BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) can provide insights into diagnoses, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes. Acquired hemophilia (AH) is an ultrarare bleeding disorder characterized by factor VIII inhibiting autoantibodies. AIM: To identify patients with AH using an EHR database. METHODS: Records were accessed from a large EHR database (Humedica) between January 1, 2007 and July 31, 2013. Broad selection criteria were applied using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) code for intrinsic circulating anticoagulants (286...
2017: Journal of Blood Medicine
Dallin J Bailey, Michael Blomgren, Catharine DeLong, Kiera Berggren, Julie L Wambaugh
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to quantify and describe stuttering-like disfluencies in speakers with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS), utilizing the Lidcombe Behavioural Data Language (LBDL). Additional purposes include measuring test-retest reliability and examining the effect of speech sample type on disfluency rates. Method: Two types of speech samples were elicited from 20 persons with AOS and aphasia: repetition of mono- and multisyllabic words from a protocol for assessing AOS (Duffy, 2013), and connected speech tasks (Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993)...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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