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Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Leni R Rivera, TinaMarie Lieu, Daniel P Poole, Hyun-Jung Cho, David M Bravo, John B Furness
TRPA1 is a ligand-activated cation channel found in the intestine and other tissues. Components of food that stimulate TRPA1 receptors (phytonutrients) include allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and linalool, but these may also act at other receptors. Cells lining the intestinal mucosa are immunoreactive for TRPA1 and Trpa1 mRNA occurs in mucosal extracts, suggesting that the TRPA1 receptor is the target for these agonists. However, in situ hybridisation reveals Trpa1 expression in 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells, not enterocytes...
October 10, 2016: Nutrients
Andrea Moglia, Alberto Acquadro, Kaouthar Eljounaidi, Anna M Milani, Cecilia Cagliero, Patrizia Rubiolo, Andrea Genre, Katarina Cankar, Jules Beekwilder, Cinzia Comino
Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xavier Deplanque, Delphine Muscente-Paque, Eric Chappuis
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE) standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Shiva Ram Bhandari, Jun Gu Lee
To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
J Guest, R Grant
The consumption of carotenoid phytonutrients, largely as part of plant tissue, has been associated with a number of health benefits. Epidemiological and other studies support a link between higher dietary intake and tissue concentrations of carotenoids and lower risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. Evidence also suggests that increased levels of carotenoids can help maintain healthy cognitive function, especially into older age. Carotenoids mediate their beneficial effects via several mechanisms including cell growth regulation and modulation of gene expression and immune activity...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Hong-Tao Liu, Yan-Wen Wang, Wei-Dong Huang, Mei Lei
Sludge is an organic waste after domestic sewage being treated and contains phytonutrients and organic matter. In this study, recycling of sludge compost (SC) and its compound fertilizer (SCF) to wine grape resulted in improvement in vegetative growth, reproductive development of wine grape, and potential wine quality of grape fruit. The amounts of Cu, Pb, and Cd in grape fruit were significantly higher in response to sludge amendment than in the control, but were all below the permissible limits for agricultural product...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Md Fuad Hossain, R R Ratnayake, Kirisnashamy Meerajini, K L Wasantha Kumara
Phytonutrients and pigments present in cyanobacteria act as antioxidants, which facilitate the formation of body's defense mechanism against free radical damage to cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, phycobiliproteins (PBPs), and active compounds in four cyanobacterial species, that is, Oscillatoria sp., Lyngbya sp., Microcystis sp., and Spirulina sp. isolated from fresh water bodies of Sri Lanka. In this study, Lyngbya sp...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Ramoji Kosuru, Uddipak Rai, Swati Prakash, Abhishank Singh, Sanjay Singh
Pterostilbene (PS) is a well-recognized antioxidant that primarily exists in blueberries, grapevines and heartwood of red sandalwood. Interest in this compound has been renewed in recent years, and studies have found that PS possesses an array of pharmacological properties, including chemopreventive, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic, antiatherosclerotic and neuroprotective effects. However, the greater in vivo bioavailability of PS, as compared to resveratrol, is an added advantage for its efficacy...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Muhammad U Ashraf, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad A Hussain, Syed N A Bukhari
Cydonia oblonga M. is a medicinal plant of family Rosaceae which is used to prevent or treat several ailments such as cancer, diabetes, hepatitis, ulcer, respiratory, and urinary infections, etc. Cydonia oblonga commonly known as Quince is rich in useful secondary metabolites such as phenolics, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, sugars, organic acids, and glycosides. A wide range of pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular, antidepressant, antidiarrheal, hypolipidemic, diuretic, and hypoglycemic have been ascribed to various parts of C...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol, Sasivimon Chittrakorn, Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Narong Dangpium
Pigmented sweet potatoes (SPs) are outstanding sources of anthocyanin, β-carotene and other color-related phytonutrients. However, fresh SP roots are highly perishable and difficult to store. To reduce losses and extend their uses, fresh SP could be converted into flour. SP cultivars with deep purple (Phichit 65-3) and orange-fleshed (T101) colors newly developed in Thailand were studied. The influence of drying methods on physico-chemical properties, anthocyanin, β-carotene and antioxidant activity retentions of purple and orange-fleshed SP flours (SPFs) was investigated...
April 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yen-Li Lo, Wen-Harn Pan, Wan-Lun Hsu, Yin-Chu Chien, Jen-Yang Chen, Mow-Ming Hsu, Pei-Jen Lou, I-How Chen, Allan Hildesheim, Chien-Jen Chen
Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case-control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire...
2016: PloS One
O S Medvedev, N A Medvedeva
Review of the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil (PO) and its components and adverse effects on human health, on the mechanisms of cholesterol control and risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. PO is solid or semisolid at room temperature and often is used as a natural substitute for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids which increase risks of hypercholesteremia. PO contains both saturated and unsaturated fats as well as substances with antioxidant activity...
2016: Voprosy Pitaniia
Vincent Brieudes, Apostolis Angelis, Konstantina Vougogiannopoulou, Harris Pratsinis, Dimitris Kletsas, Sofia Mitakou, Maria Halabalaki, Leandros A Skaltsounis
The Cretan diet, as the basis of the Mediterranean diet, has provided traditional remedies for the general well being of people through the long-established consumption of cooked wild greens and vegetables. The intake of the water decoctions of Cichorium spinosum and Cichorium intybus in the context of the daily dietary regime in Greece has been long associated with "liver detoxifying" properties. In the current study, we performed an in-depth investigation of the water decoctions traditionally prepared from C...
July 2016: Planta Medica
Nikol Voutsina, Adrienne C Payne, Robert D Hancock, Graham J J Clarkson, Steve D Rothwell, Mark A Chapman, Gail Taylor
BACKGROUND: Consuming watercress is thought to provide health benefits as a consequence of its phytonutrient composition. However, for watercress there are currently limited genetic resources underpinning breeding efforts for either yield or phytonutritional traits. In this paper, we use RNASeq data from twelve watercress accessions to characterize the transcriptome, perform candidate gene mining and conduct differential expression analysis for two key phytonutritional traits: antioxidant (AO) capacity and glucosinolate (GLS) content...
2016: BMC Genomics
Jharana Das, Rameshwar Singh, Deepak Sharma
BACKGROUND: Traumatic epilepsy is defined by episodes of recurring seizures secondary to severe brain injury. Though drugs are found effective to control seizures, their long-term use have been observed to increase reactive oxygen species in animals. Flavonoid fisetin, a natural bioactive phytonutrient reported to exert anticonvulsive effect in experimental seizure models. But, trauma-induced seizures could not be prevented by anticonvulsants was reported in some clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fisetin on epileptiform electrographic activity in iron-induced traumatic epilepsy and also the probable reason behind the effect in rats...
May 19, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Fabiano B Carvalho, Jessié M Gutierres, Andressa Bueno, Paula Agostinho, Adriana M Zago, Juliano Vieira, Pâmela Frühauf, José L Cechella, Cristina Wayne Nogueira, Sara M Oliveira, Caroline Rizzi, Roselia M Spanevello, Marta M F Duarte, Thiago Duarte, Odir A Dellagostin, Cinthia M Andrade
Peripheral inflammatory stimuli may activate a brain neuroinflammatory processes with consequences in brain function. The present study investigated if anthocyanins (ANT) consumption was able to prevent the memory loss, the neuronal damage, and the neuroinflammatory processes triggered by the intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. C57BL6 male mice were treated with ANT (30-100 mg/kg by gavage). With a single dose or during 10 days, before be challenged with LPS (250 μg/kg intraperitoneally single administration), a classical inductor of inflammation...
May 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Magdalena Rudzińska, Minar M M Hassanein, Adel G Abdel-Razek, Katarzyna Ratusz, Aleksander Siger
For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols...
February 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Claus Leitzmann
In food science the term 'phytochemicals' includes a variety of plant ingredients with different structures that are capable of health-promoting effects. Phytonutrients are natural substances but are not called nutrients in the traditional sense, since they are synthesized by plants neither in energy metabolism nor in anabolic or catabolic metabolism, but only in specific cell types. They differ from primary plant compounds in that they are not essential to the plant. Phytonutrients perform important tasks in the secondary metabolism of plants as repellents to pests and sunlight as well as growth regulators...
2016: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
Ravi R Kasliwal, Manish Bansal, Rajeev Gupta, Siddharth Shah, Sameer Dani, Abraham Oomman, Vikas Pai, Guru Mallapa Prasad, Sunil Singhvi, Jitendra Patel, Sakthivel Sivam, Naresh Trehan
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests prolonged exposure to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), starting at a younger age, substantially lowers cardiovascular (CV) risk. Accordingly, the CV pandemic affecting younger population in low- to low-middle-income countries, where statin usage is poor even in secondary prevention, may benefit from lipid-lowering nutritional products, as nutritional intervention is generally preferred in these cultures. However, the safety and efficacy of such preparations have not been systematically tested...
July 2016: Nutrition
Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna M McClung, Christine J Bergman
Proanthocyanidins, a flavonoids subgroup, are proposed to have chronic disease modulation properties. With the eventual goal of enhancing rice phytonutrient concentrations, we investigated the genotypic variation of the concentrations of individual oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice brans. A 4.3-fold variation in total proanthocyanidins (sum of oligomers and polymers) in the extractable fraction was found and the concentration was highly correlated with total phenolics, total flavonoids and antiradical capacity...
October 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
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