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Phytonutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652847/comparative-phytonutrient-analysis-of-broccoli-by-products-the-potentials-for-broccoli-by-product-utilization
#1
Mengpei Liu, Lihua Zhang, Suk Lan Ser, Jonathan R Cumming, Kang-Mo Ku
The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues...
April 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578814/mechanisms-of-phytonutrient-modulation-of-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-and-inflammation-related-to-cancer
#2
Shreena J Desai, Ben Prickril, Avraham Rasooly
The link between chronic inflammation and cancer involves cytokines and mediators of inflammatory pathways. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism, is upregulated during both inflammation and cancer. COX-2 is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of inflammation and enhanced COX-2-induced synthesis of prostaglandins stimulates cancer cell proliferation, promotes angiogenesis, inhibits apoptosis, and increases metastatic potential. As a result, COX-2 inhibitors are a subject of intense research interest toward potential clinical applications...
March 26, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518971/dietary-plants-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-kidney-stones-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence-and-molecular-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Mina Cheraghi Nirumand, Marziyeh Hajialyani, Roja Rahimi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Stéphane Zingue, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Anupam Bishayee
Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus ( horse gram ), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435420/effect-of-curcumin-on-amyloid-like-aggregates-generated-from-methionine-oxidized-apolipoprotein-a-i
#4
Aparna Krishnamoorthy, Narjes Tavoosi, Gary K L Chan, Jianfang Liu, Gang Ren, Giorgio Cavigiolio, Robert O Ryan
Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytonutrient that has antineurodegenerative properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic properties of curcumin. Following incubation with curcumin, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was strongly quenched. At the same time, curcumin fluorescence emission was enhanced. The fluorescence emission spectra of curcumin in the presence of amyloid-like aggregates formed by methionine-oxidized (ox) apoA-I varied, depending on whether curcumin was added before, or after, aggregate formation...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433825/risk-factors-for-prostate-cancer-a-multifactorial-case-control-study
#5
Saima Shakil Malik, Rakshanda Batool, Nosheen Masood, Azra Yasmin
Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among Pakistani men. It is a multifactorial disease involving genetics together with environmental factors. Countries where men have greater dietary fat intake showed increased prostate cancer mortality rates. A population based case-control study was conducted to evaluate various prostate cancer risk factors. Study subjects were 896 prostate cancer cases (2010-2015) and 900 age matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate the association between different risk factors and prostate cancer...
February 9, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428930/managing-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-through-personalized-care-a-case-report
#6
Keren Dolan, Heather Finley, Margo Gasta, Sasha Houseman
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) affects more than 14 million individuals in the United States, most of them women. Thyroid replacement therapy has long been the foundation of medical treatment for HT; however, recent research supports a role for nutritional approaches. This case report describes the management of a 34-y-old female with HT who declined thyroid replacement therapy and was successfully managed for a period of 5 mo. The patient was advised to follow a phytonutrient rich diet (eg, berries); avoid sensitive foods (gluten and soy); and consume quality fats, fermented foods, and filtered water...
February 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423232/a-roadmap-for-breeding-orphan-leafy-vegetable-species-a-case-study-of-gynandropsis-gynandra-cleomaceae
#7
E O Deedi Sogbohossou, Enoch G Achigan-Dako, Patrick Maundu, Svein Solberg, Edgar M S Deguenon, Rita H Mumm, Iago Hale, Allen Van Deynze, M Eric Schranz
Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra, a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for participatory, genomics-assisted breeding of orphan crops...
2018: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389607/freeze-drying-affects-the-starch-digestibility-of-cooked-potato-tubers
#8
Christina E Larder, Megan Abergel, Stan Kubow, Danielle J Donnelly
Freeze-drying (FD) has utility for phytonutrient screening but its reliability for starch measurements is unclear. The impact of FD was tested on total (TS), digestible (DS) and resistant starch (RS) for four potato varieties (PC Red, GG Red, GG Yellow, and Dolbec Yellow). The treatments included: (a) tubers boiled and then cooled for 1h at room temperature (RT) (control; Treatment 1) and 24h at 4°C; (b) tubers boiled and then cooled for 1h at RT with subsequent FD (Treatment 2); and (c) raw tubers that underwent FD, then were rehydrated, boiled, and cooled for 1h at RT (Treatment 3)...
January 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389550/vegetable-fruit-and-phytonutrient-consumption-patterns-in-taiwan
#9
Wen-Harn Pan, Nai-Hua Yeh, Ray-Yu Yang, Wei-Hsuan Lin, Wan-Chen Wu, Wen-Ting Yeh, Mi-Kyung Sung, Haeng-Shin Lee, Sue-Joan Chang, Ching-Jang Huang, Bi-Fong Lin, Meng-Tsan Chiang
Phytonutrients may play important roles in human health and yet only recently a few studies have described phytonutrient consumption patterns, using data obtained from daily consumption methods. We aimed to estimate the phytonutrient content in Taiwanese diets and analyzed main food sources of 10 major phytonutrients. In this study, food items and dietary data gathered with the 24-hour dietary recall from 2908 participants in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan were used to create a food phytonutrient database with 933 plant-based foods through integrating database, literature search, and chemical analysis and to appraise phytonutrient consumption status of participants...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370120/effects-of-multivitamin-multimineral-and-phytonutrient-supplementation-on-nutrient-status-and-biomarkers-of-heart-health-risk-in-a-russian-population-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#10
Vasily A Isakov, Alexandra A Bogdanova, Vladimir V Bessonov, Tatiana B Sentsova, Victor A Tutelyan, Yumei Lin, Valentina Kazlova, Jina Hong, Rodney A Velliquette
The primary objective of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary multivitamin, multimineral and phytonutrient (VMP) supplement on blood nutrient status and biomarkers of heart health risk in a Russian population. One hundred twenty healthy adults (40-70 years) were recruited for a 56-day (eight-week) randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study with parallel design. Subjects were divided into two groups and received either a VMP or a placebo (PLA) supplement. Blood nutrient levels of β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin C, B6, B12, red blood cell (RBC) folate, Zinc and Selenium were measured at baseline and on Days 28 and 56, and quercetin was measured at baseline and on Day 56...
January 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316692/3-3-diindolylmethane-suppressed-cyprodinil-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastatic-related-behaviors-of-human-endometrial-ishikawa-cells-via-an-estrogen-receptor-dependent-pathway
#11
Bo-Gyoung Kim, Jin-Wook Kim, Soo-Min Kim, Ryeo-Eun Go, Kyung-A Hwang, Kyung-Chul Choi
Cyprodinil (CYP) is a pyrimidine amine fungicide that has been extensively used in agricultural areas. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a derivative of the dietary phytoestrogen, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is derived from cruciferous vegetables and considered to be a cancer-preventive phytonutrient agent. In this study, the effects of CYP and DIM were examined on the cell viability, invasion, and metastasis of human endometrial cancer cells, Ishikawa, via epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). CYP increased the level of cell viability of Ishikawa cells compared to DMSO as a control, as did E2...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259394/characterizing-the-effect-of-supplements-on-the-phenotype-of-cultured-macrophages-from-patients-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#12
Batya Rinsky, Shira Hagbi-Levi, Sarah Elbaz-Hayoun, Michelle Grunin, Itay Chowers
Purpose: Oral vitamin and mineral supplements reduce the risk of visual loss in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the pathways that mediate this beneficial effect are poorly understood. Macrophages may exert oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic effects in the context of AMD. We aim to assess if oral supplements can modulate the macrophage phenotype in this disease. Methods: Monocytes were isolated from patients with neovascular AMD (nvAMD), cultured, matured to macrophages, and polarized to classical [M1 (stimulated by IFNγ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS))] and alternative [M2 (stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13)] phenotypes...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#13
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207918/intake-of-green-plant-membrane-with-dietary-oil-suppresses-postprandial-hypertriglyceridemia-in-rats-via-promoting-excretion-of-bile-acids
#14
Hiroko Matsuda, Shinpei Ooi, Ryo Otokozawa, Kodai Kumazaki, Eri Udagawa, Masaya Asakura, Daisuke Suzuki, Takaaki Shirai
Green-plant membrane is a phytonutrient present in green leafy vegetables at high concentration. Postprandial increases in blood triglyceride levels result in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, dietary life and eating order also affect postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. In this study, the effects of once-daily intake of green-plant membrane with dietary oil on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, green-plant membrane bound hydrophobic bile acids but did not inhibit pancreatic lipase activity...
January 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206204/antioxidants-protect-against-arsenic-induced-mitochondrial-cardio-toxicity
#15
REVIEW
Clare Pace, Ruben Dagda, Jeff Angermann
Arsenic is a potent cardiovascular toxicant associated with numerous biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in exposed human populations. Arsenic is also a carcinogen, yet arsenic trioxide is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of acute promyelotic leukemia (APL). The therapeutic use of arsenic is limited due to its severe cardiovascular side effects. Many of the toxic effects of arsenic are mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and related to arsenic's effect on oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of antioxidants against arsenic induced cardiovascular dysfunction...
December 5, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195948/effects-of-soil-type-and-organic-fertilizers-on-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-e-in-korean-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#16
Ill-Min Chung, Jae-Kwang Kim, Jin-Hee Yang, Ji-Hee Lee, Sung-Kyu Park, Na-Young Son, Seung-Hyun Kim
This study examined the effects of soil type and fertilizer regimes on variations in fatty acids (FAs) and vitamin E (Vit-E) in 6-year-old ginseng roots. We observed significant variation in both FA and Vit-E contents owing to the type and quantity of organic fertilizer used in each soil type during cultivation. Unsaturated FAs were approximately 2.7-fold higher in ginseng than in saturated FAs. Linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the most abundant FAs detected in ginseng roots. Additionally, α-tocopherol was the major Vit-E detected...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161349/relation-of-retinal-and-serum-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-to-white-matter-integrity-in-older-adults-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#17
Catherine M Mewborn, Douglas P Terry, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, L Stephen Miller
Objective: Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are phytonutrients that accumulate in human brain tissue and positively impact cognition. Given their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and their role in stabilizing cell membranes, L&Z may relate to measures of white matter integrity (WMI). Method: The current study tested the relation of retinal (macular pigment optical density/MPOD) and blood serum concentrations of L&Z to WMI in community-dwelling older adults (n = 54) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111190/chemical-composition-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-activities-of-essential-oil-and-methanol-extract-of-artemisia-vulgaris-and-gaultheria-fragrantissima-collected-from-nepal
#18
Bishnu Prasad Pandey, Rupak Thapa, Anil Upreti
OBJECTIVE: To identify the chemical constituents and biological activities of essential oil and crude methanol extract of Artemisia vulgaris (A. vulgaris) and Gaultheria fragrantissima (G. fragrantissima). METHODS: Phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoid content, antibacterial activities, anti-oxidant assay of the crude extract were carried out to identify the biological activities and phytonutrients present in the extract. Furthermore, the chemical constituents present in the essential oil and crude methanol extract were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093377/recovery-and-utilization-of-palm-oil-mill-effluent-source-as-value-added-food-products
#19
Soek Sin Teh, Augustine Soon Hock Ong, Siau Hui Mah
The environmental impacts of palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been a concern due to the water pollution and greenhouse gases emissions. Thus, this study was conducted to recover the value-added products from POME source before being discharged. The samples, before (X) and after (Y) the pre-recovery system in the clarification tank were sampled and analysed and proximate analysis indicated that both samples are energy rich source of food due to high contents of fats and carbohydrates. GCMS analysis showed that the oil extracts contain predominantly palmitic, oleic, linoleic and stearic acids...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039792/health-promoting-phytochemicals-from-11-mustard-cultivars-at-baby-leaf-and-mature-stages
#20
Marissa D Frazie, Moo Jung Kim, Kang-Mo Ku
Mustard is a Brassica vegetable that provides a number of phytonutrients. However, the phytonutrient profile of mustard has been relatively limited. We analyzed the glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, carotenoids, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of 11 mustard cultivars grown in a greenhouse at the baby leaf and mature stages. An aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin and its hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate and 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane were the major phytonutrients in the mustard leaves...
October 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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