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Enlarged left ventricle

Anthony J Weekes, Angela K Johnson, Daniel Troha, Gregory Thacker, Jordan Chanler-Berat, Michael Runyon
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in pulmonary embolism (PE) has been associated with increased morbidity. Tools for RVD identification are not well defined. The prognostic value of RVD markers to predict serious adverse events (SAE) during hospitalization is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Prospectively compare the incidence of SAE in normotensive emergency department patients with PE based upon RVD by goal-directed echocardiography (GDE), cardiac biomarkers, and right-to-left ventricle ratio by computed tomography (CT)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Joe Luis Pantoja, Ashley E Morgan, Eugene A Grossi, Morten O Jensen, Jonathan W Weinsaft, Robert A Levine, Liang Ge, Mark B Ratcliffe
BACKGROUND: Recurrence of mitral regurgitation (MR) after undersized mitral annuloplasty (MA) for ischemic MR is as high as 60%, with the recurrence rate likely due to continued dilation of the left ventricle (LV). To better understand the causes of recurrent MR, we studied the effect of undersized MA on strain in the LV wall. We hypothesize that the acute change in ventricular shape induced by MA will cause increased strain in regions nearest the mitral valve. METHODS: Finite element models were previously reported, based on cardiac magnetic resonance images of 5 sheep with mild to moderate ischemic MR...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
C Ramírez-Hernández, A Barbosa-Quintana, R Ramírez-Romero
A 13-year-old female Persian cat died suddenly after severe respiratory distress. At necropsy, the changes were compatible with congestive heart failure. The heart was enlarged with a flabby and puckered sac-like aneurysm at the apex of the left ventricle. The apical zone showed a thin muscular wall arising from the free wall of the left ventricle connected to a bulged saccular area through a wide communication. Microscopically, the wall of the aneurysm was composed of fibrous connective tissue with neovascularization and sparse atrophied myocardial cells at the margins...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Antonello D'Andrea, Eduardo Bossone, Juri Radmilovic, Lucia Riegler, Enrica Pezzullo, Raffaella Scarafile, Maria Giovanna Russo, Maurizio Galderisi, Raffaele Calabrò
Cardiac changes in athletes involve the left ventricle and atrium. Mild left atrial enlargement is common among competitive athletes, possibly a physiologic adaptation to exercise conditioning. The prevalence of this remodeling and the association with supraventricular arrhythmias has not been systematically addressed. Echocardiography screens for patients with disease involving the left atrium. New techniques like speckle tracking can recognize early atrial dysfunction and assess left atrial myocardial function in patients with either physiologic or pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy...
November 2016: Cardiology Clinics
Jung-Woo Son, Joong Kyung Sung, Jun-Won Lee, Young Jin Youn, Min-Soo Ahn, Sung Gyun Ahn, Byung-Su Yoo, Seung-Hwan Lee, Junghan Yoon, Sang Baek Koh, Jang-Young Kim
Although central obesity is a more powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than general obesity, there is limited information on structural and functional changes of the heart in central obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the association between abdominal obesity and geometric and functional changes of the heart in healthy males. A total of 1460 healthy males aged 40 to 70 years without known CVD from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population were included...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
William H Gaasch, Sachin P Shah, Sherif B Labib, Theo E Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Mitral regurgitation (MR) is generally characterised as exhibiting a 'low impedance leak into the left atrium'. This notion is widely accepted without measured impedance data. The aim of this study was to define the impedance to retrograde and forward blood flow and to examine hydraulic (pressure-volume) and mechanical (stress-shortening) function in chronic severe MR. METHODS: A mathematical model of a double outlet ventricle was developed and the ratio of retrograde to forward impedance was plotted over a wide range of regurgitant fraction (RF)...
September 28, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
İlkay Erdoğan, Faik Sarıalioğlu
OBJECTIVE: Hemangiomas are tumors most commonly encountered in pediatric patients, and are frequently treated with propranolol. However, there are currently no standard methods for evaluating cardiac function in patients prior to propranolol treatment. The present study was designed to aid in the evaluation of pretreatment cardiac and effects of propranolol on vital signs in pediatric hemangioma patients. METHODS: A pediatric oncology specialist and a pediatric cardiology specialist examined all patients prior to initiation of propranolol treatment...
September 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Floyd D Wilson, Danny L Magee, Kelli H Jones, Erica Baravik-Munsell, Timothy S Cummings, Robert W Wills, Lanny W Pace
Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Ljuba Bacharova, Vavrinec Szathmary, Jana Svehlikova, Anton Mateasik, Milan Tysler
Diffuse or regional activation slowing in ventricular myocardium can result from different cardiac pathologies, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, ischemia or fibrosis. Altered ventricular activation sequence leads to deformations of the activation front and consequently to the changes in the QRS complex. Using a computer model we simulated the effect of slowed ventricular activation on the QRS waveform with a special interest in ECG changes which reproduce the ECG criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH)...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
Josef Finsterer, Claudia Stöllberger
Objectives. Psychosis and left ventricular hypertrabeculation (or noncompaction) (LVHT) have not been described in the same patient. Here we report a patient with a long-term history of schizophrenia who was later diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy (dCMP) and LVHT. Case Report. A 47-year-old Caucasian male developed nondifferentiated schizophrenia at the age of 26 y. Since the age of 33 y he was regularly drinking alcohol. At the age of 47 y he developed heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography showed an enlarged left ventricle, reduced systolic function, and surprisingly LVHT in the apical segment...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Konstantinos Tsilonis, Pantelis A Sarafidis, Vasilios Kamperidis, Charalampos Loutradis, Panagiotis I Georgianos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Antonios Ziakas, Georgios Sianos, Pavlos Nikolaidis, Anastasios N Lasaridis, Haralambos Karvounis
BACKGROUND: The long interdialytic interval in thrice-weekly hemodialysis is associated with excess cardiovascular risk. However, the mechanisms behind these adverse consequences are not fully understood. This study investigated the interdialytic changes in right and left ventricular function during the 2- and 3-day intervals. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study with 2 random crossover sequences of recordings: 3-day followed by 2-day interval or vice versa. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 41 stable patients with end-stage renal disease on standard thrice-weekly hemodialysis therapy...
August 18, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Makiko Nakamura, Osahiko Sunagawa, Ryo Hokama, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Takafumi Miyara, Yoji Taba, Takashi Touma
The patient was a 26 year-old man who was referred to our hospital in June 2011 because of severe heart failure. At age 24 years, he was found to have Becker muscular dystrophy. He received enalapril for cardiac dysfunction; however, he had worsening heart failure and was thus referred to our hospital. Echocardiography showed enlargement of the left ventricle, with a diastolic dimension of 77 mm and ejection fraction of 19%. His condition improved temporarily after an infusion of dobutamine and milrinone. He was then administered amiodarone for ventricular tachycardia; however, he subsequently developed hemoptysis...
September 28, 2016: International Heart Journal
Jyh-Mirn Lai, Jui-Te Wu, Wei-Cheng Yang, Ming-Hsin Chao, Hajime Nagahata
A two-day-old female Toggenburg goat with thoracic ectopia cordis (EC) was diagnosed via radiography and computed tomography. The goat was born with EC, defects of the sternum and a supra-umbilical abdominal wall, but without the presence of Cantrell's syndrome. Necropsy and histopathological findings indicated the affected kid had malformation of the heart with an enlarged left ventricle. The findings showed the heart (9 x 5 x 5 cm) stayed outside the thorax, and was covered by a semitransparent membrane. This report is the first to describe a case of thoracic EC in a goat whose sternum was not developed fully and was not connected to the ribs...
May 2016: Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research
Anthony J Weekes, Laura Oh, Gregory Thacker, Angela K Johnson, Michael Runyon, Geoffrey Rose, Thomas Johnson, Megan Templin, H James Norton
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate observer agreement using qualitative goal-directed echocardiographic criteria for right ventricular (RV) dysfunction prognostication in submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: Two emergency physicians and 2 cardiologists independently reviewed 31 packets of goal-directed echocardiographic video clips consisting of at least 3 windows obtained by emergency physicians from normotensive patients with PE. Nine packets were repeated to assess for intraobserver agreement...
October 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Christina L Greene, Jack H Boyd
A 21-year-old female was found to have an enlarging pericardial effusion 10 days after a 40-foot fall. Initial cardiac evaluation was negative. Ten days after presentation she developed hemodynamic compromise and chest computed tomography was concerning for cardiac rupture. The patient was taken to the operating room where the ruptured posterior ventricle was repaired, perforation in the P1 leaflet was identified and the mitral valve was replaced. The patient survived. To our knowledge, this is the first report of survival after delayed presentation of atrioventricular rupture at the level of the mitral valve...
August 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Katarzyna Kurnicka, Barbara Lichodziejewska, Sylwia Goliszek, Olga Dzikowska-Diduch, Olga Zdończyk, Marta Kozłowska, Maciej Kostrubiec, Michał Ciurzyński, Piotr Palczewski, Katarzyna Grudzka, Marcin Krupa, Marcin Koć, Piotr Pruszczyk
BACKGROUND: There is no comprehensive analysis of transthoracic echocardiographic findings of pulmonary embolism (PE). The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (RVD), typical echocardiographic signs of acute PE (TES), and incidental abnormalities. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective analysis was conducted of 511 consecutive patients (281 women; mean age, 64.0 ± 18.6 years) with PE confirmed by contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography who underwent transthoracic echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular and RV alterations...
September 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Evan P Kransdorf, Mike C Fishbein, Lawrence S C Czer, Jignesh K Patel, Angela Velleca, Henry D Tazelaar, R Raina Roy, D Eric Steidley, Jon A Kobashigawa, Daniel J Luthringer
OBJECTIVES: The pathologic features of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy may not be widely appreciated in the United States. We sought to describe the gross, microscopic, immunohistochemical, and molecular pathology features useful to diagnose chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODS: The features from a case series of cardiectomy specimens of patients undergoing heart transplantation (12 patients) or mechanical circulatory support device implantation (one patient) for chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy at three institutions in the United States are reported and analyzed...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Brenda Valenzuela-Alcaraz, Fátima Crispi, Mónica Cruz-Lemini, Bart Bijnens, Laura García-Otero, Marta Sitges, Joan Balasch, Eduard Gratacós
OBJECTIVE: Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses show cardiovascular remodeling in utero; however, these conditions are often associated. We evaluated the differential effect of ART and SGA on fetal cardiac remodeling. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study including term singleton pregnancies, divided into four groups: 102 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses conceived spontaneously (controls), 72 AGA fetuses conceived by ART (ART-AGA), 31 SGA fetuses conceived by ART (ART-SGA) and 28 SGA fetuses conceived naturally (SGA)...
July 15, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ankur Gupta, Prafull Sharma, Ajay Bahl
BACKGROUND: Limited data is available regarding prognosis of patients with severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and varying LV dimensions. Purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with respect to LV size. METHODS: 145 patients of DCM cohort with LV ejection fraction <35% were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 with normal LV dimensions, group 2 with mild-moderately enlarged left ventricle and group 3 with severely dilated left ventricle...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Adam R Kowalówka, Magdalena Onyszczuk, Wojciech Wańha, Marek A Deja
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Do we have to operate on moderate functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) during aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS)?' Altogether 325 papers were found using the reported search, of which 9 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated...
July 4, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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