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Modafinil and motivation

Elisabeth J Vargo, Andrea Petróczi
The non-medical use of prescription medication for the pursuit of increasing cognitive and intellectual capacities (defined neuroenhancement) has received growing attention from the scientific community and policymakers alike. To date, limited qualitative data exist exploring the nature of the phenomenon, especially as a potentially emerging trend among university students in England. Existing American literature suggests that students believe that neuroenhancement helps the individual to maximize his/her time, consenting a suitable balance between work and leisure...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Elizabeth A Cabrera, Corinde E Wiers, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Guillaume Fond, Martine Gavaret, Christophe Vidal, Lore Brunel, Jean-Pierre Riveline, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Philippe Domenech
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychostimulant use in the French medical community and their motives. A population-based cross-sectional study using a self-administered online survey was done. A total of 1718 French students and physicians (mean age, 26.84±7.19 years, 37.1% men) were included. Self-reported lifetime use, motives, socio-demographic and academic features for over the counter (OTC), medically prescribed (MPP), and illicit (IP) psychostimulant users were reported. Lifetime prevalence of psychostimulant use was 33% (29...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Michael W Otto, Josephine Lee, Stefan G Hofmann, Bridget A Hearon, Jasper A J Smits, David Rosenfield, Maurizio Fava, Jesse H Wright
Despite advances in individual and combined treatments for major depression, issues with non-response and partial-response remain relatively common, motivating the search for new treatment strategies. This study aims to develop one such novel treatment. In this proof-of-concept study, we are investigating whether the treatment enhancing effects of d-cycloserine (DCS) administration can be extended outside the extinction-learning paradigms where they have been primarily examined. Using uniform delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) content via computer-administered interventions for depression, we are assessing the value of pre-session administrations of DCS for retention of therapeutic learning...
May 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Brian E Cade, Daniel J Gottlieb, Diane S Lauderdale, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Sarah G Buxbaum, Philip L De Jager, Daniel S Evans, Tibor Fülöp, Sina A Gharib, W Craig Johnson, Hyun Kim, Emma K Larkin, Seung Ku Lee, Andrew S Lim, Naresh M Punjabi, Chol Shin, Katie L Stone, Gregory J Tranah, Jia Weng, Kristine Yaffe, Phyllis C Zee, Sanjay R Patel, Xiaofeng Zhu, Susan Redline, Richa Saxena
Sleep duration is implicated in the etiologies of chronic diseases and premature mortality. However, the genetic basis for sleep duration is poorly defined. We sought to identify novel genetic components influencing sleep duration in a multi-ethnic sample. Meta-analyses were conducted of genetic associations with self-reported, habitual sleep duration from seven Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) cohorts of over 25 000 individuals of African, Asian, European and Hispanic American ancestry. All individuals were genotyped for ∼50 000 SNPs from 2000 candidate heart, lung, blood and sleep genes...
January 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Barbara J Sahakian, Annette B Bruhl, Jennifer Cook, Clare Killikelly, George Savulich, Thomas Piercy, Sepehr Hafizi, Jesus Perez, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, John Suckling, Peter B Jones
In addition to causing distress and disability to the individual, neuropsychiatric disorders are also extremely expensive to society and governments. These disorders are both common and debilitating and impact on cognition, functionality and wellbeing. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and methylphenidate, are used to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Other cognitive enhancers include specific computerized cognitive training and devices...
September 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Sanyogita Sanya Ram, Safeera Hussainy, Marcus Henning, Maree Jensen, Bruce Russell
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Cognitive enhancers (CE) such as methylphenidate, amphetamines and modafinil are becoming more commonly used in non-medical situations. This study explored the prevalence and motivations for CE use in a New Zealand university. DESIGN AND METHODS: Students from the Schools of Pharmacy, Nursing, Medicine, Law and Accounting at a university in New Zealand were invited to complete a paper-based questionnaire that elicited their views on the prevalence, reasons for use and attitudes towards use of CEs...
May 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
A G Franke, M Soyka
Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) and "pharmacological neuroenhancement" (PN) are different terms to describe the use of diverse substances by healthy individuals aiming at an increase of individual cognitive skills. Targets of CE are an increase of vigilance, attention, concentration, memory and motivation. Substances used for pharmacological CE can be divided into two categories: stimulants and non-stimulants. The sub-group of methylxanthines like caffeine as well as the sub-group of amphetamines like prescription and illicit amphetamine as well as methylphenidate and modafinil belongs to the group of stimulants; antidementives, antidepressants, phytopharmaceutical products like Ginkgo biloba etc...
February 2015: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, A MacGregor, G Fond
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical neuroenhancer consumption in college students is a rather unknown phenomenon in Europe and particularly in France, where surprisingly only one study was conducted in 1988. AIM: Our objective is to assess prevalence and motivations for licit (use inside medical indication) and illicit pharmaceutical neuroenhancer consumption (tablet form) in a non-selected French sample of Medicine and Pharmacology students. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A validated questionnaire was send to French sample of Medicine and Pharmacology students using email...
July 2014: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
S Sommer, W Danysz, H Russ, B Valastro, G Flik, W Hauber
Drugs that are able to shift effort-related decision making in intact rats towards high-effort response options are largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of two candidate drugs, MRZ-9547 and its l-enantiomer MRZ-9546 on progressive ratio (PR) responding using two different tasks, a standard PR task that involves increasing ratio requirements and a PR/chow feeding choice task in which animals can lever press for preferred food pellets under a PR schedule or approach freely available less preferred lab chow...
December 2014: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kara Simone Bagot, Yifrah Kaminer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increasing prescription stimulant abuse among youth without diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of concern. The most frequently cited motive for abuse is improved academic achievement via neurocognitive enhancement. Our aim in reviewing the literature was to identify neurocognitive effects of prescription stimulants in non-ADHD youth. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted for youth aged 12–25 years using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
April 2014: Addiction
Takuya Funayama, Yumiko Ikeda, Amane Tateno, Hidehiko Takahashi, Yoshiro Okubo, Haruhisa Fukayama, Hidenori Suzuki
RATIONALE: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) works as a key brain structure of the reward system, in which reward-related neural activity is well correlated with dopamine release from mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. OBJECTIVES: Since modafinil can modulate dopaminergic transmission through re-uptake inhibition of dopamine, we investigated whether modafinil affects the reward-related brain activity in the NAc in healthy subjects. METHODS: Twenty healthy participants underwent two series of functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing monetary incentive delay task in which they were cued to anticipate and respond to a rapidly presented target to gain or avoid losing varying amounts of money, under modafinil or placebo condition...
August 2014: Psychopharmacology
Joy M Schmitz, Charles E Green, Angela L Stotts, Jan A Lindsay, Nuvan S Rathnayaka, John Grabowski, F Gerard Moeller
BACKGROUND: Cocaine pharmacotherapy trials are often confounded by considerable variability in baseline cocaine-use levels, obscuring possible medication efficacy. Testing the feasibility of using a prerandomization, abstinence-induction protocol, we screened three candidate medications to explore treatment response in patients who did, or did not, achieve abstinence during an extended baseline phase. METHOD: Eligible treatment-seeking, cocaine-dependent subjects entered a 4-week baseline period (Phase I) with high-value abstinence contingent vouchers and two motivational interviewing sessions, followed by a 12-week medication trial (Phase II) with random assignment stratified on Phase I abstinence status to (1) modafinil (400mg/d), (2) levodopa/carbidopa (800/200mg/d), (3) naltrexone (50mg/d), or (4) placebo...
March 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kenneth A Perkins, Caryn Lerman
RATIONALE: Initial screening of new medications for potential efficacy (i.e., Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early phase 2), such as in aiding smoking cessation, should be efficient in identifying which drugs do, or do not, warrant more extensive (and expensive) clinical testing. OBJECTIVES: This focused review outlines our research on development, evaluation, and validation of an efficient crossover procedure for sensitivity in detecting medication efficacy for smoking cessation...
January 2014: Psychopharmacology
Florien W Boele, Linda Douw, Marjolein de Groot, Hinke F van Thuijl, Wilmy Cleijne, Jan J Heimans, Martin J B Taphoorn, Jaap C Reijneveld, Martin Klein
BACKGROUND: Fatigue, cognitive deficits, and depression are frequently reported but often undertreated symptoms that can profoundly affect daily life in patients with primary brain tumors (PBTs). To evaluate the effects of the psychostimulant modafinil on fatigue, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and cognitive functioning in PBT patients, we performed a multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. METHODS: Patients randomly received either 6 weeks of treatment with modafinil (up to 400 mg/day) or 6 weeks with placebo...
October 2013: Neuro-oncology
Kelly Smart, Renée C Desmond, Constantine X Poulos, Martin Zack
This study examined the effects of modafinil (200 mg) on slot machine betting profiles from a previous sample of low and high impulsivity (LI/HI) pathological gamblers (10/Group; Zack and Poulos, 2009). Hierarchical regression assessed the prospective relationship between Payoff and Bet Size on consecutive trials, along with moderating effects of Group, Cumulative Winnings (low/high) and Phase of game (early/late) under drug and placebo. Y intercepts for the simple regressions of Bet Size on Payoff indexed overall motivation to bet...
October 2013: Neuropharmacology
Heinz Steiner, Vincent Van Waes
The psychostimulants methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), amphetamine (Adderall), and modafinil (Provigil) are widely used in the treatment of medical conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy and, increasingly, as "cognitive enhancers" by healthy people. The long-term neuronal effects of these drugs, however, are poorly understood. A substantial amount of research over the past two decades has investigated the effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines on gene regulation in the brain because these molecular changes are considered critical for psychostimulant addiction...
January 2013: Progress in Neurobiology
Stephen V Mahler, Megan Hensley-Simon, Pouya Tahsili-Fahadan, Ryan T LaLumiere, Charles Thomas, Rebecca V Fallon, Peter W Kalivas, Gary Aston-Jones
Modafinil may be useful for treating stimulant abuse, but the mechanisms by which it acts to do so are unknown. Indeed, a primary effect of modafinil is to inhibit dopamine transport, which typically promotes rather than inhibits motivated behavior. Therefore, we examined the role of nucleus accumbens extracellular glutamate and the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) in modafinil effects. One group of rats was trained to self-administer cocaine for 10 days and extinguished, then given priming injections of cocaine to elicit reinstatement...
January 2014: Addiction Biology
Jordy van Enkhuizen, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
RATIONALE: The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) can be used to quantify impulsive and risky choice behaviors in psychiatric patients, e.g., bipolar disorder (BD) sufferers. Although developing treatments for these behaviors is important, few predictive animal models exist. Inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) can model profiles of altered motor activity and exploration seen in patients with BD. The effect of DAT inhibition on impulsive choices related to BD has received limited study however...
February 2013: Psychopharmacology
U Müller, J B Rowe, T Rittman, C Lewis, T W Robbins, B J Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
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