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fluoroquinolones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933228/who-inrud-prescribing-indicators-and-prescribing-trends-of-antibiotics-in-the-accident-and-emergency-department-of-bahawal-victoria-hospital-pakistan
#1
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Samia Shahid, Sidra Javaid, Huria Ikram, Uzma Baig, Shane Scahill
A descriptive, retrospective and cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prescribing practices and antibiotic use patterns in the Accident and Emergency department of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. A sample of 4320 prescriptions (systematic random sampling) was drawn out of a total of 1,080,000 prescriptions written during the period 1st January-31st December 2014. The standard World Health Organization/International Network for Rational Use of Drugs prescribing indicators were used to determine the prescribing practices of physicians...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931682/fluoroquinolone-consumption-and-resistance-trends-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-other-respiratory-pathogens-ecological-antibiotic-pressure-and-consequences-in-pakistan-2009-2015
#2
S Shakoor, S Tahseen, K Jabeen, R Fatima, F R Malik, A H Rizvi, R Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are important anti-tuberculous drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. Resistance to FQs leads to fewer options for treatment of tuberculosis (TB), and infection with such strains may also require longer treatment duration. Trends of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are indicators of MTB-resistance evolution. Drivers of such resistance need to be understood and studied to inform preventive strategies...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929396/detection-of-ciprofloxacin-in-urine-through-sensitized-lanthanide-luminescence
#3
Subhankar Singha, Kyo Han Ahn
Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is widely used for the treatment of bacterial infection in humans due to its broad antibacterial spectrum. An excessive use or overdose of ciprofloxacin on the other hand can cause several adverse effects not only to humans but also to microorganisms. Unabsorbed ciprofloxacin in the body is mostly excreted through urine and finally goes to the environment, providing a drug resistance pressure on bacteria. Hence a simple and efficient detection method of ciprofloxacin is necessary, which, for example, can be used to analyze ciprofloxacin content in urine...
December 5, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929242/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-diagnosis-and-management
#4
Alexander Kaysin, Anthony J Viera
Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Risk factors include older age and medical comorbidities. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of cough, dyspnea, pleuritic pain, or acute functional or cognitive decline, with abnormal vital signs (e.g., fever, tachycardia) and lung examination findings. Diagnosis should be confirmed by chest radiography or ultrasonography. Validated prediction scores for pneumonia severity can guide the decision between outpatient and inpatient therapy. Using procalcitonin as a biomarker for severe infection may further assist with risk stratification...
November 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928779/how-antibiotics-should-be-prescribed-to-hospitalized-elderly-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
Forest W Arnold
Elderly patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) should be administered antimicrobials in the emergency department prior to transfer to the ward or intensive care unit (ICU). For ward patients, a β-lactam with a macrolide or a respiratory fluoroquinolone alone should be given to cover typical and atypical pathogens. For ICU patients, a β-lactam with either a macrolide or a fluoroquinolone should be given. Other regimens are indicated if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a concern...
December 7, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928448/antimicrobial-resistance-temporal-trend-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-blood
#6
Gavriliu Lc, Benea Oe, Benea S
Background. According to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network, Romania reports an increasing number of resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from invasive infections every year. Material and Method. We analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from blood in 2010 and 2015 in "Matei Bals" National Institute of Infectious Diseases, in order to identify any significant changes in the last five years. Results. We identified 18 strains in 2010 and 37 strains in 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922740/antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-food
#7
Łukasz Mąka, Magdalena Popowska
This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916384/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates-from-kolkata-india-over-a-15-years-period-1998-2012
#8
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914135/is-%C3%AE-lactam-plus-macrolide-more-effective-than-%C3%AE-lactam-plus-fluoroquinolone-among-patients-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Jong Hoo Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Yee Hyung Kim
Adding either macrolide or fluoroquinolone (FQ) to β-lactam has been recommended for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, due to the limited evidence available, there is a question as to the superiority of the two combination therapies. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched for systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of eight trials were analyzed. The total number of patients in the β-lactam plus macrolide (BL-M) and β-lactam plus fluoroquinolone (BL-F) groups was 2,273 and 1,600, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#10
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 1, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908580/antimicrobial-activity-of-novel-4h-4-oxoquinolizine-compounds-against-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains
#11
Seok Hyeon Na, Hyejin Jeon, Yoo Jeong Kim, Hyo Il Kwon, Gati Noble Selasi, Asiimwe Nicholas, Chang-Soo Yun, Sang Ho Lee, Je Chul Lee
The aim of this study was to screen lead compounds exhibiting potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains from a library of chemical compounds. In a high-throughput screening analysis of 7520 compounds representative of 340,000 small molecules, two 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds were the most active against A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Subsequent selection and analysis of 70 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds revealed that the top 7 compounds were extremely active against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) A...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908539/design-synthesis-molecular-docking-anti-proteus-mirabilis-and-urease-inhibition-of-new-fluoroquinolone-carboxylic-acid-derivatives
#12
Mohammed A A Abdullah, Gamal El-Din A A Abuo-Rahma, El-Shimaa M N Abdelhafez, Heba A Hassan, Rehab M Abd El-Baky
New hydroxamic acid, hydrazide and amide derivatives of ciprofloxacin in addition to their analogues of levofloxacin were prepared and identified by different spectroscopic techniques. Some of the prepared compounds revealed good activity against the urease splitting bacteria, Proteus mirabilis. The urease inhibitory activity was investigated using indophenol method. Most of the tested compounds showed better activity than the reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). The ciprofloxacin hydrazide derivative 3a and levofloxacin hydroxamic acid 7 experienced the highest activity (IC50=1...
November 9, 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906556/combination-effect-of-cefuroxime-and-levofloxacin-against-bacteria-isolated-from-the-healthy-conjunctival-sac-and-endophthalmitis-cases-using-a-fractional-inhibitory-concentration-index
#13
Takashi Suzuki, Toshihiro Yamamoto, Tomohiko Torikai, Yuichi Ohashi
PURPOSE: Intracameral cefuroxime (CXM) and antibiotic eye drops such as fluoroquinolone are widely used for preventing endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. However, few reports are available regarding their interactions. This study was conducted to examine the in vitro interaction of CXM and levofloxacin (LVFX) against bacterial isolates from the healthy conjunctival sac before cataract surgery and from endophthalmitis cases. METHODS: The activity of each drug was determined using a broth dilution method...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906087/legionella-pneumonia-in-the-niagara-region-ontario-canada-a-case-series
#14
Stephanie Cargnelli, Jeff Powis, Jennifer L Y Tsang
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, a major cause of Legionnaires' disease, accounts for 2-15 % of all community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and up to 30 % of community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a crucial step in the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, recognition of Legionnaires' disease continues to be challenging because of its nonspecific clinical features. We sought to describe hospitalized community-acquired Legionnaires' disease to increase awareness of this important and potentially lethal disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905408/limitations-of-mic-as-sole-metric-of-pharmacodynamic-response-across-the-range-of-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-within-a-single-bacterial-species
#15
Xuesong Wen, Ronette Gehring, Andrea Stallbaumer, Jim E Riviere, Victoriya V Volkova
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial drug for a bacterial pathogen is used as a measure of the bacterial susceptibility to the drug. However, relationships between the antimicrobial concentration, bacterial susceptibility, and the pharmacodynamic (PD) inhibitory effect on the bacterial population are more complex. The relationships can be captured by multi-parameter models such as the Emax model. In this study, time-kill experiments were conducted with a zoonotic pathogen Pasteurella multocida and the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904884/escherichia-coli-sequence-type-131-h30-is-the-main-driver-of-emerging-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-e-coli-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#16
James R Johnson, Brian Johnston, Paul Thuras, Bryn Launer, Evgeni V Sokurenko, Loren G Miller
The H30 strain of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) is a recently emerged, globally disseminated lineage associated with fluoroquinolone resistance and, via its H30Rx subclone, the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Here, we studied the clonal background and resistance characteristics of 109 consecutive recent E. coli clinical isolates (2015) and 41 historical ESBL-producing E. coli blood isolates (2004 to 2011) from a public tertiary care center in California with a rising prevalence of ESBL-producing E...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#17
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a critical global health issue. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902737/a-comparison-of-the-sensititre-mycotb-plate-the-bactec-mgit-960-and-a-microarray-based-molecular-assay-for-the-detection-of-drug-resistance-in-clinical-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-moscow-russia
#18
Elena Y Nosova, Danila V Zimenkov, Anastasia A Khakhalina, Alexandra I Isakova, Ludmila Y Krylova, Marina V Makarova, Ksenia Y Galkina, Maria A Krasnova, Svetlana G Safonova, Vitaly I Litvinov, Dmitry A Gryadunov, Elena M Bogorodskaya
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to compare the consistency of three assays for the determination of the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains with various resistance profiles isolated from the Moscow region. METHODS: A total of 144 MTB clinical isolates with a strong bias toward drug resistance were examined using Bactec MGIT 960, Sensititre MycoTB, and a microarray-based molecular assay TB-TEST to detect substitutions in the rpoB, katG, inhA, ahpC, gyrA, gyrB, rrs, eis, and embB genes that are associated with resistance to rifampin, isoniazid, fluoroquinolones, second-line injectable drugs and ethambutol...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902387/characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-at-tripoli-medical-centre-libya-between-2008-and-2014
#19
Elloulu BenDarif, Asma Khalil, Abdunnabi Rayes, Emad Bennour, Abdulgader Dhawi, John J Lowe, Shawn Gibbs, Richard V Goering
Bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent a well-known public health problem affecting both healthcare-associated and community populations. Past studies have clearly shown the value of characterizing problem organisms including MRSA through the use of molecular techniques (i.e., strain typing), with the aim of informing local, regional, and national efforts in epidemiological analysis and infection control. The country of Libya represents a challenge for such analysis due to limited historical infectious disease information and major political unrest culminating in the Libyan Civil War (Libyan Revolution) in 2011...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899145/bibliometric-analysis-of-publications-on-campylobacter-2000-2015
#20
Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global burden of campylobacateriosis...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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