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fluoroquinolones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334702/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-7-substituted-6-fluoroquinolone-and-7-substituted-6-8-difluoroquinolone-derivatives
#1
Socorro Leyva-Ramos, Denisse de Loera, Jaime Cardoso-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed synthetic antimicrobial agents. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome; the irreversible DNA damage eventually causes the killing of bacteria. Thorough knowledge of the structure-activity relationship of quinolones is essential for the development of new drugs with improved activity against resistant strains. METHODS: The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 representing strains using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
March 24, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333664/compatibility-of-norepinephrine-bitartrate-with-levofloxacin-and-moxifloxacin-during-simulated-y-site-administration
#2
Vicky Mody, Samit Shah, Jaymin Patel, Michael C Thomas
The purpose of this study was to determine the physical compatibility and chemical stability of norepinephrine bitartrate with selected fluoroquinolones during simulated intravenous Y-site administration. Simulation of Y-compatibility of intravenous fluids can be experimentally demonstrated by mixing equal volumes of two drugs of interest. Hence, we prepared 1:1 mixture of norepinephrine bitartrate and levofloxacin or moxifloxacin by mixing 64 .g/mL of norepinephrine bitartrate individually with clinically relevant concentrations of levofloxacin (5 mg/mL) and moxifloxacin (1...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333351/ecological-impact-of-ciprofloxacin-on-commensal-enterococci-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
Victoire de Lastours, Elena Maugy, Vincent Mathy, Françoise Chau, Benjamin Rossi, François Guérin, Vincent Cattoir, Bruno Fantin
Background: The ecological impact of ciprofloxacin on commensal enterococci is unknown. Methods: Forty-eight healthy volunteers received ciprofloxacin from day (D) 0 to D14; stools were collected on D7, D14 and D42. Fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant enterococci (FQ-SE and FQ-RE) were detected and quantified by culture, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The relative abundance of FQ-RE over FQ-SE was determined. The genetic basis of fluoroquinolone resistance was deciphered by partial sequencing of gyrA and parC genes...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333330/genomic-landscape-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-from-an-urban-african-setting
#4
Patrick Musicha, Nicholas A Feasey, Amy K Cain, Teemu Kallonen, Chrispin Chaguza, Chikondi Peno, Margaret Khonga, Sarah Thompson, Katherine J Gray, Alison E Mather, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas R Thomson, Chisomo L Msefula
Objectives: Efforts to treat Escherichia coli infections are increasingly being compromised by the rapid, global spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Whilst AMR in E. coli has been extensively investigated in resource-rich settings, in sub-Saharan Africa molecular patterns of AMR are not well described. In this study, we have begun to explore the population structure and molecular determinants of AMR amongst E. coli isolates from Malawi. Methods: Ninety-four E...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332344/impact-of-intervention-by-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-team-on-conversion-from-intravenous-to-oral-fluoroquinolones
#5
Soh Mee Park, Hyung Sook Kim, Young Mi Jeong, Jung Hwa Lee, Eunsook Lee, Euni Lee, Kyoung Ho Song, Hong Bin Kim, Eu Suk Kim
BACKGROUND: Early conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics plays an important role in lowering the risk of catheter-associated infections, reducing the workload of nurses, decreasing direct and indirect costs, and shortening hospital stays. In August 2015, an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) was implemented to facilitate conversion from intravenous to oral administration of fluoroquinolones in our institute. This study evaluated the clinical and economic impact of the intervention...
March 13, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#6
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329197/systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-of-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-to-reduce-progression-to-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#7
Suzanne M Marks, Sundari R Mase, Sapna Bamrah Morris
Background: Evidence-based recommendations for treating persons having presumed latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) after contact to infectious multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are lacking because published data consist of small observational studies. TB incidence in persons treated for latent multidrug-resistant-TB infection (MDR LTBI) is unknown. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published (1/1/1994-12/31/2014) to analyze TB incidence, treatment completion and discontinuation, and cost effectiveness...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#8
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326532/common-drug-side-effects-and-drug-drug-interactions-in-elderly-adults-in-primary-care
#9
Susan E Merel, Douglas S Paauw
Prescribing medications, recognizing and managing medication side effects and drug interactions, and avoiding polypharmacy are all essential skills in the care of older adults in primary care. Important side effects of medications commonly prescribed in older adults (statins, proton pump inhibitors, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, zolpidem, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors) were reviewed. Important drug interactions with four agents or classes (statins, warfarin, factor Xa inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers) are discussed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320717/in-vitro-activities-and-spectrum-of-the-novel-fluoroquinolone-lascufloxacin-krp-am1977
#10
Ryuta Kishii, Yuko Yamaguchi, Masaya Takei
Lascufloxacin showed a broad spectrum of activity against various clinical isolates. Especially, lascufloxacin showed the most potent activity against gram-positive bacteria among the quinolones tested. Furthermore, lascufloxacin showed incomplete cross-resistance against existing quinolone-resistant strains. Enzymatic analysis indicated that lascufloxacin showed potent inhibitory activity against both wild-type and mutated target enzymes. These results suggested that lascufloxacin may be useful in treating infections caused by various pathogens, including quinolone-resistant strains...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317803/an-unusual-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-in-a-mycobacterium-cosmeticum-strain-isolated-from-the-chesapeake-bay
#11
Vajini Atukorale, Nicholas Boire, Kim Dionne, Stefan Riedel, Nicole Parrish
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium cosmeticum, first described in 2004, was recovered from a patient undergoing a cosmetic procedure. Subsequently, this species was associated with an outbreak in a nail salon. In all cases, the isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Recently, however, we recovered a strain of M. cosmeticum from the Chesapeake Bay, resistant to 11 of 14 antimicrobials. The objective of this work was to present our findings on the resistance and susceptibility of this isolate to various antibiotics...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316632/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-fosfomycin-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-ontario
#12
Louise Perrault, Sybil Dahan, Ange Christelle Iliza, Jacques LeLorier, George G Zhanel
Background and Objective. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics traditionally used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) is rising in Canada. We compared the cost-per-patient in Ontario of including fosfomycin (an antibiotic with a low resistance profile) as an option for first-line empirical treatment of uUTIs with current cost of treatment with sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and nitrofurantoin. Methods. A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-minimization analysis. All possible outcomes of a uUTI caused by bacterial species treated with either sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, or fosfomycin were included...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314077/comparative-subproteomic-analysis-of-clinically-acquired-fluoroquinolone-resistance-and-ciprofloxacin-stress-in-salmonella-typhimurium-dt104b
#13
Susana Correia, Michel Hébraud, Ingrid Chafsey, Christophe Chambon, Didier Viala, Yolanda Sáenz, José Luis Capelo, Patrícia Poeta, Gilberto Igrejas
PURPOSE: Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide public health threat and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium phage type DT104B multiresistant strains with additional quinolone resistance have been responsible for global outbreaks and high mortality. Quinolone resistance is known to be multifactorial but is still far from a complete understanding. To give new insights about the resistance mechanisms involved, this work aimed to evaluate subproteome changes between a S...
March 17, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306617/ciprofloxacin-associated-exacerbation-of-anxiety-in-an-elderly-patient-a-review-of-anxiogenic-potential-of-fluoroquinolones
#14
Sahil Munjal, Yvette Smolin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306602/cure-rate-of-fungal-keratitis-with-antibacterial-therapy
#15
Alice Y Matoba, Ryan Barrett, Anna E Lehmann
PURPOSE: To study the cure rate of fungal keratitis with moxifloxacin 0.3% monotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis who initially received moxifloxacin 0.3% monotherapy was performed. RESULTS: Eleven patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis were initially treated with moxifloxacin. One case each of Curvularia and Alternaria keratitis resolved with moxifloxacin monotherapy (18%). CONCLUSIONS: Moxifloxacin may have a significant clinical therapeutic effect in a subset of patients with fungal keratitis...
March 16, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303847/trends-in-drug-resistance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-over-a-10-year-period-nationwide-data-from-the-china-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-program
#16
Lei Gao, Yuan Lyu, Yun Li
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. METHODS: Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303821/detection-of-ofloxacin-resistance-by-nitrate-reductase-assay-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#17
Neeta Shrivastava, Reena Set, Sheetal Bankar, Jayanthi Shastri
CONTEXT: Increased use of fluoroquinolones to treat community-acquired infections has led to the decreased susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is a paucity of data on ofloxacin (OFX) resistance detection by nitrate reductase assay (NRA). Hence, the present study was carried out to find the efficacy of NRA for detection of OFX resistance in M. tuberculosis isolated from extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases. AIMS: (1) To compare sensitivity, specificity and median time required to obtain results by NRA with economic variant proportion method (PM) for detection of OFX resistance...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303820/characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonellae-during-2014-2015-from-four-centres-across-india-an-icmr-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-network-report
#18
Sushila Dahiya, Priyanka Sharma, Bhavana Kumari, Sangeeta Pandey, Rooma Malik, Neelam Manral, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Pallab Ray, Vikas Gautam, Sujata Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Kamini Walia, Vinod Ohri, Bimal Kumar Das, Seema Sood, Arti Kapil
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to establish 'Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network' in India and to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical isolates to establish a national network across the country for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, nodal centre with clinical isolates of Salmonellae collected from four centres across India, which included Christian Medical College, Vellore; Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303476/a-review-of-clinical-cases-of-infection-with-photorhabdus-asymbiotica
#19
John G Gerrard, Robert P Stevens
The three recognised Photorhabdus species are bioluminescent Gram-negative bacilli of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are all pathogenic to insects and form a symbiotic relationship with nematodes of the genus Heterorhabditis. P. luminescens and P. temperata are both harmless to humans whilst P. asymbiotica, on the other hand, is a human pathogen that is a symbiont of the newly described nematode vector, Heterorhabditis gerrardi. In this chapter, we review the epidemiological and clinical features of eighteen human cases of P...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300643/draft-genome-sequence-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-brancaster-strain-ps01-isolated-from-chicken-meat-malaysia
#20
Pui San Chin, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan
OBJECTIVES: Salmonella spp. represent one of the main diarrhoeal pathogens that are transmitted via the food supply chain. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Brancaster (PS01) that was isolated from poultry meat in Malaysia. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from Salmonella strain PS01 and was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The generated reads were de novo assembled using CLC Genomics Workbench...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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