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Ping-Feng Wu, Yi-Tsung Lin, Fu-Der Wang, Tsuey-Ching Yang, Chang-Phone Fung
PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia is associated with high mortality, and most monotherapies are beta-lactam-based. We aimed to investigate clinical outcomes of definitive fluoroquinolone monotherapy versus beta-lactam monotherapy for P. aeruginosa bacteraemia. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled adult patients receiving definitive monotherapy with beta-lactam or fluoroquinolone between November 2013 and November 2014 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital...
March 20, 2018: Infection
David W Dowdy, Grant Theron, Jeffrey A Tornheim, Robin Warren, Emily A Kendall
A novel, shorter-course regimen for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis was recently recommended by the World Health Organization. However, the most appropriate use of drug susceptibility testing (DST) to support this regimen is less clear. Implementing countries must therefore often choose between using a standardized regimen despite high levels of underlying drug resistance or require more stringent DST prior to treatment initiation. The former carries a high likelihood of exposing patients to de facto monotherapy with a critical drug class (fluoroquinolones), whereas the latter could exclude large groups of patients from their most effective treatment option...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Qusay Abdoh, Lubna Kharraz, Khubaib Ayoub, Jana Khraim, Wafaa Awad, Aysha Sbeah, Safaa Turman
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori antibiotic resistance at the An-Najah National University Hospital. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients older than 18 year who were admitted to the An-Najah National University Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ryoichi Hamasuna, Masahiro Matsumoto, Phuong Thi LE, Naohiro Fujimoto, Tetsuro Matsumoto
Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the pathogenic microorganisms in male urethritis as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). M.genitalium is detected in the urine specimens of 15-25% male patients with urethritis. The emergence of macrolide- or fluoroquinolone-resistant M.genitalium has become a serious problem in the treatment of male urethritis worldwide, but there is no commercial-based detecting kits accepted by the national insurance in Japan. In this study, we tested the validity of a molecular kit for detecting seven microorganisms related to STI (Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection which detects Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, M...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Youfang Huang, Jinghe Peng, Xiaojia Huang
In this work, magnetic carbon material derived from pomelo peels (MCMPs) was conveniently fabricated utilizing one-pot synthesis method and employed as adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Several characterized measures including infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to investigate the morphology, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of prepared adsorbent. Apolar parabens and polar fluoroquinolones (FQs) were used to investigate the extraction performance of MCMPs...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Xianyong Feng, Peifang Wang, Jun Hou, Jin Qian, Yanhui Ao, Chao Wang
In the present work, we reported a simple method for the simultaneous phosphorus (P) doping and oxygen vacancies creation on TiO2 in a single step. The obtained P-doped TiO2 with surface oxygen vacancies (PTSOV) samples exhibited efficient photocatalytic activity for the degradation of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent (ciprofloxacin) under visible light irradiation. The optimized sample showed a rate constant of 0.065 min-1 for degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and it was about 16.2 times as high as that of TiO2 (0...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hongxia Zhao, Wenna Quan, Tadiyose Girma Bekele, Mo Chen, Xin Zhang, Baocheng Qu
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) have attracted wide concerns due to their pseudo-persistent and universal presence in natural water. Here we exposed zebrafish separately to two FQs (enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL)) in different copper (Cu) concentrations for 20 days (d) in a flow-through system, followed by a 11 d depuration period in clean water to investigate compound specific bioaccumulation and tissue distribution. Two FQs could accumulate in zebrafish, and the high concentration was observed in liver. Moreover, the levels of FQs in different treatment groups were higher than the corresponding control fish group...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Malgorzata Mikulska, Catherine Cordonnier
Yeshurun et al. reported the results of retrospective study with historical control in patients with multiple myeloma and lymphoma undergoing autologous transplant. The rates of bacteraemia and fever were lower during the period of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis with no effect on mortality. In the era of multidrug resistance (MDR), the efficacy of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis might be lower in settings with high level of resistance. Additionally, the benefit of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis on mortality should not be expected since the morality is mainly associated with infections due to MDR currently associated with MDR strains which could not be prevented by fluoroquinolone prophylaxis...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Iwona Pawłowska, Lech Krawczyk, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii strains are currently the most commonly isolated non-fermenting rods at Polish intensive care units (ICUs), and they are the dominant aetiological agents of pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of A. baumannii isolated from patients who were hospitalised at Sosnowiec Hospital's ICU. We also investigated the drug sensitivity of A. baumannii in relation to antibiotic consumption expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Yusuke Okubo, Nobuaki Michihata, Naho Morisaki, Kazuhiro Uda, Isao Miyairi, Yuichi Ogawa, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia/bronchitis in children, and macrolide-resistant strains are increasing in East Asian countries. Recent practice patterns, especially for antibiotic selection, and benefits of corticosteroid treatment in pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections remain unclear. METHODS: Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database, we analyzed recent trends in antibiotic selection and corticosteroid use for pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related respiratory infections, using multivariable mixed effects logistic regressions...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Theodore Gouliouris, Ben Warne, Edward J P Cartwright, Luke Bedford, Chathika K Weerasuriya, Kathy E Raven, Nick M Brown, M Estée Török, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock
Background: VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure. Methods: A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Cheon Tae Kim, Tae-Ok Kim, Hong-Joon Shin, Young Chun Ko, Yeong Hun Choe, Hak-Ryul Kim, Yong-Soo Kwon
Relatively little is known about the efficacy and safety of the programmatic use of bedaquiline and delamanid in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. This study evaluated 61 patients with MDR-TB treated with bedaquiline (n=39), delamanid (n=11), or both, either sequentially (n=10) or in co-administration (n=1), for more than 1 month, combined with a World Health Organization-recommended regimen. Of these, 49 (80.3%) were men and 12 (19.7%) were women. The median age was 53 years (interquartile range [IQR]=38...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Geoffrey C Wall, Matthew J Taylor, Hayden L Smith
Background Fluoroquinolone (quinolones) antibiotics are commonly prescribed worldwide. Hypersensitivity reactions to these agents have been reported, but little systematic data exists concerning prevalence, types of reactions, or associated factors. Objective To identify the prevalence of patients reporting an allergy to quinolones, types of reactions claimed, and patient information associated with allergy. Setting A tertiary 370 bed level 1 trauma center, located in a Midwestern City in the United States...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Jin Yang Baek, Cheol-In Kang, So Hyun Kim, Kwan Soo Ko, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
The use of fluoroquinolones to treat respiratory tract infections and pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae has affected the emergence of resistance to this class of drugs. Increasing pneumococcal resistance to levofloxacin has become a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence and genetic characteristics of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (LNSP) clinical isolates in Korea. A total of 43 LNSP isolates collected from a national surveillance study at 13 tertiary hospitals between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed for serotype and antimicrobial susceptibilities to 19 antimicrobial agents as well as the quinolone resistance-determining region mutation...
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jennifer Kranz, Stefanie Schmidt, Cordula Lebert, Laila Schneidewind, Falitsa Mandraka, Mirjam Kunze, Sina Helbig, Winfried Vahlensieck, Kurt Naber, Guido Schmiemann, Florian M Wagenlehner
BACKGROUND: We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. Results are published in 2 parts. Part 1 covers methods, the definition of patient groups, and diagnostics. This second publication focuses on treatment of acute episodes of cystitis and pyelonephritis as well as on prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed...
March 14, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Thomas Germe, Judit Vörös, Frederic Jeannot, Thomas Taillier, Robert A Stavenger, Eric Bacqué, Anthony Maxwell, Benjamin D Bax
Imidazopyrazinones (IPYs) are a new class of compounds that target bacterial topoisomerases as a basis for their antibacterial activity. We have characterized the mechanism of these compounds through structural/mechanistic studies showing they bind and stabilize a cleavage complex between DNA gyrase and DNA ('poisoning') in an analogous fashion to fluoroquinolones, but without the requirement for the water-metal-ion bridge. Biochemical experiments and structural studies of cleavage complexes of IPYs compared with an uncleaved gyrase-DNA complex, reveal conformational transitions coupled to DNA cleavage at the DNA gate...
March 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Randall Hoover, Harry Alcorn, Laura Lawrence, Susan K Paulson, Megan Quintas, Sue K Cammarata
This was an open-label, parallel-group, crossover study that examined the pharmacokinetics and safety of delafloxacin, an anionic fluoroquinolone, after a single intravenous infusion in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD; creatinine clearance <15 mL/min) undergoing hemodialysis compared with healthy subjects. Subjects received 300 mg delafloxacin containing sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin in 2 periods separated by ≥14-day washouts. Blood and urine samples were collected, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Khurram Muaz, Muhammad Riaz, Saeed Akhtar, Sungkwon Park, Amir Ismail
Poultry production is among the most rapidly growing industries around the globe, and poultry is one of the major sources of meat. Poultry farmers use disease preventive and growth promoter antibiotics for faster growth of chickens in the shortest possible time to increase the rate of feed assimilation and to lower the incidence of mortality caused by a pathogen attack. Antibiotics may result in dysfunctionality of beneficial gut microbiota and increase resistance among microbial pathogens in poultry. Residues of these antibiotics in poultry meat have been determined in many of the studies globally and are considered one of the possible causes of antibacterial resistance in human pathogens...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Kui Huang, Hui Xia, Ying Wu, Jingyang Chen, Guangyu Cui, Fusheng Li, Yongzhi Chen, Nan Wu
Diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) present in sewage sludge are difficult to be eliminated using conventional sludge treatment processes. To date, little remains known on the fate of the ARGs during vermicomposting of sludge. This study aimed to investigate the effect of earthworms on the fate of tetracycline and fluoroquinolone resistance genes, and integrons during vermicomposting of sewage sludge through contrasting two systems of sludge stabilization with and without earthworms. Compared to the control without earthworms, vermicomposting significantly (p < 0...
March 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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