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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642145/new-and-improved-a-review-of-novel-antibiotics-for-gram-positive-bacteria
#1
REVIEW
Mohamed Abbas, Mical Paul, Angela Huttner
BACKGROUND: The number of antibiotics in the pipeline targeting Gram-positive pathogens has increased in recent years. AIMS: This narrative review aims to provide a summary of existing evidence on efficacy, microbiologic spectrum, and safety of novel systemic antibiotics that have either recently been licenced or completed phase III trials, and possess activity predominantly against Gram-positive organisms. SOURCES: A review of the published literature via the MEDLINE database was performed...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639934/first-description-of-methyltransferases-in-extensively-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-saudi-arabia
#2
Baha Abdalhamid, Nasreldin Elhadi, Samar Albunayan, Khaldoon Alsamman, Reem Aljindan
PURPOSE: The resistance determinants for carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were characterized in 16 extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (XDRKPN) strains collected from Saudi hospitals during 2014. METHODOLOGY: PCR and sequencing were used to detect: blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP-1,blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and ampC for β-lactam resistance; qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA and mutations of gyrA and parC for fluoroquinolone resistance; and aacA4, aacC2, aadA1, aphA6, armA and rmtB for aminoglycoside resistance...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639358/antilipase-and-antiproliferative-activities-of-novel-fluoroquinolones-and-triazolofluoroquinolones
#3
Shereen Arabiyat, Violet Kasabri, Yusuf Al-Hiari, Yasser K Bustanji, Rabab Albashiti, Ihab M Almasri, Dima A Sabbah
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) have been identified recently as potent inhibitors of pancreatic lipase (PL). The aim of this study is to synthesize novel FQs and triazolofluoroquinolones (TFQs) and to evaluate them in vitro with respect to their antilipolytic efficacy and potency properties. The PL-IC50 values of 12 FQs and TFQs (3 (a-c) - 6 (a-c)) were in the range of 12.5-189.1 μM. These values are further supported by docking studies. The suggested association between obesity and colorectal cancer initiated the evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the new FQs and TFQs against a panel of obesity related colorectal cells (HT29, HCT116, SW620 CACO2 and SW480)...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639230/intracellular-pharmacokinetics-of-antibacterials-and-their-clinical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Federico Pea
The intracellular pharmacokinetics of the different classes of antimicrobials into surrogate markers of tissue accumulation (alveolar macrophages and/or total alveolar cells collected by means of bronchoalveolar lavage or peripheral white blood cells) was reviewed. The aim of this review was to discuss the clinical implications of the intracellular pharmacokinetics of antibacterials, either from the therapeutic or toxicological perspective. The different pharmacokinetic behaviour of antimicrobials within cells is mainly related to their physicochemical properties (hydrophilicity and lipophilicity), and may have several clinical implications...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638846/the-pandemic-h30-subclone-of-sequence-type-131-st131-as-the-leading-cause-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-infections-in-the-united-states-2011-2012
#5
James R Johnson, Stephen Porter, Paul Thuras, Mariana Castanheira
BACKGROUND: Extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections are increasingly challenging due to emerging antimicrobial resistance, including resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones. Sequence type 131 (ST131) is a leading contributor. METHODS: Three hundred sixty E. coli clinical isolates from across the United States (2011-2012), selected randomly from the SENTRY collection within 3 resistance categories (extended-spectrum cephalosporin [ECS]-reduced susceptibility [RS]; fluoroquinolone-resistant, ESC-susceptible; and fluoroquinolone-susceptible, ESC-susceptible) were typed for phylogroup, sequence type complex (STc), subsets thereof, virulence genotype, O type, and beta-lactamase genes...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636609/genomic-and-phenotypic-characterisation-of-fluoroquinolone-resistance-mechanisms-in-enterobacteriaceae-in-durban-south-africa
#6
John Osei Sekyere, Daniel Gyamfi Amoako
Resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQ) is being increasingly reported and found to be mediated by efflux pumps, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR) and mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. However, studies reporting on FQ resistance mechanisms (FQRM), particularly in Africa, are focused mostly on Salmonella. This study used a whole-genome-based approach to describe FQRM in forty-eight clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates comprising of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 21), Serratia marcescens (n = 12), Enterobacter spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633103/dietary-risk-ranking-for-residual-antibiotics-in-cultured-aquatic-products-around-tai-lake-china
#7
Chao Song, Le Li, Cong Zhang, Liping Qiu, Limin Fan, Wei Wu, Shunlong Meng, Gengdong Hu, Jiazhang Chen, Ying Liu, Aimin Mao
Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture and therefore may be present as a dietary risk in cultured aquatic products. Using the Tai Lake Basin as a study area, we assessed the presence of 15 antibiotics in 5 widely cultured aquatic species using a newly developed dietary risk ranking approach. By assigning scores to each factor involved in the ranking matrices, the scores of dietary risks per antibiotic and per aquatic species were calculated. The results indicated that fluoroquinolone antibiotics posed the highest dietary risk in all aquatic species...
June 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632112/the-2016-european-guideline-on-the-management-of-epididymo-orchitis
#8
Emma J Street, Edwin D Justice, Zsolt Kopa, Mags D Portman, Jonathan D Ross, Mihael Skerlev, Janet D Wilson, Rajul Patel
Epididymo-orchitis is a commonly encountered condition with a reported incidence of 2.45 cases per 1000 men in the United Kingdom. This 2016 International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections guideline provides up-to-date advice on the management of this condition. It describes the aetiology, clinical features and potential complications, as well as presenting diagnostic considerations and clear recommendations for management and follow-up. Early diagnosis and management are essential, as serious complications can include abscess formation, testicular infarction and infertility...
July 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631638/clinicomicrobiological-profile-of-endophthalmitis-a-10-year-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#9
Gita Satpathy, Niranjan Nayak, Meenakshi Wadhwani, Pradeep Venkwatesh, Atul Kumar, Yograj Sharma, Vishnu Sreenivas
PURPOSE: To determine the clinicomicrobiological profile of infectious agents and their antibiotic susceptibility in different type of endophthalmitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical and microbiological records from January 2001 to December 2010, was performed in 1110 patients diagnosed with different type of endophthalmitis (postoperative, posttraumatic, endogenous and post keratitis) to record the demographic details, clinical presentations; microbiological agents isolated with their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631121/-prudent-use-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-prevention-of-increasing-antibiotic-resistance
#10
REVIEW
C Hein, A Pilatz, F M E Wagenlehner
BACKGROUND: The use of peri-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis during urological procedures to prevent postoperative complications is very common. OBJECTIVES: What kind of recommendations for reasonable use of peri-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis during urological procedures to prevent increasing antibiotic resistance and postoperative complications exist? METHODS: Review of evidence-based recommendations from literature and current Guidelines of the EAU...
June 19, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630189/in-vitro-activity-of-delafloxacin-and-microbiological-response-against-fluoroquinolone-susceptible-and-non-susceptible-s-aureus-isolates-from-two-phase-3-studies-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-absssi
#11
S McCurdy, L Lawrence, M Quintas, L Woosley, R Flamm, C Tseng, S Cammarata
Delafloxacin is an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone antibiotic with broad spectrum in vitro activity, including Gram-positive organisms, Gram-negative organisms, atypical organisms, and anaerobes. The in vitro activity of delafloxacin and percent microbiological response in subjects infected with fluoroquinolone susceptible and non-susceptible S. aureus isolates was determined from two global Phase 3 studies of delafloxacin versus vancomycin plus aztreonam in ABSSSI. Patients were enrolled in 23 countries predominately in the US but also Eastern Europe, South America and Asia...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630188/identification-of-a-novel-antibacterial-compound-1-2-4-dichlorophenethyl-amino-3-phenoxypropan-2-ol-active-against-persisters-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Veerle Liebens, Valerie Defraine, Wouter Knapen, Toon Swings, Serge Beullens, Romu Corbau, Arnaud Marchand, Patrick Chaltin, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Antibiotics typically fail to completely eradicate a bacterial population, leaving a small fraction of transiently antibiotic-tolerant persister cells intact. Persisters are therefore seen as a major cause of treatment failure and greatly contribute to the recalcitrant nature of chronic infections. The current report is focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative pathogen belonging to the notorious ESKAPE group and, due to an increasing resistance against most conventional antibiotics, posing a serious threat to human health...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629448/azithromycin-for-idiopathic-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#13
Kodai Kawamura, Kazuya Ichikado, Yuko Yasuda, Keisuke Anan, Moritaka Suga
BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal condition without an established pharmaceutical treatment. Most patients are treated with high-dose corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Azithromycin is a macrolide with immunomodulatory activity and may be beneficial for treatment of acute lung injury. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of azithromycin on survival of patients with idiopathic AE of IPF. METHODS: We evaluated 85 consecutive patients hospitalized in our department for idiopathic AE of IPF from April 2005 to August 2016...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629333/efficacy-of-ultra-short-course-chemotherapy-for-new-smear-positive-drug-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-study-protocol-of-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#14
Mengqiu Gao, Jingtao Gao, Jian Du, Yuhong Liu, Yao Zhang, Liping Ma, Fengling Mi, Liang Li, Shenjie Tang
BACKGROUND: Shortening the standard 6-month treatment for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (DS-PTB) would be a major improvement for TB case management and disease control. METHODS: We are conducting a randomized, open-label, controlled, non-inferiority trial involving patients with smear-positive, newly diagnosed DS-PTB cases nationwide to assess the efficacy and safety of two 4.5- month regimens in comparison to the standard 6-month WHO recommended regimen...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628752/high-prevalence-of-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-tetracycline-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-poultry-in-poland
#15
Anna Woźniak-Biel, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska, Alicja Kielsznia, Kamila Korzekwa, Anna Tobiasz, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of foodborne diseases in humans, particularly when transmitted by the handling or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., fluoroquinolones and macrolides) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. The indiscriminate use of these drugs, both in clinical medicine and animal production, has a major impact on public health. The aim of the present study was to identify Campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey and broilers, using both PCR and the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) methods to reveal the accuracy of identification, as well to evaluate the antimicrobial and genetic resistance of the investigated strains...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623550/antibiotic-susceptibility-profiles-among-campylobacter-isolates-obtained-from-international-travelers-between-2007-and-2014
#16
A Post, D Martiny, N van Waterschoot, M Hallin, U Maniewski, E Bottieau, M Van Esbroeck, E Vlieghe, S Ombelet, O Vandenberg, J Jacobs
Campylobacter infection is a common cause of diarrhea among international travelers. We studied antibiotic resistance patterns among Campylobacter isolates obtained from international travelers according to travel destination. Three collections of isolates obtained from international travelers between 2007 and 2014 (Institute of Tropical Medicine, the "Laboratoire Hospitalier Universitaire de Bruxelles "and the Belgian National Reference Centre for Campylobacter) were used. Isolates were tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (E-test macromethod) for fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and meropenem...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621642/spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-between-2004-and-2015-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-hungary
#17
András Magyar, Béla Köves, Károly Nagy, András Dobák, Vinodh Kumar Adithyaa Arthanareeswaran, Péter Bálint, Florian Wagenlehner, Péter Tenke
PURPOSE: Surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic-resistance patterns of locally occurring uropathogens is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), as antibiotic-resistance rates may vary geographically with significant differences between countries and regions, and with time. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analysed all urine samples taken in the department of urology in a tertiary care hospital in Hungary from January 2004 to December 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619095/integrated-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-pk-pd-model-to-evaluate-the-in-vivo-antimicrobial-activity-of-marbofloxacin-against-pasteurella-multocida-in-piglets
#18
Qing Lin Zeng, Xian Mei, Jia Su, Xiao Hong Li, Wen Guang Xiong, Yan Lu, Zhen Ling Zeng
BACKGROUND: Marbofloxacin is a veterinary fluoroquinolone with high activity against Pasteurella multocida. We evaluated it's in vivo activity against P. multocida based on in vivo time-kill data in swine using a tissue-cage model. A series of dosages ranging from 0.15 to 2.5 mg/kg were administered intramuscularly after challenge with P. multocida type B, serotype 2. RESULTS: The ratio of the 24 h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24TCF/MIC) was the best PK/PD index correlated with the in vivo antibacterial effectiveness of marbofloxacin (R2 = 0...
June 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617914/trends-in-fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptibility-among-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-isolates-causing-endophthalmitis-1995-2016
#19
Jack D Stringham, Nidhi Relhan, Darlene Miller, Harry W Flynn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617807/treatment-with-macrolides-and-glucocorticosteroids-in-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-post-hoc-exploratory-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Adrian Ceccato, Catia Cilloniz, Otavio T Ranzani, Rosario Menendez, Carles Agusti, Albert Gabarrus, Miquel Ferrer, Oriol Sibila, Michael S Niederman, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory effects, whereas macrolides also have immunomodulatory activity in addition to their primary antimicrobial actions. We aimed to evaluate the potential interaction effect between corticosteroids and macrolides on the systemic inflammatory response in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia to determine if combining these two immunomodulating agents was harmful, or possibly beneficial. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Spain...
2017: PloS One
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