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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431846/implementation-of-daily-chlorhexidine-bathing-to-reduce-colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-a-critical-care-unit
#1
Jackson S Musuuza, Ajay K Sethi, Tonya J Roberts, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Colonized patients are a reservoir for transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Not many studies have examined the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing under routine care conditions. We present a descriptive analysis of the trends of MDRO colonization following implementation of daily CHG bathing under routine clinical conditions in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: From May 2010-January 2011, we screened patients admitted to a 24-bed ICU for and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli (FQRGNB)...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430811/antimicrobial-resistance-in-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia-a-one-year-study
#2
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Kate A Worthing, Jacqueline M Norris, Hui S Wong, Rebecca Abraham, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#3
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429393/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-amide-and-n-thiazolyl-amide-fluoroquinolone-derivatives
#4
Isaac Garza, Miranda J Wallace, Dinesh Fernando, Aman Singh, Richard E Lee, Jason S Gerding, Cynthia Franklin, Raghunandan Yendapally
In an effort to develop new fluoroquinolones, we synthesized eight compounds and tested them against a panel of bacteria. The design of these compounds was guided by the introduction of the isothiazoloquinolone motif. The three most active compounds in this series, 8-10, demonstrated good antibacterial activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 0.62-6.3 µg/mL). Further, when these three active compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on bacterial enzymes, compound 9 was the most effective agent exhibiting IC50 values of 33...
April 21, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429163/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacterial-isolates-from-patients-presenting-with-ear-nose-and-throat-ent-infections-in-the-german-community-healthcare-setting
#5
B Olzowy, M Kresken, M Havel, D Hafner, B Körber-Irrgang
Empiric initial antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections is based primarily upon the susceptibility of the most common causative pathogens. The purpose of this study was to provide susceptibility data on six bacterial species known to cause ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections. A total of 1066 isolates collected during a nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study were analysed. All Streptococcus pyogenes isolates were penicillin (PEN)-susceptible, indicating that natural penicillins can still be recommended as the first-line treatment for group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419236/studying-the-effect-of-administration-route-and-treatment-dose-on-the-selection-of-enrofloxacin-resistance-in-commensal-escherichia-coli-in-broilers
#6
Ilias Chantziaras, Annemieke Smet, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Jeroen Dewulf
Objectives: Factors potentially contributing to fluoroquinolone resistance selection in commensal Escherichia coli strains in poultry were studied through a series of in vivo experiments. The effect of the initial prevalence of enrofloxacin resistance in the E. coli gut microbiota, effect of the bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant strain and effect of treatment with enrofloxacin (effect of dose and effect of route of administration) were assessed. Methods: Four in vivo studies with broiler chickens were performed...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418319/increasing-macrolide-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycoplasma-genitalium
#7
Gerald L Murray, Catriona S Bradshaw, Melanie Bissessor, Jennifer Danielewski, Suzanne M Garland, Jørgen S Jensen, Christopher K Fairley, Sepehr N Tabrizi
Escalating resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin is being reported for Mycoplasma genitalium in the Asia-Pacific region. Analyzing 140 infections, we found pretreatment fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations in parC (13.6%) and gyrA (5%). ParC S83 changes were associated with moxifloxacin failure. Combined macrolide/fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations were in 8.6% of specimens, for which recommended therapies would be ineffective.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416954/current-status-of-fluoroquinolone-use-for-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-korea
#8
Bo Hyoung Kang, Kyung-Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are considered important substitutes for the treatment of tuberculosis. This study investigates the current status of fluoroquinolone for the treatment of tuberculosis. METHODS: In 2009, a retrospective analysis was performed at one tertiary referral center for 953 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients (23.6%), who received fluoroquinolone at any time during treatment for tuberculosis, were enrolled in this study...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416542/high-resolution-melting-analysis-for-the-rapid-detection-of-sequence-type-131-escherichia-coli
#9
Lucas B Harrison, Nancy D Hanson
IntroductionE. coli belonging to sequence type 131 clonal complex (ST131) have been associated with the global distribution of fluoroquinolone and β-lactam resistance. Whole genome sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing identify sequence type but are expensive when evaluating large numbers of samples. This study was designed to develop a cost-effective screening tool using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to differentiate ST131 from non-ST-131 E. coli in large sample populations in the absence of sequence analysis...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414572/molecular-characterization-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-clinical-isolates-in-spain
#10
Inmaculada López-Hernández, Jesús Machuca, Paula Díaz de Alba, Carolina Sarvisé, Frederic Gómez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to characterize a group of clinical isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae collected in Northern Spain (March-December 2014). METHODS: Twelve clinical isolates of H. parainfluenzae were studied by performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the QRDR (quinolone resistance-determining region) of gyrA, parC, gyrB, and parE genes. Screening for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was also studied...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412864/cutaneous-allergic-drug-reactions-update-on-pathophysiology-diagnostic-procedures-and-differential-diagnostic
#11
Galina Balakirski, Hans F Merk
Important changes in the understanding and management of drug hypersensitivity reactions during the last years result from the increasing importance of biologics in medical practice, which differ in their spectrum of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from the classical covalent drugs. With regard to covalent drugs, ampicillin and amoxicillin as well as clavulanic acid play an increasing role among ADRs to betalactam antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones are mainly the cause of anaphylactic and photosensitivity reactions...
April 17, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411631/escherichia-coli-adhesive-coating-as-a-chiral-stationary-phase-for-open-tubular-capillary-electrochromatography-enantioseparation
#12
Qifeng Fu, Kailian Zhang, Die Gao, Lujun Wang, Fengqing Yang, Yao Liu, Zhining Xia
Bacteria, the microorganism with intrinsic chirality, have numerous fascinating chiral phenomena such as various chirality-triggered biological processes and behaviors. Herein, bacteria were firstly explored as novel chiral stationary phases in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) for enantioseparation of fluoroquinolone enantiomers and simultaneous separation of six fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The model strain, i.e. non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α, was adhered onto the inner surface of positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified capillaries based on the bacterial adhesion characteristics and strong electrostatic interaction...
May 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411464/development-validation-and-different-approaches-for-the-measurement-uncertainty-of-a-multi-class-veterinary-drugs-residues-lc-ms-method-for-feeds
#13
Andressa Camargo Valese, Luciano Molognoni, Naielly Coelho de Souza, Leandro Antunes de Sá Ploêncio, Ana Carolina Oliveira Costa, Fabiano Barreto, Heitor Daguer
A sensitive method for the simultaneous residues analysis of 62 veterinary drugs in feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in accordance to Commission Decision 657/2002/EC. Additionally, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQ), matrix effects and measurement uncertainty were also assessed. Extraction was performed for all analytes and respective internal standards in a single step and chromatographic separation was achieved in only 12min. LOQ were set to 0...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411226/the-current-state-of-macrolide-resistance-in-campylobacter-a-review-of-trends-and-impacts-of-resistance-mechanisms
#14
Hannah Bolinger, Sophia Kathariou
Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, are leading bacterial foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the United States, an estimated 0.8 million cases of campylobacteriosis occur annually, mostly involving C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis is generally self-limiting but in severe cases treatment with antibiotics may be mandated. Increasing incidence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter has rendered macrolides like erythromycin and azithromycin the drugs of choice for human campylobacteriosis...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409644/amphiphilic-tobramycin-lysine-conjugates-sensitize-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-to-rifampicin-and-minocycline
#15
Yinfeng Lyu, Xuan Yang, Sudeep Goswami, Bala Kishan Gorityala, Temilolu Idowu, Ronald Domalaon, George G Zhanel, Anshan Shan, Frank M Schweizer
Chromosomally-encoded low membrane permeability and highly efficient efflux systems are major mechanisms by which Pseudomonas aeruginosa evades antibiotic actions. Our previous reports have shown that amphiphilic tobramycin-fluoroquinolone hybrids can enhance efficacy of fluoroquinolone antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa isolates. Herein, we report on a novel class of tobramycin-lysine conjugates containing an optimized amphiphilic tobramycin-C12 tether which sensitize Gram-negative bacteria to legacy antibiotics...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408304/analysis-of-imp-1-type-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-acinetobacter-radioresistens-isolated-from-companion-animals
#16
Yui Kimura, Tadashi Miyamoto, Kotaro Aoki, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuki Harada, Masahisa Watarai, Shingo Hatoya
IMP-1 type metallo-β-lactamase-producing (MBL-producing) Acinetobacter radioresistens was isolated from a dog with cystitis and a cat with conjunctivitis. The MBL-producing A. radioresistens isolates were resistant to all of the β-lactam antibiotics used in the sensitivity tests, but were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, and minocycline. Also, one of the two strains of A. radioresistens was susceptible to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. These two cases were cured by administration of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, which elicited a positive result in the sensitivity tests...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407423/orthopaedic-biofilm-infections
#17
REVIEW
Werner Zimmerli, Parham Sendi
Many infections of the musculoskeletal system are biofilm infections that develop on non-living surfaces. Microorganisms adhere either on dead bone (sequesters) or implants. As a rule for a curative concept, chronic osteomyelitis or implant-associated bone infection must be treated with a combination of surgery and antimicrobial therapy. If an implant is kept in place, or a new device is implanted before complete healing of infection, a biofilm-active antibiotic should be used. Rifamycins are active against biofilms of staphylococci, and fluoroquinolones against those of Gram-negative bacilli...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407014/prevalence-of-macrolide-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-mediating-mutations-in-mycoplasma-genitalium-in-five-cities-in-russia-and-estonia
#18
Elena Shipitsyna, Tatiana Rumyantseva, Daniel Golparian, Guzel Khayrullina, Amaya C Lagos, Inna Edelstein, Kai Joers, Jörgen S Jensen, Alevtina Savicheva, Natalia Rudneva, Larisa Sukhanova, Roman Kozlov, Alexander Guschin, Magnus Unemo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Resistance in the sexually transmitted bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium to all recommended therapeutic antimicrobials have rapidly emerged. However, to date, internationally reported resistance surveillance data for M. genitalium strains circulating in Eastern Europe are entirely lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations in M. genitalium in four cities in Russia and one in Estonia, 2013-2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406300/synthesis-and-characterization-of-tetrahydropyran-based-bacterial-topoisomerase-inhibitors-with-antibacterial-activity-against-gram-negative-bacteria
#19
Jean-Philippe Surivet, Cornelia Zumbrunn, Thierry Bruyère, Daniel Bur, Christopher Kohl, Hans H Locher, Peter Seiler, Eric A Ertel, Patrick Hess, Michel Enderlin-Paput, Stéphanie Enderlin-Paput, Jean-Christophe Gauvin, Azely Mirre, Christian Hubschwerlen, Daniel Ritz, Georg Rueedi
There is an urgent unmet medical need for novel antibiotics that are effective against a broad range of bacterial species, especially multi-drug resistant ones. Tetrahydropyran-based inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) display potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens and no target-mediated cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. We report our research efforts aimed at expanding the antibacterial spectrum of this class of molecules towards difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406299/discovery-and-optimization-of-isoquinoline-ethyl-ureas-as-antibacterial-agents
#20
Philippe Panchaud, Thierry Bruyère, Anne-Catherine Blumstein, Daniel Bur, Alain Chambovey, Eric A Ertel, Markus Gude, Christian Hubschwerlen, Loïc Jacob, Thierry Kimmerlin, Thomas Pfeifer, Lars Prade, Peter Seiler, Daniel Ritz, Georg Rueedi
Our strategy to combat resistant bacteria consisted in targeting the GyrB/ParE ATP-binding sites located on bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and not utilized by marketed antibiotics. Screening around the minimal ethyl urea binding motif led to the identification of isoquinoline ethyl urea 13 as promising starting point for fragment evolution. The optimization was guided by structure-based design and focused on antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo, culminating in the discovery of unprecedented substituents able to interact with conserved residues within the ATP-binding site...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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