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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036875/three-novel-accurate-pixel-driven-projection-methods-for-2d-ct-and-3d-epr-imaging
#1
Zhiwei Qiao, Gage Redler, Zhiguo Gui, Yuhua Qian, Boris Epel, Howard Halpern
OBJECTIVES: This work aims to explore more accurate pixel-driven projection methods for iterative image reconstructions in order to reduce high-frequency artifacts in the generated projection image. METHODS: Three new pixel-driven projection methods namely, small-pixel-large-detector (SPLD), linear interpolation based (LIB) and distance anterpolation based (DAB), were proposed and applied to reconstruct images. The performance of these methods was evaluated in both two-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) images via the modified FORBILD phantom and three-dimensional (3D) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) images via the 6-spheres phantom...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034475/2d-4d-digit-ratio-is-not-a-biomarker-of-developmental-programming-in-baboons-papio-hamadryas-species
#2
Hillary F Huber, Cun Li, Peter W Nathanielsz
We hypothesized second-to-fourth hand digit ratio (2D:4D) is a biomarker of developmental programming in 3 baboon groups: intrauterine growth restriction (7 females, 8 males), exposure during fetal life to synthetic glucocorticoids (4 females, 5 males), and controls (66 females, 20 males). 2D:4D was similar between sexes and groups.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024156/relationships-between-the-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-game-related-statistics-in-semi-professional-female-basketball-players
#3
Makailah Dyer, Sandra E Short, Martin Short, John T Manning, Grant R Tomkinson
OBJECTIVE: Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of sports performance, although this relationship may be weak in open-skill sports such as basketball. The primary aim was to quantify relationships between 2D:4D and game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players. The secondary aim was to quantify the differences in mean 2D:4Ds between players based on their position in the starting lineup. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 64 female basketball players who competed in the South Australian Premier League were measured in-season for height, mass, and 2D:4D, with game-related statistics collected end-season...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992603/sex-steroid-hormones-and-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-levels-cyp17-msp-ai-34t-c-and-cyp19-codon-39-trp-arg-variants-in-children-with-developmental-stuttering
#4
Hiwa Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Zohreh Rahimi, Faezeh Faghihi, Habibolah Khazaie, Hashem Farhangdoost, Masoud Mehrpour
Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS)...
October 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945583/beautiful-math-part-6-visualizing-4d-regular-polytopes-using-the-kaleidoscope-principle
#5
Peichang Ouyang, Xinchang Wang, Yongman Zhao
Symmetry can be widely found in natural phenomenon. Regular polygons and polyhedra are the most basic and important symmetrical structures in 2D and 3D Euclidean space. Four-dimensional regular polytopes (4-RPs) are the 4D analogs of regular polyhedra in three dimensions and regular polygons in two dimensions. After introducing the fundamental root systems of 4-RPs, this article presents three interesting methods to visualize 4-RPs using a fundamental region algorithm.
2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936432/severity-of-premenstrual-symptoms-predicted-by-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio
#6
Yoshiki Kaneoke, Tomohiro Donishi, Akihiko Iwahara, Toshio Shimokawa
Women of reproductive age often experience a variety of unpleasant symptoms prior to the onset of menstruation. While genetics may influence the variability of these symptoms and their severity among women, the exact causes remain unknown. We hypothesized that symptom variability originates from differences in the embryonic environment and thus development caused by variation in exposure to sex hormones. We measured the second to fourth digit ratios (2D:4D) in 402 young women and investigated the potential relationships of this ratio premenstrual symptoms using a generalized linear model...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925047/voxel-by-voxel-4d-flow-mri-based-assessment-of-regional-reverse-flow-in-the-aorta
#7
Xin Shen, Susanne Schnell, Alex J Barker, Kenichiro Suwa, Lingzi Tashakkor, Kelly Jarvis, James C Carr, Jeremy D Collins, Shyam Prabhakaran, Michael Markl
BACKGROUND: Complex and reverse flow in the aorta has been implicated in aneurysm development and stroke via retrograde embolization. PURPOSE: To evaluate global and regional differences between standard 2D plane-based and volumetric voxel-based quantification of regional forward/reverse flow, and reverse flow fraction (RFF) in the aorta. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: In all, 35 subjects: 10 healthy controls (age: 57 ± 7 years, nine male), nine patients without aortic valve regurgitation (AR) (age: 63 ± 10 years, seven male), six patients with mild AR (age: 66 ± 6 years, five male), and 10 with moderate or severe AR (age: 60 ± 16 years, eight male)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914779/simultaneous-recognition-and-relative-pose-estimation-of-3d-objects-using-4d-orthonormal-moments
#8
Sergio Dominguez
Both three-dimensional (3D) object recognition and pose estimation are open topics in the research community. These tasks are required for a wide range of applications, sometimes separately, sometimes concurrently. Many different algorithms have been presented in the literature to solve these problems separately, and some to solve them jointly. In this paper, an algorithm to solve them simultaneously is introduced. It is based on the definition of a four-dimensional (4D) tensor that gathers and organizes the projections of a 3D object from different points of view...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893651/obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-altered-midbrain-chemical-concentrations
#9
Paul M Macey, Manoj K Sarma, Janani P Prasad, Jennifer A Ogren, Ravi Aysola, Ronald M Harper, M Albert Thomas
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by altered structure and function in cortical, limbic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. The midbrain is relatively unexamined, but contains many integrative nuclei which mediate physiological functions that are disrupted in OSA. We therefore assessed the chemistry of the midbrain in OSA in this exploratory study. We used a recently developed accelerated 2D magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-MRS) technique, compressed sensing-based 4D echo-planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (4D-EP-JRESI), to measure metabolites in the midbrain of 14 OSA (mean age±SD:54...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891280/pelvic-floor-evaluation-with-transperineal-ultrasound-a-new-approach
#10
Francesca Vellucci, Cristina Regini, Chiara Barbanti, Stefano Luisi
The increased life expectancy, the importance of the prevention in younger age and the role of the pelvic floor disfunction not only in the disease of the third age, but also in the childbearing age, as the influence on the type of delivery, underline the importance of the evaluation of the pelvic floor. The evaluation of pelvic floor is generally clinical, but in the last 2 decades, the use of ultrasound has become a mainstream diagnostic tool in the investigation of female pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence and defecation disorders, providing an immediate objective confirmation of findings obtained on clinical examination and filling some of the gaps of the urogynecological exam...
September 5, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887017/establishment-and-activity-of-the-d-quadrant-organizer-in-the-marine-gastropod-crepidula-fornicata
#11
Jonathan Q Henry, Deirdre C Lyons, Kimberly J Perry, Chen Cornelia Osborne
During development in metazoan embryos, the fundamental embryonic axes are established by organizing centers that influence the fates of nearby cells. Among the spiralians, a large and diverse branch of protostome metazoans, studies have shown that an organizer sets up the dorsal-ventral axis, which arises from one of the four basic cell quadrants during development (the dorsal, D quadrant). Studies in a few species have also revealed variation in terms of how and when the D quadrant and the organizer are established...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856798/digit-ratio-2d-4d-is-a-possible-indicator-for-androgenetic-alopecia-in-males
#12
Mehmet Unal
BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common hair loss. The 2D:4D digit ratio refers to the ratio of the length of the second finger to that of the fourth finger and is thought as a marker of prenatal androgen exposure. OBJECTIVES: There are many studies which have examined the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and some other diseases. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between digit ratio 2D:4D and AGA. METHODS: The study group was composed of a male with AGA and healthy controls...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836761/high-speed-4d-computational-microscopy-of-bacterial-surface-motility
#13
Jaime de Anda, Ernest Y Lee, Calvin K Lee, Rachel R Bennett, Xiang Ji, Soheil Soltani, Mark C Harrison, Amy E Baker, Yun Luo, Tom Chou, George A O'Toole, Andrea M Armani, Ramin Golestanian, Gerard C L Wong
Bacteria exhibit surface motility modes that play pivotal roles in early-stage biofilm community development, such as type IV pili-driven "twitching" motility and flagellum-driven "spinning" and "swarming" motility. Appendage-driven motility is controlled by molecular motors, and analysis of surface motility behavior is complicated by its inherently 3D nature, the speed of which is too fast for confocal microscopy to capture. Here, we combine electromagnetic field computation and statistical image analysis to generate 3D movies close to a surface at 5 ms time resolution using conventional inverted microscopes...
September 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833248/real-time-respiratory-phase-matching-between-2d-fluoroscopic-images-and-3d-ct-images-for-precise-percutaneous-lung-biopsy
#14
Chijun Weon, Mina Kim, Chang Min Park, Jong Beom Ra
PURPOSE: A 3D CT image is used along with real-time 2D fluoroscopic images in the state-of-the-art cone-beam CT system to guide percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB). To improve the guiding accuracy by compensating for respiratory motion, we propose an algorithm for real-time matching of 2D fluoroscopic images to multiple 3D CT images of different respiratory phases that is robust to the small movement and deformation due to cardiac motion. METHODS: Based on the transformations obtained from non-rigid registration between two 3D CT images acquired at expiratory and inspiratory phases, we first generate sequential 3D CT images (or a 4D CT image) and the corresponding 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of vessels...
August 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828996/further-evidence-of-an-association-between-low-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-selection-for-the-uniformed-services-a-study-among-police-personnel-in-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#15
Sławomir Kozieł, Marek Kociuba, Raja Chakraborty, Aneta Sitek, Zofia Ignasiak
Males and females differ in their preference for occupations and sporting activities, and differ also in risk-taking attitudes. In addition to other explanations, prenatal hormone exposure has been implicated in these gender-associated differences. The ratio of the relative lengths of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) is a proxy indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone relative to oestrogen. The 2D:4D ratio has been found to be associated with choice of occupation, particularly among females. This study investigated whether 2D:4D differed between police officers and a control group of civilians in Wrocław, Poland...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827099/4d-cardiac-imaging-at-clinical-3-0t-provides-accurate-assessment-of-murine-myocardial-function-and-viability
#16
Lindsey A Crowe, Fabrizio Montecucco, Federico Carbone, Iris Friedli, Anne-Lise Hachulla, Vincent Braunersreuther, François Mach, Jean-Paul Vallée
OBJECTIVES: We validate a 4D strategy tailored for 3T clinical systems to simultaneously quantify function and infarct size in wild type mice after ischemia/reperfusion, with improved spatial and temporal resolution by comparison to previous published protocols using clinical field MRI systems. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice underwent 60min ischemia/reperfusion (n=14) or were controls without surgery (n=6). Twenty-four hours after surgery mice were imaged with gadolinium injection and sacrificed for post-mortem MRI and histology with serum also taken for Troponin I levels...
August 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816972/low-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-in-dupuytren-disease
#17
Takuya Yokoi, Takuya Uemura, Kenichi Kazuki, Ema Onode, Kosuke Shintani, Mitsuhiro Okada, Hiroaki Nakamura
The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) has been described as reflecting endogenous prenatal androgen exposure. In general, 2D:4D is lower in men than in women and has potential as a biomarker or predictor for various diseases, athletic ability, and academic performance. Dupuytren disease has digital flexion contractures and is known to predominate in men, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. To clarify the relationships between Dupuytren disease and endogenous androgens, we performed a retrospective analysis of hand radiographs to investigate 2D:4D in Dupuytren disease...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805922/use-of-a-complete-starter-feed-in-grain-adaptation-programs-for-feedlot-cattle
#18
C J Schneider, B L Nuttelman, A L Shreck, D B Burken, W A Griffin, J L Gramkow, R A Stock, T J Klopfenstein, G E Erickson
Four experiments evaluated the use of a complete starter feed (RAMP; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) for grain adaptation. In Exp. 1, 229 yearling steers (397 ± 28.4 kg BW) were used to compare a traditional adaptation program (CON) with adapting cattle with RAMP in either a 1- (RAMP-1RS) or 2- (RAMP-2RS) ration system. From d 23 to slaughter, cattle were fed a common finishing diet. In Exp. 2, 390 yearling steers (341 ± 14 kg BW) were used to compare accelerated grain adaptation programs with RAMP with 2 control treatments where RAMP was blended with a finishing diet containing either 25 (CON25) or 47...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804650/the-2d%C3%A2-%C3%A2-4d-digit-ratio-as-a-biomarker-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
M Mackus, D de Kruijff, L S Otten, A D Kraneveld, J Garssen, J C Verster
It has been suggested that the second (2D, index finger) to fourth (4D, ring finger) digit ratio, 2D : 4D, may be a biomarker for the risk of developing autism. The aim of the current study was to determine the usefulness of the 2D : 4D digit ratio as biomarker for autistic traits. N = 401 healthy young volunteers participated in the study. For both hands, digit lengths were measured using digital Vernier calipers. In addition to demographics, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire was completed, comprised of five subscales, assessing "social insights and behavior," "attention switching," "communication," "imagination," and "attention to detail...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803252/two-dimensional-echocardiography-estimates-of-fetal-ventricular-mass-throughout-gestation
#20
Christina Y L Aye, Adam James Lewandowski, Eric O Ohuma, Ross Upton, Alice Packham, Yvonne Kenworthy, Fenella Roseman, Tess Norris, Malid Molloholli, Sikolia Wanyonyi, Aris T Papageorghiou, Paul Leeson
BACKGROUND: Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound quality has improved in recent years. Quantification of cardiac dimensions is important to screen and monitor certain fetal conditions. We assessed the feasibility and reproducibility of fetal ventricular measures using 2D echocardiography, reported normal ranges in our cohort, and compared estimates to other modalities. METHODS: Mass and end-diastolic volume were estimated by manual contouring in the four-chamber view using TomTec Image Arena 4...
August 12, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
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