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2d:4d

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470622/genetic-dissection-of-wheat-panicle-traits-using-linkage-analysis-and-a-genome-wide-association-study
#1
Kai Liu, Xiaoxiao Sun, Tangyuan Ning, Xixian Duan, Qiaoling Wang, Tongtong Liu, Yuling An, Xin Guan, Jichun Tian, Jiansheng Chen
Coincident regions on chromosome 4B for GW, on 5A for SD and TSS, and on 3A for SL and GNS were detected through an integration of a linkage analysis and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In addition, six stable QTL clusters on chromosomes 2D, 3A, 4B, 5A and 6A were identified with high PVE% on a composite map. The panicle traits of wheat, such as grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight, are closely correlated with grain yield. Superior and effective alleles at loci related to panicles developments play a crucial role in the progress of molecular improvement in wheat yield breeding...
February 22, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450837/associations-between-the-2nd-to-4th-digit-ratio-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-population-based-samples-of-boys-and-girls-findings-from-the-study-to-explore-early-development
#2
Laura A Schieve, Lin Tian, Nicole Dowling, Lisa Croen, Julie Hoover-Fong, Aimee Alexander, Stuart K Shapira
The ratio of the index (2nd) finger to ring (4th) finger lengths (2D:4D) is a proxy for fetal testosterone and estradiol. Studies suggesting 2D:4D is inversely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in males were limited by lack of confounder and subgroup assessments. Studies of females are sparse. We examined associations between ASD and 2D:4D among children in the Study to Explore Early Development; we considered case subgroups and numerous potential demographic and maternal-perinatal health confounders...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441000/self-confidence-overconfidence-and-prenatal-testosterone-exposure-evidence-from-the-lab
#3
Patricio S Dalton, Sayantan Ghosal
This paper examines whether foetal testosterone exposure predicts the extent of confidence and over-confidence in own absolute ability in adulthood. To study this question, we elicited incentive-compatible measures of confidence and over-confidence in the lab and correlate them with measures of right hand 2D:4D, used as as a marker for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure. We provide evidence that men with higher prenatal testosterone exposure (i.e., low 2D:4D ratio) are less likely to set unrealistically high expectations about their own performance...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436656/early-quantitative-profiling-of-differential-retinal-protein-expression-in-lens-induced-myopia-in-guinea-pig-using-fluorescence-difference-two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis
#4
Yi Wu, Carly Siu-Yin Lam, Dennis Yan-Yin Tse, Chi Ho To, Quan Liu, Sally A McFadden, Rachel Ka-Man Chun, King Kit Li, Jianfang Bian, Chuen Lam
The current study aimed to investigate the differential protein expression in guinea pig retinas in response to lens-induced myopia (LIM) before fully compensated eye growth. Four days old guinea pigs (n=5) were subjected to ‑4D LIM for 8 days. Refractive errors were measured before and at the end of the lens wear period. Ocular dimensions were also recorded using high‑frequency A‑scan ultrasonography. After the LIM treatment, retinas of both eyes were harvested and soluble proteins were extracted. Paired retinal protein expressions in each animal were profiled and compared using a sensitive fluorescence difference two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430856/feasibility-study-on-3d-image-reconstruction-from-2d-orthogonal-cine-mri-for-mri-guided-radiotherapy
#5
Chiara Paganelli, Danny Lee, John Kipritidis, Brendan Whelan, Peter B Greer, Guido Baroni, Marco Riboldi, Paul Keall
INTRODUCTION: In-room MRI is a promising image guidance strategy in external beam radiotherapy to acquire volumetric information for moving targets. However, limitations in spatio-temporal resolution led several authors to use 2D orthogonal images for guidance. The aim of this work is to present a method to concurrently compensate for non-rigid tumour motion and provide an approach for 3D reconstruction from 2D orthogonal cine-MRI slices for MRI-guided treatments. METHODS: Free-breathing sagittal/coronal interleaved 2D cine-MRI were acquired in addition to a pre-treatment 3D volume in two patients...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417657/digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-chinese-women-with-gastric-cancer
#6
Lu Wang, Hong Lu, Ke-Ke Li, Chun-Yue Bai, Zhan-Bing Ma
OBJECTIVES: Digit ratio, especially the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), is a proxy indicator for prenatal exposure and sensitivity to sexual hormones which may influence the susceptibility to certain cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is a possible association between 2D:4D and gastric cancer (GCA) in north Chinese women. METHODS: Photographs of the left and right hands of 167 women (controls: 113; patients: 54) were collected...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405122/experimental-validation-of-a-deforming-grid-4d-dose-calculation-for-pbs-proton-therapy
#7
Miriam Krieger, Grischa Klimpki, Giovanni F Fattori, Jan Hrbacek, David Oxley, Sairos Safai, Damien Charles Weber, Antony John Lomax, Ye Zhang
The aim of this study was to verify the temporal accuracy of the estimated dose distribution by a 4D dose calculation (4DDC) in comparison to measurements. A single-field plan (0.6Gy), optimised for a liver patient case (CTV volume: 403cc), was delivered to a homogeneous PMMA phantom and measured by a high resolution scintillating-CCD system at two water equivalent depths. Various motion scenarios (no motion and motions with amplitude of 10mm and two periods: 3.7s and 4.4s) were simulated using a 4D Quasar phantom and logged by an optical tracking system in real-time...
February 6, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392098/patient-specific-coronary-blood-supply-territories-for-quantitative-perfusion-analysis
#8
Constantine Zakkaroff, John D Biglands, John P Greenwood, Sven Plein, Roger D Boyle, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Derek R Magee
Myocardial perfusion imaging, coupled with quantitative perfusion analysis, provides an important diagnostic tool for the identification of ischaemic heart disease caused by coronary stenoses. The accurate mapping between coronary anatomy and under-perfused areas of the myocardium is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, in the absence of the actual coronary anatomy during the reporting of perfusion images, areas of ischaemia are allocated to a coronary territory based on a population-derived 17-segment (American Heart Association) AHA model of coronary blood supply...
2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. Imaging & Visualization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385002/low-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-has-high-explosive-power-a-prepubertal-study
#9
Cheng-Chen Hsu, Tsorng-Harn Fong, Hung-Ming Chang, Borcherng Su, Chung-Pu Chi, Nai-Wen Kan, Mei-Chich Hsu
A recent study reported that lower limb explosive power had no correlation with the 2D:4D ratio. However, many studies hypothesized that a lower 2D:4D ratio (reflecting a relative higher testosterone exposure) predicts higher physical fitness. The aim of this study is to replicate the study of explosive power and the 2D:4D ratio in a sample of Taiwanese children. A total of 541 Taiwanese prepubertal children (257 girls and 284 boys aged 9-10 years) participated in this study. This study analyzed the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and explosive power...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357015/influence-of-principal-component-analysis-acceleration-factor-on-velocity-measurement-in-2d-and-4d-pc-mri
#10
Gwenaël Pagé, Jérémie Bettoni, Anne-Virginie Salsac, Olivier Balédent
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine how to optimize 2D and 4D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) acquisitions to acquire flow velocities in millimetric vessels. In particular, we search for the best compromise between acquisition time and accuracy and assess the influence of the principal component analysis (PCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2D and 4D PC-MRI measurements are conducted within two in vitro vessel phantoms: a Y-bifurcation phantom, the branches of which range from 2 to 5 mm in diameter, and a physiological subject-specific phantom of the carotid bifurcation...
January 22, 2018: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341660/2d-stress-tensor-for-4d-gravity
#11
Daniel Kapec, Prahar Mitra, Ana-Maria Raclariu, Andrew Strominger
We use the subleading soft-graviton theorem to construct an operator T_{zz} whose insertion in the four-dimensional tree-level quantum gravity S matrix obeys the Virasoro-Ward identities of the energy momentum tensor of a two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT_{2}). The celestial sphere at Minkowskian null infinity plays the role of the Euclidean sphere of the CFT_{2}, with the Lorentz group acting as the unbroken SL(2,C) subgroup.
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339994/the-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-in-elite-and-non-elite-greco-roman-wrestlers
#12
Mohammad Keshavarz, Mahdi Bayati, Babak Farzad, Amirbahador Dakhili, Hamid Agha-Alinejad
A low second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been reported to correlate with high performance and athletic potential of an individual in sport. It has been suggested that 2D:4D is a relatively weak predictor of strength and a stronger predictor of efficiency in aerobic exercise. Comparing extreme groups on a continuum of sports performance requiring high power (physical strength) output would be helpful to resolve this issue. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite Greco-Roman wrestlers (n = 10) taking part in Olympic fitness camps in 2013 with the 2D:4D ratio of non-elite collegiate wrestlers (n = 20), and age-matched sedentary males (n = 40)...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332606/tricuspid-flow-and-regurgitation-in-congenital-heart-disease-and-pulmonary-hypertension-comparison-of-4d-flow-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-and-echocardiography
#13
Mieke M P Driessen, Marjolijn A Schings, Gertjan Tj Sieswerda, Pieter A Doevendans, Erik H Hulzebos, Marco C Post, Repke J Snijder, Jos J M Westenberg, Arie P J van Dijk, Folkert J Meijboom, Tim Leiner
BACKGROUND: Tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation (TR) is a common complication of pulmonary hypertension and right-sided congenital heart disease, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Estimation of TR severity by echocardiography and conventional cardiovasvular magnetic resonance (CMR) is not well validated and has high variability. 4D velocity-encoded (4D-flow) CMR was used to measure tricuspid flow in patients with complex right ventricular (RV) geometry and varying degrees of TR...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329709/characterization-of-singly-and-multiply-pegylated-insulin-isomers-by-reversed-phase-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-interfaced-with-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#14
Selim Gerislioglu, Scott R Adams, Chrys Wesdemiotis
Conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to protein drugs (PEGylation) is increasingly utilized in the biotherapeutics field because it improves significantly the drugs' circulatory half-life, solubility, and shelf-life. The activity of a PEGylated drug depends on the number, size, and location of the attached PEG chain(s). This study introduces a 2D separation approach, including reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) and ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), in order to determine the structural properties of the conjugates, as demonstrated for a PEGylated insulin sample that was prepared by random amine PEGylation...
April 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327165/measurement-of-cardiac-valve-and-aortic-blood-flow-velocities-in-stroke-patients-a-comparison-of-4d-flow-mri-and-echocardiography
#15
Thomas Wehrum, Felix Guenther, Alexander Fuchs, Florian Schuchardt, Anja Hennemuth, Andreas Harloff
4D flow MRI is an emerging technique that allows quantification of 3D blood flow in vivo. However, comparisons with methods of blood velocity quantification used in clinical routine are sparse. Therefore, we compared velocity quantification using 4D flow MRI with transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography at the mitral and aortic valves and the aorta. Forty-eight stroke patients (age 67.3 ± 15.0 years) were examined by 4D flow MRI. Blood flow velocities were assessed using standardized 2D analysis planes positioned in the mitral valve (MV), aortic valve (AV), ascending aorta (AAo), and descending aorta (DAo) and were compared with echocardiography...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324591/visualization-from-intraoperative-swept-source-microscope-integrated-optical-coherence-tomography-in-vitrectomy-for-complications-of-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#16
Hesham Gabr, Xi Chen, Oscar M Zevallos-Carrasco, Christian Viehland, Alexandria Dandrige, Neeru Sarin, Tamer H Mahmoud, Lejla Vajzovic, Joseph A Izatt, Cynthia A Toth
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of live volumetric (4D) intraoperative swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications. METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed a subgroup of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications who required vitrectomy and who were imaged by the research swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography system. In near real time, images were displayed in stereo heads-up display facilitating intraoperative surgeon feedback...
January 10, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324286/digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-circulating-testosterone-oestradiol-and-progesterone-levels-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#17
Gareth Richards, Magdalena Klimek, Grazyna Jasienska, Urszula M Marcinkowska
BACKGROUND: Digit ratio (2D:4D) is used by researchers as an indicator of prenatal sex hormone exposure. Two previous studies have examined associations between 2D:4D and circulating sex steroid concentrations across the menstrual cycle in adult females. One reported that digit ratio correlated positively with oestradiol levels, whereas the other found no such effect; neither observed significant associations with progesterone. AIMS: To examine associations between 2D:4D, as well as asymmetry (i...
January 8, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300011/photonic-topological-boundary-pumping-as-a-probe-of-4d-quantum-hall-physics
#18
Oded Zilberberg, Sheng Huang, Jonathan Guglielmon, Mohan Wang, Kevin P Chen, Yaacov E Kraus, Mikael C Rechtsman
When a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas is placed in a perpendicular magnetic field, its in-plane transverse conductance becomes quantized; this is known as the quantum Hall effect. It arises from the non-trivial topology of the electronic band structure of the system, where an integer topological invariant (the first Chern number) leads to quantized Hall conductance. It has been shown theoretically that the quantum Hall effect can be generalized to four spatial dimensions, but so far this has not been realized experimentally because experimental systems are limited to three spatial dimensions...
January 3, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300006/exploring-4d-quantum-hall-physics-with-a-2d-topological-charge-pump
#19
Michael Lohse, Christian Schweizer, Hannah M Price, Oded Zilberberg, Immanuel Bloch
The discovery of topological states of matter has greatly improved our understanding of phase transitions in physical systems. Instead of being described by local order parameters, topological phases are described by global topological invariants and are therefore robust against perturbations. A prominent example is the two-dimensional (2D) integer quantum Hall effect: it is characterized by the first Chern number, which manifests in the quantized Hall response that is induced by an external electric field...
January 3, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290983/bottom-up-synthesis-of-ultra-small-molybdenum-disulfide-polyvinylpyrrolidone-nanosheets-for-imaging-guided-tumor-regression
#20
Jiulong Zhao, Chunhua Zhou, Mao Li, Jialing Li, Guixiang Li, Dan Ma, Zhaoshen Li, Duowu Zou
The two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheet has been extensively studied as a novel photothermal transducing agent. However, top-down exfoliation to produce MoS2 nanosheets is inefficient, and MoS2 nanosheet surface modification procedures are complex. Here, we report the synchronous synthesis and surface modification of 2D MoS2 nanosheets with a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted one-pot hydrothermal method. Due to the chelating-coordinating effect between the lone-pair electrons of the PVP carbonyl oxygen and the unoccupied 4d orbitals of molybdenum, the PVP chains could graft onto the surface of MoS2 and guide the growth of the nanosheets...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
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