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A L Geng, Y Zhang, J Zhang, H H Wang, Q Chu, H G Liu
The paper aimed to study the effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod alone and in combination on egg production, egg quality in Beijing You Chicken (BYC). A total of 630 19-wk-old BYC laying hens were randomly allocated to 6 groups with 105 birds each, 3 replicates per group, reared in individually lit floor pens with separate outdoor areas. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment (2 lighting patterns: continuous and intermittent lighting; 3 photoperiods: 16, 14, 12 h) was arranged, including 16L:8D (6:00 to 22:00) for group 1; 12L:2D:4L:6D (6:00 to 18:00, 20:00 to 24:00) for group 2; 14L:10D (6:00 to 20:00) for group 3; 10L:2D:4L:8D (6:00 to 16:00, 18:00 to 22:00) for group 4; 12L:12D (6:00 to 18:00) for group 5, and 8L:4D:4L:8D (6:00 to 14:00, 18:00 to 22:00) for group 6, respectively...
April 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Nicole M Warrington, Enisa Shevroja, Gibran Hemani, Pirro G Hysi, Yunxuan Jiang, Adam Auton, Cindy G Boer, Massimo Mangino, Carol A Wang, John P Kemp, George McMahon, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Martha Hickey, Katerina Trajanoska, Dieter Wolke, Arfan M Ikram, Grant W Montgomery, Janine F Felix, Margaret J Wright, David A Mackey, Vincent W Jaddoe, Nicholas G Martin, Joyce Y Tung, George Davey Smith, Craig E Pennell, Tim D Spector, Joyce van Meurs, Fernando Rivadeneira, Sarah E Medland, David M Evans
The ratio of the length of the index finger to that of the ring finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and is commonly used as a noninvasive biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure. Most association studies of 2D:4D ratio with a diverse range of sex-specific traits have typically involved small sample sizes and have been difficult to replicate, raising questions around the utility and precise meaning of the measure. In the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of 2D:4D ratio to date (N = 15,661, with replication N = 75,821), we identified eleven loci (nine novel) explaining 3...
April 12, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Martin G Wagner, Charles R Hatt, David A P Dunkerley, Lindsay E Bodart, Amish N Raval, Michael A Speidel
PURPOSE: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive procedure in which a prosthetic heart valve is placed and expanded within a defective aortic valve. The device placement is commonly performed using two-dimensional fluoroscopic imaging. Within this work, we propose a novel technique to track the motion and deformation of the prosthetic valve in three dimensions based on biplane fluoroscopic image sequences. METHODS: The tracking approach uses a parameterized point cloud model of the valve stent which can undergo rigid 3D transformation and different modes of expansion...
April 16, 2018: Medical Physics
Antònia Font-Jordà, Antoni Gamundí, María Cristina Nicolau Llobera, Eva Aguilar-Mediavilla
INTRODUCTION: The finding of biological markers of specific language impairment would facilitate their detection and early intervention. In this sense, the 2D:4D finger ratio is considered an indirect indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone. Previous studies have related it to linguistic competence and aggressive behaviour, and could be a candidate for a biological marker of language impairment. The aim was to compare the value of the 2D:4D ratio in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) with those of children with typical language development, as well as to establish to what extent this biological index correlates with the behaviour (linguistic, cognitive, social,...
April 3, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Wei Cai, Yan Dong, Lu Tian, Chun-Xia Cao, Xiu-Long Niu, Xin-Lin Liu, Jun-Xiang Liu, Wen-Jie Ji, Zhuoli Zhang, Xin Zhou, Yu-Ming Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictive value of four-dimensional (4D) strain echocardiography for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS: Consecutive STEMI patients who underwent successful primary coronary interven tion (PCI) were enrolled and followed, with 2D and 4D strain echocardiography performed within 1 week after PCI. RESULTS: Twenty-six first MACE were recorded in 81 patients who finished a ∼3...
April 5, 2018: Cardiology
Tianheng Ren, Yangshan Hu, Yingzi Tang, Chunsheng Li, Benju Yan, Zhenglong Ren, Feiquan Tan, Zongxiang Tang, Shulan Fu, Zhi Li
Maximum tiller number and productive tiller number are important traits for wheat grain yield, but research involving the temporal expression of tiller number at different quantitative trait loci (QTL) levels is limited. In the present study, a population set of 371 recombined inbred lines derived from a cross between Chuan-Nong18 and T1208 was used to construct a high-density genetic map using a Wheat55K SNP Array and to perform dynamic QTL analysis of the tiller number at four growth stages. A high-density genetic map containing 11,583 SNP markers and 59 SSR markers that spanned 4,513...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Geraint P Williams, Benjamin Wu, Yu Chi Liu, Ericia Teo, Chan L Nyein, Gary Peh, Donald T Tan, Jodhbir S Mehta
Hyperopia is a common refractive error, apparent in 25% of Europeans. Treatments include spectacles, contact lenses, laser interventions and surgery including implantable contact lenses and lens extraction. Laser treatment offers an expedient and reliable means of correcting ametropia. LASIK is well-established however SMILE (small-incision lenticule extraction) or lenticule implantation (derived from myopic laser-correction) are newer options. In this study we compared the outcomes of hyperopic LASIK, SMILE and lenticule re-implantation in a primate model at +2D/+4D treatment...
2018: PloS One
Adomas Bunevicius
Objective: Intrauterine sex hormone environment as indicated by the second to the fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D) can be associated with cancer risk. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association of 2D : 4D with cancer diagnosis, malignancy, and age at presentation. Methods: Studies that evaluated the association of 2D : 4D with cancer risk were collected from Pubmed/MEDLINE and Clarivate Analytics databases. Nineteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis...
2018: Disease Markers
Tomohiro Donishi, Masaki Terada, Yoshiki Kaneoke
Introduction: Gender and sex hormones influence brain function, but their effects on functional network organization within the brain are not yet understood. Methods: We investigated the influence of gender, prenatal sex hormones (estimated by the 2D:4D digit ratio), and the menstrual cycle on the intrinsic functional network organization of the brain (as measured by 3T resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)) using right-handed, age-matched university students (100 males and 100 females)...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
Martin Voracek, Alice Kaden, Michael Kossmeier, Jakob Pietschnig, Ulrich S Tran
2D:4D = digit ratio; CI = confidence interval; F = female; FtM = female-to-male transgender; M = male; MtF = male-to-female transgender; TGI = transgender identity.
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Richard Ronay, Leander van der Meij, Janneke K Oostrom, Thomas V Pollet
Using a recently developed alternative assay procedure to measure hormone levels from hair samples, we examined the relationships between testosterone, cortisol, 2D:4D ratio, overconfidence and risk taking. A total of 162 (53 male) participants provided a 3 cm sample of hair, a scanned image of their right and left hands from which we determined 2D:4D ratios, and completed measures of overconfidence and behavioral risk taking. While our sample size for males was less than ideal, our results revealed no evidence for a relationship between hair testosterone concentrations, 2D:4D ratios and risk taking...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Nikita Woodhead, Kelly M Hare, Alison Cree
The existence of sex differences in digit-length ratio (especially between the second and fourth digits, 2D:4D) is well established for humans from fetal life onwards, and has been linked with later performance. In rodents, the ratio is affected prenatally by exposure to androgens and estrogens, with some research suggesting an influence from sex of the neighbouring intrauterine fetus. However, the ubiquity and ontogenetic development of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios is not well established among wild amniotes...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Chun Liu, Angelos Oikonomopoulos, Nazish Sayed, Joseph C Wu
The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) presents unprecedented opportunities to model human diseases. Differentiated cells derived from iPSCs in two-dimensional (2D) monolayers have proven to be a relatively simple tool for exploring disease pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms. In this Spotlight article, we discuss the progress and limitations of the current 2D iPSC disease-modeling platform, as well as recent advancements in the development of human iPSC models that mimic in vivo tissues and organs at the three-dimensional (3D) level...
March 8, 2018: Development
Da Wang, Aichi Chien, Jiaxin Shao, Fadil Abbas Ali, Peng Hu
The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a fast phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) technique with hybrid one- and two-sided flow encodings only (HOTFEO) for accurate blood flow and velocity measurements of three-directional velocity encoding PC-MRI. Four-dimensional (4D) PC-MRI acquires flow-compensated (FC) and three-directional flow-encoded (FE) echoes in an interleaved fashion. We hypothesize that the blood flow velocity direction (not magnitude) has minimal change between two consecutive cardiac phases...
March 8, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Nataly Paipa, Christian Stephan-Otto, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Araceli Núñez-Navarro, Judith Usall, Gildas Brébion
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of circulating oestrogens in women and testosterone in men have been shown to have a protective effect against the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, mostly with respect to negative symptomatology. Certain studies suggest that they also have a protective effect against the neuropsychological impairment observed in the disease. We investigated whether greater prenatal exposure to estrogens in women and to testosterone in men, reflected by the 2D:4D ratio, was similarly associated with decreased negative symptomatology and improved neuropsychological functioning in patients...
March 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Bernd Lenz, Polyxeni Bouna-Pyrrou, Christiane Mühle, Johannes Kornhuber
BACKGROUND: Alcohol binge drinking behavior is an important public health issue. Causal rodent and human associational studies show that reinforcement of prenatal androgen signaling increases alcohol consumption in adulthood. However, the effects of prenatal androgen exposure on adult binge drinking patterns have not been investigated yet. METHOD: We analyzed data from 2225 participants of an online survey (conducted 06-07/2016) to evaluate biomarkers for prenatal androgen exposure (second-to-fourth finger length ratio [2D:4D], age at spermarche or menarche as hallmark for pubertal onset) in binge drinking (≥1 episode of 15+, 10+, and/or 5+ standard drinks of ~12 g of alcohol within 2 h during the 24 month- and 2 week-recall periods)...
February 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Kathrin Breuer, Cord B Meyer, Felix A Breuer, Anne Richter, Florian Exner, Andreas Max Weng, Serge Stroehle, Bülent Polat, Peter M Jakob, Otto A Sauer, Michael Flentje, Stefan Weick
The purpose of this work is the development of a robust and reliable three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian imaging technique for fast and flexible retrospective four-dimensional abdominal MRI during free breathing. To this end, a non-uniform quasi random (NU-QR) reordering of the phase encoding (ky-kz) lines was incorporated into three-dimensional Cartesian acquisition. The proposed sampling scheme allocates more phase encoding points near the k-space origin while reducing the sampling density in the outer part of the k-space...
March 1, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Yifei Jin, Yangyang Shen, Jun Yin, Jin Qian, Yong Huang
Stimuli-responsive hydrogels and/or composite hydrogels have been of great interest for various printing applications including four-dimensional (4D) printing. While various responsive hydrogels and/or composite hydrogels have been found to respond to given stimuli and change shapes as designed, the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures from such responsive hydrogels is still a challenge due to their poor 3D printability, and most of responsive material-based patterns are two-dimensional (2D) in nature...
March 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Judit Alonso, Roberto Di Paolo, Giovanni Ponti, Marcello Sartarelli
We study how the ratio between the length of the second and fourth digit (2D:4D) correlates with choices in social and risk preferences elicitation tasks by building a large dataset from five experimental projects with more than 800 subjects. Our results confirm the recent literature that downplays the link between 2D:4D and many domains of economic interest, such as social and risk preferences. As for the former, we find that social preferences are significantly lower when 2D:4D is above the median value only for subjects with low cognitive ability...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Gustavo M Bosyk, Hector Freytes, Guido Bellomo, Giuseppe Sergioli
The transformation of an initial bipartite pure state into a target one by means of local operations and classical communication and entangled-assisted by a catalyst defines a partial order between probability vectors. This partial order, so-called trumping majorization, is based on tensor products and the majorization relation. Here, we aim to study order properties of trumping majorization. We show that the trumping majorization partial order is indeed a lattice for four dimensional probability vectors and two dimensional catalysts...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
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