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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332875/the-biologic-basis-of-transgender-identity-2d-4d-finger-length-ratios-implicate-a-role-for-prenatal-androgen-activity
#1
Matthew Leinung, Christina Wu
Objective The biologic basis for gender identity is unknown. Research has shown that the ratio of the length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) in mammals is influenced by gender in utero, but data on 2D:4D ratios in transgender individuals are scarce and contradictory. We sought an association with 2D:4D ratio and gender identity in our transgender clinic population in Albany, NY. Methods We prospectively recruited 118 transgender subjects undergoing hormonal therapy (50 female to male (FTM) and 68 male to female (MTF) for finger length measurement...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321205/sexual-dimorphism-in-digit-ratios-derived-from-dorsal-digit-length-among-adults-and-children
#2
Sanjay Kumar, Martin Voracek, Maharaj Singh
Sexual dimorphism in ventrally measured digit ratios (2D:4D and other) has been related to prenatal sex-hormone levels. In the present series of three studies, we measured all digit lengths (excluding the thumb) on the dorsal, rather than the ventral, side of left and right hands and investigated the sexual dimorphism in digit ratios in three independent samples, two of them comprising adults (Study I, N = 104; Study II, N = 154), and one further, comprising kindergarten children (Study III, N = 64)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281360/bioactive-triterpenoids-from-the-leaves-of-eriobotrya-japonica-as-the-natural-pde4-inhibitors
#3
Bing-Xin Tan, Lu Yang, Yi-You Huang, Yun-Yun Chen, Guang-Tian Peng, Si Yu, Yi-Nuo Wu, Hai-Bin Luo, Xi-Xin He
The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica exhibited inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D), which is a therapeutic target of inflammatory disease. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new triterpene (1), together with seven known triterpenoids, methyl corosolate (2), ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), methyl maslinate (5), α-amyin (6), 3β,19α,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene (7) and uvaol (8). The structure of compound 1 was established as 3β-hydroxyl-21β-acetoxyl-urs-12-en-28-carboxylate on the basis of interpretation of its 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic data...
March 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279986/comparison-of-the-diagnostic-utility-of-4d-dsa-with-conventional-2d-and-3d-dsa-in-the-diagnosis-of-cerebrovascular-abnormalities
#4
C Sandoval-Garcia, P Yang, T Schubert, S Schafer, S Hetzel, A Ahmed, C Strother
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 4D-DSA is a time-resolved technique that allows viewing of a contrast bolus at any time and from any desired viewing angle. Our hypothesis was that the information content in a 4D-DSA reconstruction was essentially equivalent to that in a combination of 2D acquisitions and a 3D-DSA reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six consecutive patients who had both 2D- and 3D-DSA acquisitions were included in the study. The angiography report was used to obtain diagnoses and characteristics of abnormalities...
March 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262871/from-single-atoms-to-self-assembled-quantum-single-atomic-nanowires-noble-metal-atoms-on-black-phosphorene-monolayers
#5
X J Zhao, Wen-Wen Shan, Hao He, Xinlian Xue, Z X Guo, S F Li
Transition metal (TM) nanostructures, such as one dimensional (1D) nanowires with/without substrates, usually possess drastically different properties from their bulk counterparts, due to their distinct stacking and electronic confinement. Correspondingly, it is of great importance to establish the dominant driving force in forming 1D single-metal-atom-wires (SMAWs). Here, with first-principles calculations, taking the black phosphorene (BP) monolayer as a prototype 2D substrate, we investigate the energetic and kinetic properties of all the 5d-TM atoms on the 2D substrate to reveal the mechanism of formation of SMAWs...
March 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249459/optimizing-sparse-sampling-for-2d-electronic-spectroscopy
#6
Sebastian Roeding, Nikita Klimovich, Tobias Brixner
We present a new data acquisition concept using optimized non-uniform sampling and compressed sensing reconstruction in order to substantially decrease the acquisition times in action-based multidimensional electronic spectroscopy. For this we acquire a regularly sampled reference data set at a fixed population time and use a genetic algorithm to optimize a reduced non-uniform sampling pattern. We then apply the optimal sampling for data acquisition at all other population times. Furthermore, we show how to transform two-dimensional (2D) spectra into a joint 4D time-frequency von Neumann representation...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248655/4d-in-vivo-ultrafast-ultrasound-imaging-using-a-row-column-addressed-matrix-and-coherently-compounded-orthogonal-plane-waves
#7
Martin Flesch, Mathieu Pernot, Jean Provost, Guillaume Ferin, An Nguyen-Dinh, Mickael Tanter, Thomas Deffieux
4D ultrafast ultrasound imaging was recently shown using a 2D matrix (i.e., fully populated) connected to a 1024-channel ultrafast ultrasound scanner. In this study, we investigate the Row-Column Addressing (RCA) matrix approach, which allows a reduction of independent channels from N x N to N + N, with a dedicated beamforming strategy for ultrafast ultrasound imaging based on the coherent compounding of Orthogonal Plane Wave (OPW). OPW is based on coherent compounding of plane wave transmissions in one direction with receive beamforming along the orthogonal direction and its orthogonal companion sequence...
March 1, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242416/an-endocrine-basis-for-tomboy-identity-the-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-tomboys
#8
Beth M Atkinson, Tom V Smulders, Joel C Wallenberg
This paper investigates the relationship between organizational effects of pre-natal testosterone and the use of "tomboy" as a descriptor for young women. We show in a sample of 44 women that a woman's right hand 2D:4D ratio is a significant predictor of whether they will be labeled as a "tomboy", with a decrease in 2D:4D ratio corresponding to an increase in the probability of being called "tomboy". Taking the right hand 2D:4D ratio as a proxy for the abundance of testosterone in the early life hormonal milieu, we propose that organizing effects of higher pre-natal T lead to increased masculine-typical behavior in childhood, which increases the likelihood some women will be referred to as tomboys...
February 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217932/the-relationship-between-the-second-to-fourth-digit-ratios-and-lifelong-premature-ejaculation-a-prospective-comparative-study
#9
D Bolat, G U Kocabas, T Kose, T Degirmenci, M E Aydin, C Dincel
To investigate the relationship between the fetal androgen exposure and lifelong premature ejaculation by using the ratio of the second (index)-to-fourth (ring) digits (2D : 4D) which is the marker for higher prenatal androgen exposure. Totally 65 patients with lifelong premature ejaculation and 65 control cases without any ejaculatory complaints were enrolled in the study. A detailed medical history was obtained and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times were recorded. Ejaculation function was evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool...
February 19, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208851/2d-4d-ratio-and-its-implications-in-medicine
#10
Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, Prathibha K Muthu
Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208849/finger-length-ratio-2d-4d-in-central-india-and-an-attempt-to-verify-fraternal-birth-order-effect-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#11
Arjun Maitra, Chaitali Maitra, Dilip Kumar Jha, Rakesh Biswas
INTRODUCTION: A normal physiology of a human being is not mere a series of functions occurring with specific intensities and timing. There are lot of factors that may change the normal physiological activity within normal limits. Finger length ratio is one of the markers of intrauterine androgen exposure and it is debated and contradicted by many authors. Digit ratio varies among the ethnicities. Many Indian studies show that there is considerable difference in finger length ratio in different population...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198353/adsorption-and-migration-of-single-metal-atoms-on-the-calcite-10-4-surface
#12
H Pinto, V Haapasilta, M Lokhandwala, S Öberg, Adam S Foster
Transition metal atoms are one of the key ingredients in the formation of functional 2D metal organic coordination networks. Additionally, the co-deposition of metal atoms can play an important role in anchoring the molecular structures to the surface at room temperature. To gain control of such processes requires the understanding of adsorption and diffusion properties of the different transition metals on the target surface. Here, we used density functional theory to investigate the adsorption of 3d (Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu), 4d (Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag) and 5d (Hf, W, Ir, Pt, Au) transition metal adatoms on the insulating calcite (10...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185309/initial-evaluation-of-99m-tc-tricarbonyl-cyclopentadienyl-fatty-acids-derivatives-as-spect-tracers-for-myocardium
#13
Jianping Liu, Huan Wang, Shuxia Wang, Qianqian Xue, Dawei Wang, Wang Hang, Huabei Zhang
Fatty acids are myocardial metabolic agent for detecting myocardial ischemia and infraction. However, no (99m) Tc-labeled fatty acids had potential use in clinical practice. In this study, (99m) Tc-CpTT-10-oxo-para-PPA (1d), (99m) Tc-CpTT-11-oxo-para-PPA (2d), (99m) Tc-CpTT-12-oxo-para-PPA (3d), (99m) Tc-CpTT-11-oxo-ortho-PPA (4d) and (99m) Tc-CpTT-11-oxo-meta-PPA (5d) were synthesized by a double ligand transfer reaction, their biological behaviors were investigated. Compound 2d achieved good heart/blood ratio (3...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157693/advantages-of-3d-ultrasound-in-the-assessment-of-fetal-abnormalities
#14
Eberhard Merz, Sonila Pashaj
Three-/four-dimensional (3D/4D) imaging enables a more detailed survey of the embryo and the fetus compared to two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound. The availability of several display modes and standardized examinations permits the demonstration of both the normal and abnormal fetal anatomy in controlled planes and rendered images from different angles. This allows the demonstration of even subtle fetal defects in an ideal sectional plane in a precisely rendered surface or transparent image viewed from an optimal angle...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133752/respiratory-motion-resolved-self-gated-4d-mri-using-rotating-cartesian-k-space-rock
#15
Fei Han, Ziwu Zhou, Minsong Cao, Yingli Yang, Ke Sheng, Peng Hu
PURPOSE: To propose and validate a respiratory motion resolved, self-gated (SG) 4D-MRI technique to assess patient-specific breathing motion of abdominal organs for radiation treatment planning. METHODS: The proposed 4D-MRI technique was based on the balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) technique and 3D k-space encoding. A novel ROtating Cartesian K-space (ROCK) reordering method was designed that incorporates repeatedly sampled k-space centerline as the SG motion surrogate and allows for retrospective k-space data binning into different respiratory positions based on the amplitude of the surrogate...
January 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126751/application-of-time-resolved-3d-digital-subtraction-angiography-to-plan-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-radiosurgery
#16
K-K Chen, W-Y Guo, H-C Yang, C-J Lin, C-H F Wu, S Gehrisch, M Kowarschik, Y-T Wu, W-Y Chung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Time-resolved 3D-DSA (4D-DSA) enables viewing vasculature from any desired angle and time frame. We investigated whether these advantages may facilitate treatment planning and the feasibility of using 4D-DSA as a single imaging technique in AVM/dural arteriovenous fistula radiosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients (8 dural arteriovenous fistulas and 12 AVMs; 13 men and 7 women; mean age, 45 years; range, 18-64 years) who were scheduled for gamma knife radiosurgery were recruited (November 2014 to October 2015)...
January 26, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121369/four-dimensional-diffusion-weighted-mr-imaging-4d-dwi-a-feasibility-study
#17
Yilin Liu, Xiaodong Zhong, Brian G Czito, Manisha Palta, Mustafa R Bashir, Brian M Dale, Fang-Fang Yin, Jing Cai
PURPOSE: Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a powerful tool for cancer detection with high tumor-to-tissue contrast. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of developing a four-dimensional DWI technique (4D-DWI) for imaging respiratory motion for radiation therapy applications. MATERIALS/METHODS: Image acquisition was performed by repeatedly imaging a volume of interest (VOI) using an interleaved multislice single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) 2D-DWI sequence in the axial plane...
February 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121011/overall-trends-vs-individual-trajectories-in-the-second-to-fourth-digit-2d-4d-and-metacarpal-2m-4m-ratios-during-puberty-and-adolescence
#18
Miroslav Králík, Pavlína Ingrová, Sławomir Kozieł, Adela Hupková, Ondřej Klíma
OBJECTIVES: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio) can be assumed a valid indicator of sexual differentiation, provided that it is stable once it develops, or eventual changes remain uniform in a respective cohort throughout ontogenesis. The main goal of this study was to determine whether the metacarpal 2M:4M and the digit 2D:4D ratio change during the period of pubertal/adolescent growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The metacarpals and digits were measured on radiographs of left hands in the sample of 328 individuals (96 pairs of male and 68 pairs of female twins) from the Wrocław Longitudinal Study of Twins (1967-1983)...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120280/highly-accelerated-self-gated-free-breathing-3d-cardiac-cine-mri-validation-in-assessment-of-left-ventricular-function
#19
Jing Liu, Li Feng, Hsin-Wei Shen, Chengcheng Zhu, Yan Wang, Kanae Mukai, Gabriel C Brooks, Karen Ordovas, David Saloner
OBJECTIVE: This work presents a highly-accelerated, self-gated, free-breathing 3D cardiac cine MRI method for cardiac function assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A golden-ratio profile based variable-density, pseudo-random, Cartesian undersampling scheme was implemented for continuous 3D data acquisition. Respiratory self-gating was achieved by deriving motion signal from the acquired MRI data. A multi-coil compressed sensing technique was employed to reconstruct 4D images (3D+time)...
January 24, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113394/4d-ice-a-2d-array-transducer-with-integrated-asic-in-a-10-fr-catheter-for-real-time-3d-intracardiac-echocardiography
#20
Douglas Wildes, Warren Lee, Bruno Haider, Scott Cogan, Krishnakumar Sundaresan, David Mills, Christopher Yetter, Patrick Hart, Christopher Haun, Mikael Concepcion, Johan Kirkhorn, Marc Bitoun
We developed a 2.5 x 6.6 mm 2D array transducer with integrated transmit/receive ASIC for 4D ICE (real-time 3D IntraCardiac Echocardiography) applications. The ASIC and transducer design were optimized so that the high voltage transmit, low-voltage TGC (time-gain control) and preamp, subaperture beamformer, and digital control circuits for each transducer element all fit within the 0.019 mm2 area of the element. The transducer assembly was deployed in a 10 Fr (3.3 mm diameter) catheter, integrated with a GE Vivid1 E9 ultrasound imaging system, and evaluated in three pre-clinical studies...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
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