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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234935/cardiac-and-respiratory-gated-volumetric-murine-ultrasound
#1
Arvin H Soepriatna, Frederick W Damen, Pavlos P Vlachos, Craig J Goergen
Current cardiovascular ultrasound mainly employs planar imaging techniques to assess function and physiology. These techniques rely on geometric assumptions, which are dependent on the imaging plane, susceptible to inter-observer variability, and may be inaccurate when studying complex diseases. Here, we developed a gated volumetric murine ultrasound technique to visualize cardiovascular motion with high spatiotemporal resolution and directly evaluate cardiovascular health. Cardiac and respiratory-gated cine loops, acquired at 1000 frames-per-second from sequential positions, were temporally registered to generate a four-dimensional (4D) dataset...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195567/review-of-technologies-and-procedures-of-clinical-dosimetry-for-scanned-ion-beam-radiotherapy
#2
REVIEW
S Giordanengo, L Manganaro, A Vignati
In the last few years, the use of ions in radiation therapy is gaining interest and it is being considered medically necessary for a growing subset of tumours. Concurrently, the technologies involved in a particle therapy treatment are rapidly evolving, as well as the accuracy in the dose delivery in spite of the increased complexity. Since nowadays, the pencil beam scanning technique is showing very interesting features in terms of dose conformation and overall treatment outcome, the present review is intended to summarize the main procedures, detectors and tools adopted for the clinical dose verification...
November 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179057/digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-coronary-artery-disease-in-north-chinese-women
#3
Lu Wang, Zhenghao Huo, Hong Lu, Chunyue Bai, Keke Li, Wenqian Ma
BACKGROUND: Digit ratio (2D:4D) is fixed in utero and affected by fetal sex steroids. It has been proposed as a putative biomarker of certain hormone- related adult life traits and diseases. Several evidence suggest that 2D:4D ratio may correlate with cardiovascular disease risk (e.g., coronary artery disease). AIMS: To investigate whether there is a possible relationship between digit ratio (especially 2D:4D ratio) and coronary artery disease (CAD), and age at CAD in north Chinese women...
November 24, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177791/sr-11302-an-ap-1-inhibitor-reduces-metastatic-lesion-formation-in-ex-vivo-4d-lung-cancer-model
#4
Dhruva Kumar Mishra, Min P Kim
Activator protein (AP) -1 is a transcription factor, plays important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Analysis of tumor cells grown on ex vivo 4D lung cancer model shows increase in components of AP-1, c-Fos and c-Jun in circulating tumor cells (CTC) compared to primary tumor. Our aim was to determine whether the AP-1 inhibitor SR11302 reduces metastatic lesion formation in the 4D model. Human lung cancer cell lines A549, H1299, and H460 were grown in the 4D model and treated with SR11302 (1 μM)...
November 24, 2017: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176856/prenatal-androgen-receptor-activity-has-organizational-morphological-effects-in-mice
#5
Sabine E Huber, Bernd Lenz, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Prenatal sex hormones exert organizational effects. It has been suggested that prenatal sex hormones affect adult morphological parameters, such as the finger length. Especially the second-to-fourth finger length (2D:4D) ratio has been implicated to be modified when exposed to higher androgen levels in utero. Here we show in a mouse model that experimental manipulation of the prenatal androgen level, by blocking the androgen receptor with flutamide or activating the androgen receptor with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), leads to changes in the length of the fingers of all paws in males and females...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164314/cross-national-gender-variations-of-digit-ratio-2d-4d-correlate-with-life-expectancy-suicide-rate-and-other-causes-of-death
#6
Bernd Lenz, Johannes Kornhuber
The second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D) is an indication of prenatal sex hormone exposure, and has sex-specifically been associated with several lethal illnesses including ischemic heart disease, diverse cancers, and suicide. Our primary aim was to verify that 2D:4D sex-specifically relates to life expectancy and suicide numbers on a national level (23 countries). We also used a hypothesis-free approach to investigate associations with other causes of death [p value adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing using the false discovery rate procedure (FDR)]...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157751/preliminary-evidence-that-digit-length-ratio-2d-4d-predicts-neural-response-to-delivery-of-motivational-stimuli
#7
Troy A Webber, Heather E Soder, Geoffrey F Potts, Marina A Bornovalova
Reduced relative length of the 2nd to 4th digits (2D:4D) is thought to partially reflect fetal testosterone (FT) exposure, a process suspected to promote relatively permanent effects on the brain and behavior via structural and functional neuroadaptations. We examined the effect of 2D:4D on neural response - assessed by P2a and feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potentials (ERPs) - to motivational stimuli (reward or punishment) using two counterbalanced conditions of a passive S1/S2 outcome prediction design...
November 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139646/physical-fitness-and-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-male-students-from-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#8
Slawomir Koziel, Marek Kociuba Mail, Raja Chakraborty, Zofia Ignasiak
There is sex-difference in humans as regards aerobic efficiency, physical strength and endurance and the sex difference is greatly dependent upon differential concentration of testosterone during different phases of growth and development including the intrauterine phase or prenatal growth. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an putative indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher prenatal testosterone exposure and vice versa. Males generally have lower 2D:4D than females...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139645/finger-length-ratio-and-body-composition-in-chuvashians
#9
Leonid Kalichman, Valery Batsevich, Eugene Kobyliansky
Very few studies that evaluated the association between fi nger length ratio and body composition in adult population showed very diverse results. We carried out a radiographic study on a large population sample who had participated in a Chuvashian skeletal aging study investigating different aspects of skeletal aging. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between 2D:4D ratio and various indices of body composition in Chuvashian males and females. The study sample included 802 males (mean age 46...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136282/principal-component-reconstruction-pcr-for-cine-cbct-with-motion-learning-from-2d-fluoroscopy
#10
Hao Gao, Yawei Zhang, Lei Ren, Fang-Fang Yin
PURPOSE: This work aims to generate cine CT images (i.e., 4D images with high temporal resolution) based on a novel principal component reconstruction (PCR) technique with motion learning from 2D fluoroscopic training images. METHODS: In the proposed PCR method, the matrix factorization is utilized as an explicit low-rank regularization of 4D images that are represented as a product of spatial principal components and temporal motion coefficients. The key hypothesis of PCR is that temporal coefficients from 4D images can be reasonably approximated by temporal coefficients learned from 2D fluoroscopic training projections...
November 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134747/no-sex-difference-in-digit-ratios-2d-4d-in-the-traditional-yali-of-papua-and-its-meaning-for-the-previous-hypotheses-on-the-inter-populational-variability-in-2d-4d
#11
Michalina Marczak, Michał Misiak, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Piotr Sorokowski
OBJECTIVES: The ratio between the 2nd and 4th digit (2D:4D) is considered to be a sexually dimorphic trait in humans, with males having on average lower 2D:4D values than females. However, significant inter- and intra-sexual differences in digit ratios across populations have been reported. In order to further explore factors influencing the variability of 2D:4D, we performed a study among the Yali, a traditional population from Papua. METHODS: We measured digit ratios of 79 adults (47 males) from the traditional Yali society, a polygamous group who inhabit a harsh high-mountain environment almost directly on the equator...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131445/airyscan-super-resolution-microscopy-of-mitochondrial-morphology-and-dynamics-in-living-tumor-cells
#12
Vladimir L Kolossov, Mayandi Sivaguru, Joseph Huff, Katherine Luby, Kaviamuthan Kanakaraju, H Rex Gaskins
Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by continuous fusion-and-fission events that are essential for maintaining normal function. Despite the prominence of mitochondrial function in energy generation and cell signaling, understanding of processes of fusion and fission dynamics has been hampered by the lack of high-resolution optical systems that accommodate live-cell imaging. We have examined different confocal modalities in terms of resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a point scanning confocal microscope with Airyscan super-resolution (AS-SR)...
November 13, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121111/genetic-and-physical-mapping-of-anther-extrusion-in-elite-european-winter-wheat
#13
Quddoos H Muqaddasi, Klaus Pillen, Jörg Plieske, Martin W Ganal, Marion S Röder
The production and cultivation of hybrid wheat is a possible strategy to close the yield gap in wheat. Efficient hybrid wheat seed production largely depends on high rates of cross-pollination which can be ensured through high anther extrusion (AE) by male parental lines. Here, we report the AE capacity and elucidate its genetics in 514 elite European winter wheat varieties via genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We observed a wide range of variation among genotypes and a high heritability (0.80) for AE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117839/fight-bite-injuries-aggressive-tendencies-associated-with-smaller-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio
#14
Cormac W Joyce, Andrew O' Regan, Jack L Kelly, Michael O' Shaughnessy
BACKGROUND: Fight bite injuries are typically sustained by young, combative males and are the direct consequence of an aggressive act. Second to fourth digit ratios (2D:4D) are dependent on prenatal androgen exposure and lower ratios have been shown to be linked to various psychological and physical traits, including aggression. The aim of this study was to examine the 2D:4D ratios in a cohort of patients with fight bite injuries and compare these to an age and gender-matched control group...
December 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115692/a-spiral-based-volumetric-acquisition-for-mr-temperature-imaging
#15
Samuel W Fielden, Xue Feng, Li Zhao, G Wilson Miller, Matthew Geeslin, Robert F Dallapiaza, W Jeffrey Elias, Max Wintermark, Kim Butts Pauly, Craig H Meyer
PURPOSE: To develop a rapid pulse sequence for volumetric MR thermometry. METHODS: Simulations were carried out to assess temperature deviation, focal spot distortion/blurring, and focal spot shift across a range of readout durations and maximum temperatures for Cartesian, spiral-out, and retraced spiral-in/out (RIO) trajectories. The RIO trajectory was applied for stack-of-spirals 3D imaging on a real-time imaging platform and preliminary evaluation was carried out compared to a standard 2D sequence in vivo using a swine brain model, comparing maximum and mean temperatures measured between the two methods, as well as the temporal standard deviation measured by the two methods...
November 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112888/age-of-pubertal-onset-and-2nd-to-4th-digit-ratios-preliminary-findings
#16
Diane C Gooding, Blake H Chambers
BACKGROUND: The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relation between digit ratio and age of pubertal onset. METHODS: Participants were 321 men and 202 women aged between 18 and 28 at the time of assessment who self-reported their onset of puberty (i.e., age at first conscious ejaculation or menarche). Participants' right and left digit lengths were measured from hand scans...
November 4, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105333/rna-versatility-flexibility-and-thermostability-for-practice-in-rna-nanotechnology-and-biomedical-applications
#17
REVIEW
Farzin Haque, Fengmei Pi, Zhengyi Zhao, Shanqing Gu, Haibo Hu, Hang Yu, Peixuan Guo
In recent years, RNA has attracted widespread attention as a unique biomaterial with distinct biophysical properties for designing sophisticated architectures in the nanometer scale. RNA is much more versatile in structure and function with higher thermodynamic stability compared to its nucleic acid counterpart DNA. Larger RNA molecules can be viewed as a modular structure built from a combination of many 'Lego' building blocks connected via different linker sequences. By exploiting the diversity of RNA motifs and flexibility of structure, varieties of RNA architectures can be fabricated with precise control of shape, size, and stoichiometry...
November 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058032/2d-4d-finger-length-ratio-and-radiographic-hand-osteoarthritis
#18
L Kalichman, V Batsevich, E Kobyliansky
To evaluate the association between the index and ring finger's (2D:4D) length ratio with the prevalence and severity of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). A population-based sample included 802 males (mean age 46.98 ± 17.10 years) and 738 females (mean age 48.65 ± 16.62 years) who had participated in a Chuvashian skeletal aging study. Age, sex, basic demographics, anthropometric data and X-rays of both hands were acquired. Each hand was visually classified on X-ray as either type 1-index finger longer than the ring finger; type 2-index and ring finger equal in length; or type 3-index finger shorter than the ring finger...
October 20, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036875/three-novel-accurate-pixel-driven-projection-methods-for-2d-ct-and-3d-epr-imaging
#19
Zhiwei Qiao, Gage Redler, Zhiguo Gui, Yuhua Qian, Boris Epel, Howard Halpern
OBJECTIVES: This work aims to explore more accurate pixel-driven projection methods for iterative image reconstructions in order to reduce high-frequency artifacts in the generated projection image. METHODS: Three new pixel-driven projection methods namely, small-pixel-large-detector (SPLD), linear interpolation based (LIB) and distance anterpolation based (DAB), were proposed and applied to reconstruct images. The performance of these methods was evaluated in both two-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) images via the modified FORBILD phantom and three-dimensional (3D) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) images via the 6-spheres phantom...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034475/2d-4d-digit-ratio-is-not-a-biomarker-of-developmental-programming-in-baboons-papio-hamadryas-species
#20
Hillary F Huber, Cun Li, Peter W Nathanielsz
We hypothesized second-to-fourth hand digit ratio (2D:4D) is a biomarker of developmental programming in 3 baboon groups: intrauterine growth restriction (7 females, 8 males), exposure during fetal life to synthetic glucocorticoids (4 females, 5 males), and controls (66 females, 20 males). 2D:4D was similar between sexes and groups.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
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