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Per Martin Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Marcus Carlsson, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden
Intracardiac blood flow is driven by hemodynamic forces that are exchanged between the blood and myocardium. Previous studies have been limited to 2D measurements or investigated only LV forces. Right ventricular forces and their mechanistic contribution to asymmetric redirection of flow in the RV have not been measured. We therefore aimed to quantify three-dimensional hemodynamic forces in both ventricles in a cohort of healthy subjects, using magnetic resonance imaging 4D flow measurements. 25 controls,14 elite endurance athletes, and two patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony were included...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Qi-Lei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yi-Na Tang, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen, Tao Yi
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz.(SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned "snow lotus" Chinese Materia Medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jinsoo Uh, M Ayaz Khan, Chiaho Hua
This study aimed to develop a practical and accurate 4-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method using a non-navigator, image-based internal respiratory surrogate derived by dimensionality reduction (DR). The use of DR has been previously suggested but not implemented for reconstructing 4D MRI, despite its practical advantages. We compared multiple image-acquisition schemes and refined a retrospective-sorting process to optimally implement a DR-derived surrogate. The comparison included an unconventional scheme that acquires paired slices alternately to mitigate the internal surrogate's dependency on a specific slice location...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Victor Delpizzo Castagno, Manuel Augusto Pereira Vilela, Rodrigo Dalke Meucci, Deiner Paulo Martins Resende, Francis Huszar Schneid, Rafael Getelina, Maurício Rodrigues Nasiloski, Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa
PURPOSE: Hofstetter's equations are based on studies of Amplitude of Accommodation (AA) with methodological limitations, particularly in the case of children younger than 10 years of age. The aim of this study is to evaluate AA by age, gender, economic status, and time of day as well as accommodative insufficiency prevalence. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 867 schoolchildren aged 6-16 years attending two public schools in the urban area of the South Brazilian city of Pelotas...
October 18, 2016: Current Eye Research
Adomas Bunevicius, Sarunas Tamasauskas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Albertas Sliauzys, Robertas Bunevicius
BACKGROUND: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. METHODS: Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54...
October 14, 2016: Early Human Development
Douglas Wildes, Warren Lee, Bruno Haider, Scott Cogan, Krishnakumar Sundaresan, David Mills, Christopher Yetter, Patrick Hart, Christopher Haun, Mikael Concepcion, Johan Kirkhorn, Marc Bitoun
We developed a 2.5 x 6.6 mm 2D array transducer with integrated transmit/receive ASIC for 4D ICE (real-time 3D IntraCardiac Echocardiography) applications. The ASIC and transducer design were optimized so that the high voltage transmit, low-voltage TGC (time-gain control) and preamp, subaperture beamformer, and digital control circuits for each transducer element all fit within the 0.019 mm2 area of the element. The transducer assembly was deployed in a 10 Fr (3.3 mm diameter) catheter, integrated with a GE Vivid1 E9 ultrasound imaging system, and evaluated in three pre-clinical studies...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Alyson Blanchard, Luna C Munoz Centifanti
Children who exhibit callous-unemotional (CU) traits are identified as developing particularly severe forms of externalising behaviours (EB). A number of risk factors have been identified in the development of CU traits, including biological, physiological, and genetic factors. However, prenatal testosterone (PT) remains un-investigated, yet could signal fetal programming of a combination of CU/EB. Using the 2D:4D digit ratio, the current study examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between PT and EB...
October 12, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Shanshan Bao, Jonathan I Tamir, Jeffrey L Young, Umar Tariq, Martin Uecker, Peng Lai, Weitian Chen, Michael Lustig, Shreyas S Vasanawala
PURPOSE: To develop and clinically evaluate a pediatric knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on volumetric fast spin-echo (3DFSE) and compare its diagnostic performance, image quality, and imaging time to that of a conventional 2D protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3DFSE sequence was modified and combined with a compressed sensing-based reconstruction resolving multiple image contrasts, a technique termed T2 Shuffling (T2 Sh). With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, 28 consecutive children referred for 3T knee MRI prospectively underwent a standard clinical knee protocol followed by T2 Sh...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Marek Kociuba, Slawomir Kozieł, Raja Chakraborty, Zofia Ignasiak
Humans exhibit sex differences in competitiveness, sensation seeking and risk-taking attitude, which are required in sports. These attributes are often linked to prenatal testosterone (PT) exposure. The second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) is an indicator of PT exposure. A lower 2D:4D indicates higher PT exposure and vice versa. Males generally have a lower 2D:4D than females. Sensation- and/or thrill-seeking behaviours have also been found to be negatively associated with 2D:4D. Boxing and judo are considered to be high-risk sports...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Dan Shen, Zhanbing Ma, Lu Wang, Zhenghao Huo, Hong Lu, Junli Zhao, Wenli Qian
BACKGROUND: In humans, the relative lengths of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait which correlated with prenatal sex steroids and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal hormone exposure in some traits, such as physical performance. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one potent index of physical ability and its relationship with 2D:4D ratio has been discussed in several ethnic groups. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a correlation between 2D:4D ratio and HGS in Chinese college students of Ningxia Han ethnicity...
September 26, 2016: Early Human Development
Raluca G Chelu, Kevin W Wanambiro, Albert Hsiao, Laurens E Swart, Teun Voogd, Allard T van den Hoven, Matthijs van Kranenburg, Adriaan Coenen, Sara Boccalini, Piotr A Wielopolski, Mika W Vogel, Gabriel P Krestin, Shreyas S Vasanawala, Ricardo P J Budde, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Koen Nieman
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated a cloud-based platform for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) four-dimensional (4D) flow imaging, with fully integrated correction for eddy currents, Maxwell phase effects, and gradient field non-linearity, to quantify forward flow, regurgitation, and peak systolic velocity over the pulmonary artery. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 52 adult patients during one-year period from July 2014. The 4D flow and planar (2D) phase-contrast (PC) were acquired during same scanning session, but 4D flow was scanned after injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent...
October 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Kelly Jarvis, Marleen Vonder, Alex J Barker, Susanne Schnell, Michael Rose, James Carr, Joshua D Robinson, Michael Markl, Cynthia K Rigsby
BACKGROUND: Peak velocity measurements are used to evaluate the significance of stenosis in patients with transposition of the great arteries after the arterial switch operation (TGA after ASO). 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides 3-directional velocity encoding and full volumetric coverage of the great arteries and may thus improve the hemodynamic evaluation in these patients. The aim of this study was to compare peak velocities measured by 4D flow CMR with 2D phase contrast (PC) CMR and the gold standard Doppler echocardiography (echo) in patients with TGA after ASO...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Chintamaneni Raja Lakshmi, Doppalapudi Radhika, Mpv Prabhat, Sujana Mulk Bhavana, Nallamilli Sai Madhavi
Background. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between genetic taste sensitivity, dietary preferences and salivary flow rate in 6‒14-year-old children for identification of individuals at higher risk of developing dental caries. Methods. A total of 500 children 6‒14 years of age, of both genders, who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, were included. Propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity test was carried out and the subjects whose perception was bitter were grouped as tasters, whereas those who were unable to perceive any taste were grouped as non-tasters...
2016: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
Gert Cornelissen, Javier Palacios-Fenech
In this paper we study consumers' interest in acquiring and displaying expensive luxury products. Based on recent insights in consumer psychology, which build on developments in evolutionary biology, we consider luxury products as "costly signals": wasteful and costly goods, whose purpose is to communicate one's biological fitness, and social status, to others. In line with previous research, we show that experiences that trigger mate attraction goals (Study 1: Exposure to others in bathing outfit) or status display goals (Study 2: Experiencing a vicarious victory of one's favorite sports team) can increase people's interest in luxury products...
2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Anna Truzzi, Vincenzo Paolo Senese, Peipei Setoh, Cristian Ripoli, Gianluca Esposito
OBJECTIVE: We investigated how different levels of prenatal exposure to testosterone influence physiological reactions to dyadic interactions, hypothesising that higher levels of prenatal testosterone are linked to greater physiological responses. METHOD: Autonomic nervous system responses to dyadic interactions focussed on social or physical norms were measured. Physiological assessment of excitability (heart rate, facial temperature) and a behavioural assessment (Likert items judgements) were run on 25 neurotypical participants who had distinct testosterone exposure levels in utero...
October 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Ping Ye, Hong Yu, Mojgan Houshmandi
BACKGROUND: Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) has been widely employed in our laboratory for structural and functional analysis of clinical dental specimens and live cell imaging of cultured oral epithelial cells. METHODS: In this vitro study, a Fluoview 1000 (Olympus) confocal system was utilised to study thick sections of carious lesions (40-100 μm) and periodontal disease tissue samples (20-40 μm) by 2D Z stacking imaging and 3-dimentional (3D) reconstruction...
2016: BMC Oral Health
Anna Kasielska-Trojan, Piotr Stabryła, Bogusław Antoszewski
The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is claimed to be a biomarker of prenatal sex steroids. This study compared 2D:4D and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in men and women with nose deformity caused by injuries suggesting risky behaviour with those of unaffected controls. This kind of facial trauma was accepted as an indicator of risk-taking behaviour. The study involved 100 patients (50 women aged 30.74±8.09 years and 50 men aged 30.98±10.86 years) who underwent rhinoplasty due to nose trauma in a hospital in Łódź, Poland, in 2015...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Bernd Lenz, Daniela Thiem, Polyxeni Bouna-Pyrrou, Christiane Mühle, Christina Stoessel, Peter Betz, Johannes Kornhuber
Although women attempt suicides equally or more often than men do, men are more likely to die of suicide than women (sex paradox of suicidal behavior). Furthermore, the male traits of aggression and impulsivity predict suicide completion. Here, we studied the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio (2D:4D), a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure, in 46 suicide corpses and 25 non-suicide corpses. We report significantly lower 2D:4D in male suicide corpses than non-suicide corpses (p = .030, partial η (2) = ...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Youjing Sheng, Wenli Qian, Lu Wang, Zhenghao Huo, Hong Lu, Haochen Yu, Zhi Geng, Ping Cheng
BACKGROUND: The development of finger length is influenced by the level of hormones during pregnancy in the womb. The relative length of 2nd to 4th digit (2D:4D) is considered as a putative marker for prenatal hormone exposure and may represent an individual susceptibility to certain diseases, particularly those hormone-related cancers (e.g., gastric cancer). AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a possible relationship between 2D:4D ratio and gastric cancer (GCA) in Chinese men...
August 23, 2016: Early Human Development
Dinesh Dehmiwal, S M Behl, Prem Singh, Rishi Tayal, Madan Pal, R K Chandolia
AIM: The objective of the study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic images of the kidney in different disease conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 11 clinical cases of different age groups of dogs suffering from kidney diseases were diagnosed by 2D and 3D ultrasonography at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar. The ultrasound (US) machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan) having four-dimensional (4D) volumetric probe...
July 2016: Veterinary World
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