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HIV case control study

Mei-Le Keck, Florian Wrensch, Brian G Pierce, Thomas F Baumert, Steven K H Foung
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to spread worldwide with an annual increase of 1.75 million new infections. The number of HCV cases in the U.S. is now greater than the number of HIV cases and is increasing in young adults because of the opioid epidemic sweeping the country. HCV-related liver disease is the leading indication of liver transplantation. An effective vaccine is of paramount importance to control and prevent HCV infection. While this vaccine will need to induce both cellular and humoral immunity, this review is focused on the required antibody responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jesús Troya, Rocio Montejano, Pablo Ryan, Cristina Gómez, Mariano Matarranz, Alfonso Cabello, Francisco Vera, María Antonia Sepúlveda, Ignacio Santos, Gloria Samperiz, Pablo Bachiller, Vicente Boix, Pilar Barrufet, Miguel Cervero, José Sanz, Javier Solís, María Yllescas, Eulalia Valencia
BACKGROUND: Long-term combination antiretroviral therapy often results in toxicity/tolerability problems, which are one of the main reasons for switching treatment. Despite the favorable profile of raltegravir (RAL), data on its combination with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) are scarce. Based on clinical data, we evaluated this regimen as a switching strategy. DESIGN: Multicenter, non-controlled, retrospective study including all virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients who had switched to RAL+ABC/3TC...
2018: PloS One
Sonia Ratib, Esther Burden-Teh, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Catherine Harwood, Fiona Bath-Hextall
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize available research evidence to determine the risk of skin cancer in patients with long-term use of topical corticosteroids (TCS). INTRODUCTION: Topical corticosteroids are one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in dermatology and the mainstay of the treatment of atopic dermatitis and other skin conditions such as psoriasis. They are often required for months or years to control the disease and ultimately restore patients' quality of life...
June 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Bisola O Ojikutu, Sumeeta Srinivasan, Laura M Bogart, S V Subramanian, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prison release on HIV incidence in the southern region of the United States, the region with the highest rates of both incarceration and new HIV diagnoses nationwide. METHODS: 5-year HIV diagnoses rates were calculated at the ZIP code level for nine cities and metropolitan statistical areas in the US South (ZIP codes, N = 600). Multilevel regression models were constructed and adjusted rate ratios (ARRs) were estimated for overall, male and female HIV diagnoses rates...
2018: PloS One
Maria Pino, Mirko Paiardini, Vincent C Marconi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to describe the major barriers to HIV eradication and assess the most promising cure strategies under investigation. RECENT FINDINGS: There are significant challenges to achieve HIV eradication. These include the establishment of persistent latently infected cells, systemic chronic immune activation, and immune dysfunction. Since the announcement of the first HIV cure involving the Berlin patient, several attempts to reproduce these results have failed...
June 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Carl D Langefeld, Mary E Comeau, Maggie C Y Ng, Meijian Guan, Latchezar Dimitrov, Poorva Mudgal, Mitzie H Spainhour, Bruce A Julian, Jeffrey C Edberg, Jennifer A Croker, Jasmin Divers, Pamela J Hicks, Donald W Bowden, Gary C Chan, Lijun Ma, Nicholette D Palmer, Robert P Kimberly, Barry I Freedman
African Americans carrying two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal risk variants have a high risk for nephropathy. However, only a minority develops end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hence, modifying factors likely contribute to initiation of kidney disease such as endogenous (HIV infection) or exogenous (interferon treatment) environmental modifiers. In this report, genome-wide association studies and a meta-analysis were performed to identify novel loci for nondiabetic ESRD in African Americans and to detect genetic modifiers in APOL1-associated nephropathy...
June 6, 2018: Kidney International
Abebe Dires Nega, Mulat Adefris Woldetsadik, Abebaw Addis Gelagay
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Majority of the cases are found in developing countries. The increasing risk of cervical cancer death and the high prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in Human immuno-deficiency virus(HIV) positive women calls for determining the level of premalignant cervical cancer (Ca) screening uptake. So, this study aimed to assess the uptake of cervical cancer screening and its associated factors...
June 7, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Chengli Bei, Manjiao Fu, Yao Zhang, Hebin Xie, Ke Yin, Yanke Liu, Li Zhang, Bangruan Xie, Fang Li, Hua Huang, Yuhong Liu, Li Yang, Jing Zhou
BACKGROUND: Limited treatment options of extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) have led to its high mortality worldwide. Relevant data about mortality of XDR-TB patients in literature are limited and likely underestimate the real situation in China, since the majority of patients with XDR-TB are lost to follow-up after discharge from TB hospitals. In this study, we sought to investigate the mortality and associated risk factors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-negative patients with XDR-TB in China...
June 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mauricio A Martins, Damien C Tully, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Benjamin von Bredow, Matthias G Pauthner, Young C Shin, Maoli Yuan, Noemia S Lima, David J Bean, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Aline Domingues, Martin J Gutman, Helen S Maxwell, Diogo M Magnani, Michael J Ricciardi, Varian K Bailey, John D Altman, Dennis R Burton, Keisuke Ejima, David B Allison, David T Evans, Eva G Rakasz, Christopher L Parks, Myrna C Bonaldo, Saverio Capuano, Jeffrey D Lifson, Ronald C Desrosiers, Todd M Allen, David I Watkins
Certain major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I) alleles are associated with spontaneous control of viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). These cases of "elite" control of HIV/SIV replication are often immune-mediated, thereby providing a framework for studying anti-lentiviral immunity. Here we examined how vaccination impacts SIV replication in RMs expressing the MHC-I allele Mamu-B*17 Approximately 21% of Mamu-B*17 + and 50% of Mamu-B*08 + RMs control chronic phase viremia after SIVmac239 infection...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tailah Bernardo de Almeida, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de Azevedo, Jorge Francisco da Cunha Pinto, Fernando Rafael de Almeida Ferry, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva, Izana Junqueira de Castro, Paxton Baker, Amilcar Tanuri, David W Haas, Cynthia C Cardoso
Objectives: There are limited data regarding efavirenz pharmacogenetics in admixed populations. The Brazilian population is highly admixed. In a Brazilian cohort, we sought to characterize associations between efavirenz adverse effects (all-cause and CNS) and polymorphisms in seven genes known or suspected to affect efavirenz metabolism and transport. Methods: We studied 225 HIV-positive individuals who had been prescribed efavirenz-containing regimens at a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Bereket Gebremichael, Tsega-Ab Abebaw, Tsedey Moges, Admas Abera Abaerei, Nadia Worede
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is among the top ten cause of death (9th) from a single infectious agent worldwide. It even ranks above HIV/AIDS. It is among the top 10 causes of death among children. Globally there are estimates of one million cases of TB in children, 76% occur in 22 high-burden countries among which Ethiopia ranked 8th. Despite this fact, children with TB are given low priority in most national health programs. Moreover reports on childhood TB and its predictors are very limited...
June 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Eyob Abera Mesfin, Dereje Beyene, Abreham Tesfaye, Addisu Admasu, Desalegn Addise, Miskir Amare, Biniyam Dagne, Zelalem Yaregal, Ephrem Tesfaye, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: Multidrug drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major health problem and seriously threatens TB control and prevention efforts globally. Ethiopia is among the 30th highest TB burden countries for MDR-TB with 14% prevalence among previously treated cases. The focus of this study was on determining drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among MDR-TB suspected cases and associated risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa from June 2015 to December 2016...
2018: PloS One
Benhildah N Rumbwere Dube, Tom P Marshall, Ronan P Ryan, Modupe Omonijo
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important because antiretroviral therapies are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early. Diagnosis of HIV relies on laboratory testing and determining the demographic and clinical characteristics of undiagnosed HIV-infected patients may be useful in identifying patients for testing. This systematic review aims to identify characteristics of HIV-infected adults prior to diagnosis that could be used in a prediction model for early detection of patients for HIV testing in UK primary care...
June 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Orrin Devinsky, Anthony Kim, Daniel Friedman, Annie Bedigian, Ellen Moffatt, Zian H Tseng
OBJECTIVE: Since cardic fibrosis was previously found more frequently in patients with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) than control cases, we compared blinded and quantitative reviews of cardiac pathology in SUDEP to multiple control groups. METHODS: We adjudicated causes of death in epilepsy patients as part of consecutive out-of-hospital sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) from the Postmortem Systematic Investigation of Sudden Cardiac Death (POSTSCD) study...
June 1, 2018: Neurology
Sozinho Acácio, Tacilta Nhampossa, Llorenç Quintó, Delfino Vubil, Charfudin Sacoor, Karen Kotloff, Tamer Farag, Nasrin Dilruba, Eusebio Macete, Myron M Levine, Pedro Alonso, Inácio Mandomando, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is an important health problem among HIV-infected patients. This study evaluates the role of HIV on the epidemiology, etiology and severity of diarrheal disease among children. METHODS: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study enrolled children with moderate-to-severe (MSD) and less severe (LSD) diarrhea between December 2007 and November 2012. One to three controls for MSD cases and one per LSD case were enrolled and matched by age, sex and neighborhood...
May 28, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Shelene G Gentz, Isabel Calonge-Romano, Rosario Martínez-Arias, Chengbo Zeng, Mónica Ruiz-Casares
The mental health needs of children and adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) in Namibia are poorly understood, despite the dramatic improvement in their survival. ALHIV in resource poor contexts face particular risk factors, such as poverty, orphanhood, and poor social support. This study examines the mental health of ALHIV in Namibia, and the factors that contribute to mental health problems. A case-control design assessed emotional and behavioural symptoms of distress, risk and protective factors among adolescents aged 12-18 years...
May 30, 2018: AIDS Care
Min-Jung Li, Jiun-Hau Huang
The number of HIV cases in Taiwan exceeded 30,000 in 2016. Per the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target, 81% of people living with HIV should receive medication. However, numerous previous studies focused on adherence rather than the initial healthcare seeking intention if diagnosed with HIV (HIV HSI). Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), anonymous online survey data were collected from December 2016 through February 2017 from 2709 young MSM (YMSM) ages 15-39. Multivariate logistic regression found the significant factors and strengths of associations with HIV HSI varied by their HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) experience...
May 28, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Mattia Peyracchia, Giulia De Lio, Chiara Montrucchio, Pierluigi Omedè, Gabriella d'Ettore, Andrea Calcagno, Vincenzo Vullo, Enrico Cerrato, Mauro Pennacchi, Gennaro Sardella, Pravin Manga, Walter GrossoMarra, Francesco Vullo, Francesco Fedele, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Claudio Moretti, Ahmed Vachiat, Stefano Bonora, Mauro Rinaldi, Massimo Mancone, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The risk of recurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is well known, but there is limited evidence about potential differences in coronary plaques compared to non-HIV patients. METHODS: In this multicenter case-control study, HIV patients presenting with ACS, with intravascular-ultrasound (IVUS) data, enrolled between February 2015 and June 2017, and undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were retrospectively compared to non-HIV patients presenting with ACS, before and after propensity score with matching, randomly selected from included centers...
May 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Carolina S Bortolot, Luana da S M Forezi, Roberta K F Marra, Marcelo I P Reis, Barbara V F E Sa, Ricardo Imbroisi Filho, Zeinab Ghasemishahrestani, Mauro Sola-Penna, Patricia Zancan, Vitor F Ferreira, Fernando de C da Silva
BACKGROUND: Low molecular weight 1,2,3-triazoles and naphthoquinones are endowed with various types of biological activity, such as against cancer, HIV and bacteria. However, in some cases, the conjugation of these two nuclei considerably increases their biological activities Objective: In this work, we decided to study the synthesis and screening of bis-naphthoquinones and xanthenes tethered to 1,2,3-triazoles against cancer cell lines, specifically the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7...
May 23, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Bikash Sahay, Janet K Yamamoto
The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine called Fel-O-Vax® FIV is the first commercial FIV vaccine released worldwide for the use in domestic cats against global FIV subtypes (A⁻E). This vaccine consists of inactivated dual-subtype (A plus D) FIV-infected cells, whereas its prototype vaccine consists of inactivated dual-subtype whole viruses. Both vaccines in experimental trials conferred moderate-to-substantial protection against heterologous strains from homologous and heterologous subtypes. Importantly, a recent case-control field study of Fel-O-Vax-vaccinated cats with outdoor access and ≥3 years of annual vaccine boost, resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 56% in Australia where subtype-A viruses prevail...
May 22, 2018: Viruses
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