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HIV case control study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214184/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-lymphopenia-clinical-and-pathophysiological-features
#1
M Martin, A Guffroy, X Argemi, T Martin
Lymphopenia is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and profound (<500/mm(3)) in 10% of cases. T lymphocytes, especially CD4+, are more affected than B cells. The pathophysiological mechanisms are complex, involving lymphocytotoxic antibodies, excess of apoptosis, increased susceptibility of T cells to complement mediated cytolysis, as well as lymphopoiesis impairment and lymphocyte sequestration. Lymphopenia in SLE is independent from other cytopenia and immunosuppressive drug regiments, and associated with disease activity, risk of flare and damage scores...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212625/prevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-associated-factors-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-infected-patients-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study
#2
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfection with HIV/AIDS has emerged as a series of disease pattern. It most often results in unfavorable responses to treatment, frequent relapses, and deaths. Scarce data is available regarding the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfected patients. This study sought to determine the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis infected patients. METHODS: Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from October, 2015 to August, 2016 in Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#3
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193202/association-of-high-serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-with-active-pulmonary-tb-in-an-hiv-co-endemic-setting-harare-zimbabwe
#4
Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Duri, Kudzie Mateveke-Dangaiso, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Witmore Bayayi Mujaji
BACKGROUND: There is paucity data on the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and active tuberculosis (TB) in southern Africa where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is co-endemic. We examined the association of serum vitamin D concentrations with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV-infected (n = 284) and uninfected (n = 267) Black Zimbabweans, in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 551 participants comprising 145 HIV(+)/PTB (+), 139 HIV(+)/PTB(-), 134 HIV(-)/PTB(+) and 133 HIV(-)/PTB(-)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193183/factors-associated-with-the-length-of-delay-with-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-among-adult-tuberculosis-patients-attending-at-public-health-facilities-in-gondar-town-northwest-ethiopia
#5
Selamsew Bogale, Ermias Diro, Atsede Mazengia Shiferaw, Melaku Kindie Yenit
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for an effective tuberculosis (TB) control program. However, significant proportion of cases remains undiagnosed and untreated. Delay in diagnosis and treatment increases transmission. Hence, the study assessed the length of delay and associated factors with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adults attending public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May, 2016...
February 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181860/factors-associated-with-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-despite-overall-low-transmission-rates-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-rural-kenya
#6
Nicollate A Okoko, Kevin O Owuor, Jayne L Kulzer, George O Owino, Irene A Ogolla, Ronald W Wandera, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Lisa L Abuogi
Despite the availability of efficacious prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and improved access to preventive services in many developing countries, vertical HIV transmission persists. A matched case-control study of HIV-exposed infants between January and June 2012 was conducted at 20 clinics in Kenya. Cases were HIV-infected infants and controls were exposed, uninfected infants. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine characteristics associated with HIV infection...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181688/dental-implants-and-bone-augmentation-in-hiv-infected-patients-under-haart-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Fábio Vidal, Rafael Vidal, Jeter Bochnia, Rodrigo Carvalho de Souza, Lucio Souza Gonçalves
The present study reviewed the literature regarding dental implants in HIV-infected patients and reports the long-term follow-up of three clinical cases of patients under HAART that received bone augmentation and dental implants. The first case presents a young patient with a large defect in the mandible, as a consequence of a longitudinal fracture, that was treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR) previously to implant placement. The second case reported is middle-aged man with a fractured upper lateral incisor treated with immediate placement and simultaneous GBR to repair the dehiscence due to the buccal bone resorption...
February 9, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181013/factors-associated-with-receiving-late-hiv-testing-among-women-delivering-at-hung-vuong-hospital-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam-2014
#8
V N Khuu, V T Nguyen, N K Hills, T P Hau, D P Nguyen, V T Nhung, P T Lan, D B Brickley
HIV testing during pregnancy facilitates timely antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive women. This study identifies reasons for late HIV testing among pregnant women delivering at a hospital in Ho Chi Minh City. We conducted a case-control study in which 160 cases were women who were tested for HIV late (i.e., at labor and delivery) and 160 controls were women who were tested during antenatal care (ANC). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, six variables were associated with late HIV testing: age less than 30 years, nine or fewer years of education, working as a homemaker or worker/farmer, living 20 km or more from the hospital, having received ANC at a private clinic/hospital only, and not believing that HIV testing is important during pregnancy...
February 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165155/performance-of-anti-hcv-testing-in-dried-blood-spots-and-saliva-according-to-hiv-status
#9
Geane Lopes Flores, Helena Medina Cruz, Vanessa Alves Marques, Cristiane Alves Villela-Nogueira, Denise Vigo Potsch, Silvia Beatriz May, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello, Marcia Maria Amendola Pires, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Priscila Pollo-Flores, Eliane Bordalo Cathalá Esberard, Claudia Ivantes, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
The use of saliva and dried blood spots (DBS) could increase access to HCV diagnosis for high-risk populations, such as HIV-infected individuals, but the performance of these assays has not been well established in this group. This study aims to evaluate HIV status, particularly TCD4(+) cell count and viral load, in the performance of anti-HCV testing using DBS and saliva. A total of 961 individuals classified as HCV + , HIV+ or HIV/HCV + , as well as negative controls, donated serum, DBS and saliva samples for anti-HCV testing using a commercial enzyme immunoassay...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163018/multiplexed-fc-array-for-evaluation-of-antigen-specific-antibody-effector-profiles
#10
Eric P Brown, Karen G Dowell, Austin W Boesch, Erica Normandin, Alison E Mahan, Thach Chu, Dan H Barouch, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Galit Alter, Margaret E Ackerman
Antibodies are widely considered to be a frequent primary and often mechanistic correlate of protection of approved vaccines; thus evaluating the antibody response is of critical importance in attempting to understand and predict the efficacy of novel vaccine candidates. Historically, antibody responses have been analyzed by determining the titer of the humoral response using measurements such as an ELISA, neutralization, or agglutination assays. In the simplest case, sufficiently high titers of antibody against vaccine antigen(s) are sufficient to predict protection...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160044/clinical-characteristics-of-pediatric-hiv-1-patients-treated-with-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-vietnam-a-nested-case-control-study
#11
Minh Diem Dang, Duc Minh Nguyen, Huu Bich Tran, Viet Hung Pham, Daryl Spak, Linh Chi Pham, Thi Quynh Phan, Thi Thanh Dinh, Thi Kim Anh Le, Van Lam Nguyen, Thanh Hai Le, Son Ngoc Hoang, Vu Phuong Linh Dang
OBJECTIVES: Over the past decades, Vietnam has made great strides in reducing the rate of mortality in HIV-related deaths, due to increased access of antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, given the significantly high level of treatment failure (TF), it is essential to identify markers that describe the failure of ART in HIV-1 infected children. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted with clinical data collected from 101 HIV-infected children [26 TF and 75 treatment success (TS)] at National Hospital of Pediatrics, Vietnam (2008-2012)...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157470/risks-for-tuberculosis-in-kazakhstan-implications-for-prevention
#12
A Davis, A Terlikbayeva, A Aifah, S Hermosilla, Z Zhumadilov, E Berikova, S Rakhimova, S Primbetova, M Darisheva, N Schluger, N El-Bassel
SETTING: Four regions in Kazakhstan where participants were recruited from June 2012 to May 2014. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between incarceration history and tobacco, alcohol, and drug consumption, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and diabetes mellitus (DM) with TB. DESIGN: This matched case-control study included 1600 participants who completed a survey on sociodemographics, history of incarceration, tobacco, alcohol and drug use, and HIV and DM diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157462/tuberculosis-along-the-continuum-of-hiv-care-in-a-cohort-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-ethiopia
#13
D Jerene, W Abebe, K Taye, P G Suarez, Y Feleke, I Hallström, A J Ruff
SETTING: Eight health facilities in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and associated factors among adolescents living with the human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. Adolescents enrolled in HIV care between January 2005 and 31 December 2013 constituted the study population. The main outcome variable was TB diagnosis during follow-up. Baseline World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage, CD4 count, previous history of TB and use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) were the main independent variables...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143443/the-immunological-response-to-syphilis-differs-by-hiv-status-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#14
Chris Kenyon, Kara Krista Osbak, Tania Crucitti, Luc Kestens
BACKGROUND: It is not known if there is a difference in the immune response to syphilis between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS: We prospectively recruited all patients with a new diagnosis of syphilis and tested their plasma for IFNα, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17A at baseline pre-treatment and 6 months following therapy. RESULTS: A total of 79 HIV-infected [44 primary/secondary syphilis (PSS) and 35 latent syphilis (LS)] and 12 HIV-uninfected (10 PSS and 2 LS) cases of syphilis and 30 HIV-infected controls were included in the study...
January 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139443/effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-south-african-children-a-case-control-study
#15
Cheryl Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Linda de Gouveia, Sarona Lengana, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Arthermon Nguweneza, David P Moore, Gary Reubenson, Mamokgethi Moshe, Shabir A Madhi, Brian Eley, Ute Hallbauer, Heather Finlayson, Sheeba Varughese, Katherine L O'Brien, Elizabeth R Zell, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was designed to include disease-causing serotypes that are important in low-income and middle-income countries. Vaccine effectiveness estimates are scarce in these settings. South Africa replaced PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011 using a 2 + 1 schedule. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two or more doses of PCV13 against invasive pneumococcal disease in children with HIV infection and in those not infected with HIV. METHODS: Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 5 years or younger were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139255/who-pays-for-cooperation-in-global-health-a-comparative-analysis-of-who-the-world-bank-the-global-fund-to-fight-hiv-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-and-gavi-the-vaccine-alliance
#16
Chelsea Clinton, Devi Sridhar
In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage...
January 27, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129343/plasma-hiv-1-tropism-and-the-risk-of-short-term-clinical-progression-to-aids-or-death
#17
Maria Casadellà, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Andrew Phillips, Marc Noguera-Julian, Markus Bickel, Dalibor Sedlacek, Kai Zilmer, Bonaventura Clotet, Jens D Lundgren, Roger Paredes
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if plasma HIV-1 tropism testing could identify subjects at higher risk for clinical progression and death in routine clinical management. DESIGN: Nested case-control study within the EuroSIDA cohort. METHODS: Cases were subjects with AIDS or who died from any cause, with a plasma sample with HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL available for tropism testing 3 to 12 months prior to the event. At least 1 control matched for age, HIV-1 RNA and HCV status at the time of sampling were selected per each case...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123962/scale-up-of-art-in-malawi-has-reduced-case-notification-rates-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-tuberculosis
#18
H Kanyerere, B Girma, J Mpunga, K Tayler-Smith, A D Harries, A Jahn, F M Chimbwandira
Setting: For 30 years, Malawi has experienced a dual epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) that has recently begun to be attenuated by the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objective: To report on the correlation between ART scale-up and annual national TB case notification rates (CNR) in Malawi, stratified by HIV-positive and HIV-negative status, from 2005 to 2015. Design: A retrospective descriptive ecological study using aggregate data from national reports...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117471/temporal-analysis-of-reported-cases-of-tuberculosis-and-of-tuberculosis-hiv-co-infection-in-brazil-between-2002-and-2012
#19
Renato Simões Gaspar, Natália Nunes, Marina Nunes, Vandilson Pinheiro Rodrigues
Objective: To investigate the reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. Methods: This was an observational study based on secondary time series data collected from the Brazilian Case Registry Database for the 2002-2012 period. The incidence of tuberculosis was stratified by gender, age group, geographical region, and outcome, as was that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection. Results: Nationally, the incidence of tuberculosis declined by 18%, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 3...
November 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115682/the-impact-of-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy-on-tb-risk-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
P J Dodd, A J Prendergast, C Beecroft, B Kampmann, J A Seddon
BACKGROUND: Children (<15 years) are vulnerable to TB disease following infection, but no systematic review or meta-analysis has quantified the effects of HIV-related immunosuppression or antiretroviral therapy (ART) on their TB incidence. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of HIV infection and ART on risk of incident TB disease in children. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies measuring HIV prevalence in paediatric TB cases ('TB cohorts') and paediatric HIV cohorts reporting TB incidence ('HIV cohorts')...
January 23, 2017: Thorax
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