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HIV case control study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099825/transmission-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#1
N Sarita Shah, Sara C Auld, James C M Brust, Barun Mathema, Nazir Ismail, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Salim Allana, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Natashia Morris, Primrose Mpangase, Hermina van der Meulen, Shaheed V Omar, Tyler S Brown, Apurva Narechania, Elena Shaskina, Thandi Kapwata, Barry Kreiswirth, Neel R Gandhi
Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is needed to guide public health interventions. Methods We conducted a prospective study involving 404 participants in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with a diagnosis of XDR tuberculosis between 2011 and 2014...
19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099593/angiosarcoma-in-hiv-negative-patients-is-not-associated-with-hhv-8
#2
João Avancini, José Antonio Sanches, Andre Pires Zanata Cherubim, Renato Pazzini, Cristina Mendes de Oliveira, Laura Masami Sumita, Neusa Yuriko Sakai Valente, Claudio Sergio Pannuti, Cyro Festa
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma is an aggressive, malignant neoplasm of vascular or lymphatic origin. Herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is a member of the herpes family with a tropism for endothelial cells and it has been proven to induce vascular neoplasms, such as Kaposi's sarcoma. The role of HHV-8 in the pathogenesis of angiosarcoma has not been well defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the presence of HHV-8 and angiosarcoma. METHODS: In this study, the team investigated the relationship between the presence of HHV-8, as determined by polymerase chain reaction, and angiosarcoma, using samples from patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma as controls...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093970/evaluation-of-salivary-vitamin-c-and-catalase-in-hiv-positive-and-healthy-hiv-negative-control-group
#3
Fatemeh Ahmadi Motamayel, Samaneh Vaziri Amjad, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Jalal Poorolajal
BACKGROUND: Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid from major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is life threatening disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was evaluation of salivary vitamin C and catalase level in HIV positive patients in comparison to healthy control group. METHOD: Forty nine HIV infected person and 49 healthy subjects were selected...
January 16, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088237/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Johannes G M Burgerhof
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control and remains a major public health concern in many countries. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity that can both accelerate TB disease and complicate its treatment. The aim of this study is to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients and to provide a pooled estimate of risks. METHODS: All studies published in English before October 2016 will be searched using comprehensive search strings through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and WHO Global Health Library databases which have reported the association of DM and MDR-TB in adults with TB (age > =15)...
January 14, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086877/treating-the-invisible-gaps-and-opportunities-for-enhanced-tb-control-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#5
Naomi Tschirhart, Sein Sein Thi, Lei Lei Swe, Francois Nosten, Angel M Foster
BACKGROUND: In Thailand's northwestern Tak province, contextual conditions along the border with Myanmar pose difficulties for TB control among migrant populations. Incomplete surveillance data, migrant patient mobility, and loss to follow-up make it difficult to estimate the TB burden and implement effective TB control measures. This multi-methods study examined tuberculosis, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment accessibility for migrants and refugees in Tak province, health system response, and public health surveillance...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081048/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-common-childhood-infections-in-south-african-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-unexposed-infants
#6
Amy L Slogrove, Monika M Esser, Mark F Cotton, David P Speert, Tobias R Kollmann, Joel Singer, Julie A Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty). METHODS: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065890/impact-of-obesity-on-antiretroviral-pharmacokinetics-and-immuno-virological-response-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-case-control-study
#7
Vincent Madelain, Minh P Le, Karen Champenois, Charlotte Charpentier, Roland Landman, Veronique Joly, Patrick Yeni, Diane Descamps, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Gilles Peytavin
BACKGROUND: Obesity has high prevalence among HIV-infected patients. Increased adipose tissue mass affects the pharmacokinetics of numerous drugs, but few data are available for antiretroviral drugs. OBJECTIVES: In this study we aimed to explore the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs and the immuno-virological response in obese patients with HIV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined data from 2009 to 2012 in our hospital's database for HIV-1-infected patients who received an antiretroviral drug (abacavir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir, efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir or raltegravir)...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063795/effect-of-new-tuberculosis-diagnostic-technologies-on-community-based-intensified-case-finding-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Gregory L Calligaro, Lynn S Zijenah, Jonathan G Peter, Grant Theron, Virginia Buser, Ruth McNerney, Wilbert Bara, Tsitsi Bandason, Ureshnie Govender, Michele Tomasicchio, Liezel Smith, Bongani M Mayosi, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Inadequate case detection results in high levels of undiagnosed tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Data for the effect of new diagnostic tools when used for community-based intensified case finding are not available, so we investigated whether the use of sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and the Determine TB LAM urine test in two African communities could be effective. METHODS: In a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group trial with individual randomisation stratified by country, we compared sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF, and if HIV-infected, the Determine TB LAM urine test (novel diagnostic group), with laboratory-based sputum smear microscopy (routine diagnostic group) for intensified case finding in communities with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence in Cape Town, South Africa, and Harare, Zimbabwe...
January 4, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062682/genome-wide-association-study-of-nevirapine-hypersensitivity-in-a-sub-saharan-african-hiv-infected-population
#9
Daniel F Carr, Stephane Bourgeois, Mas Chaponda, Louise Y Takeshita, Andrew P Morris, Elena M Cornejo Castro, Ana Alfirevic, Andrew R Jones, Daniel J Rigden, Sam Haldenby, Saye Khoo, David G Lalloo, Robert S Heyderman, Collet Dandara, Elizabeth Kampira, Joep J van Oosterhout, Francis Ssali, Paula Munderi, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani, Matthew R Nelson, Arthur Holden, Panos Deloukas, Munir Pirmohamed
BACKGROUND: The antiretroviral nevirapine is associated with hypersensitivity reactions in 6%-10% of patients, including hepatotoxicity, maculopapular exanthema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). OBJECTIVES: To undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic predisposing factors for the different clinical phenotypes associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity. METHODS: A GWAS was undertaken in a discovery cohort of 151 nevirapine-hypersensitive and 182 tolerant, HIV-infected Malawian adults...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056848/high-prevalence-and-low-cure-rate-of-tuberculosis-among-patients-with-hiv-in-xinjiang-china
#10
Rena Maimaiti, Yuexin Zhang, Kejun Pan, Peierdun Mijiti, Maimaitiali Wubili, Maimaitijiang Musa, Rune Andersson
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemics are problems in many parts of the world. Xinjiang is a high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence area in China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang. METHODS: In a retrospective study between 2006 and 2011, clinical and laboratory data on 333 patients with HIV and tuberculosis were compared to 2668 patients with HIV only. There were 31 HIV positive patients with no data on tuberculosis...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056035/a-systematic-review-of-the-incidence-risk-factors-and-case-fatality-rates-of-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-ints-disease-in-africa-1966-to-2014
#11
Ifeanyi Valentine Uche, Calman A MacLennan, Allan Saul
This study systematically reviews the literature on the occurrence, incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. Data on the burden of iNTS disease in Africa are sparse and generally have not been aggregated, making it difficult to describe the epidemiology that is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective prevention and control policies. This study involved a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052738/determining-optimal-impairment-rating-methodology-for-a-new-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-screening-procedure
#12
Jody Kamminga, Mark Bloch, Trina Vincent, Angela Carberry, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
INTRODUCTION: The current study sought to determine the optimal impairment rating definition for a new HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) screening procedure as compared to standard neuropsychological testing. METHOD: A total of 55 HIV-infected (HIV+; 19% AIDS; 87% on combination antiretroviral therapy, cART; 80% plasma undetectable) and 22 demographically comparable HIV-uninfected (HIV-) control adults (all male) enrolled in an urban Australian primary care cohort study completed the CogState computerized cognitive screen, a standard independence in activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire, and a standard neuropsychological test battery...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043530/rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-sputum-samples-using-pure-tb-lamp-assay
#13
K N'guessan, K Horo, I Coulibaly, J Adegbele, N Kouame-Adjei, H Seck-Angu, A Guei, J Kouakou, M Dosso
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Lack of rapid and accurate diagnostic testing is a critical obstacle to global tuberculosis (TB) control. Sensitivity of sputum smear microscopy (SSM) is not optimal; however, it remains the most prevalent tool for TB confirmation in poor countries. As a part of passive case finding of TB detection, this study was conducted to determine the clinical performance of PURE TB-LAMP assay using liquid culture medium as the gold standard. METHODS: Centre Antituberculeux de Yopougon is one of the 17 intermediate Tuberculosis centers in Côte d'Ivoire...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043494/yield-of-mycobacteriological-study-in-diagnosis-of-pleural-tuberculosis-among-human-immune-deficiency-virus-infected-patients
#14
Majid Marjani, Amir Yousefzadeh, Payam Tabarsi, Afshin Moniri, Ali Akbar Velayati
BACKGROUND: Pleural tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected patients. In the absence of HIV infection, the yield of mycobacteriological study is low and usually invasive procedures, including pleural fluid analysis and pleural biopsy, are necessary. The present study aimed to determine the yield of mycobacteriological study of sputum and pleural fluid among HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study involved HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with new pleural TB admitted to the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran, for 5years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043488/development-of-the-food-supplement-nyaditum-resae-as-a-new-tool-to-reduce-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-development
#15
Nestani Tukvadze, Paula Cardona, Sergo Vashakidze, Natalia Shubladze, Zaza Avaliani, Cris Vilaplana, Pere-Joan Cardona
Nyaditum resae (NR) is a galenic preparation of heat-killed Mycobacterium manresensis (hkMn). This is a new species that belongs to the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, and it is present in drinking water-thus, regulatorily speaking, it is considered a food supplement. Preclinical studies in the murine model of active tuberculosis (TB) in the C3HeB/FeJ strain have demonstrated that daily administration of NR containing 10(3)-10(6)hkMn for 14days was able to stop the progression toward active TB [1]. The mechanism of action was linked to the induction of low dose tolerance and was related to the increase of Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) memory-specific Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)CD39(+) cells) after ex vivo incubation of splenocytes for 7days...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043030/potential-gingival-crevicular-fluid-and-serum-biomarkers-by-stage-of-hiv-infection
#16
Jesús Eduardo Elizondo, María Del Refugio Rocha-Pizaña, Ana Cecilia Treviño, Deborah Violant, Mario Moisés Álvarez, Ana María Rivas-Estilla
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the potential of gingival crevicular fluid and serum cytokines as HIV stage biomarkers. METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum samples from 78 HIV-positive adult male subjects (cases) and 39 HIV-negative male subjects (controls) from Mexico were examined for 17 cytokines using multiplex ELISA. Participants were divided into five subgroups by HIV stage of infection on age-specific CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and antiretroviral therapy (ART), and further correlated to the cytokine levels...
December 30, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028295/current-trends-of-seroprevalence-of-transfusion-transmitted-infections-in-pakistani-%C3%AE-thalassaemic-patients
#17
S Sultan, S M Irfan, M Siddiqui, S M H Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Though regular blood transfusion improves the survival, it carries the unavoidable risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) in β-thalassaemic patients. Owing to the lack of uniformity in blood screening practices in Pakistan, TTI is still a major challenge. OBJECTIVES: To study the current trends of TTI in regularly transfused β-thalassaemics and their correlation with age, number of transfusions, hematological and biochemical markers. METHODS: We carried out a prospective case-control study...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018929/antiretroviral-therapy-as-prevention-of-%C3%A2-pneumococcal-infections
#18
Anaïs Lesourd, Jérémie Leporrier, Valérie Delbos, Guillemette Unal, Patricia Honoré, Manuel Etienne, Olivier Bouchaud, François Caron
BACKGROUND: Despite antiretroviral therapy, it is generally believed that the risk for pneumococcal infections (PnIs) is high among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, most studies in this field have been conducted before 2010, and the proportion of virologically suppressed patients has drastically increased in these latter years thanks to larger indications and more effective antiretroviral regimens. This study aimed to re-evaluate the current risk of PnI among adult patients infected with HIV...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017825/diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-assessment-of-treatment-response-through-analyses-of-volatile-compound-patterns-in-exhaled-breath-samples
#19
Nicola M Zetola, Chawangwa Modongo, Ogopotse Matsiri, Tsaone Tamuhla, Bontle Mbongwe, Keikantse Matlhagela, Enoch Sepako, Alexandro Catini, Giorgio Sirugo, Eugenio Martinelli, Roberto Paolesse, Corrado Di Natale
OBJECTIVES: We determined the performance of a sensor array (an electronic nose) made of 8 metalloporphyrins coated quartz microbalances sensors for the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using exhaled breath samples. METHODS: TB cases and healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Signals from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath samples were measured at days 0, 2, 7, 14, and 30 of TB therapy and correlated with clinical and microbiological measurements...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000338/opt-out-screening-strategy-for-hiv-infection-among-patients-attending-emergency-departments-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
C Henriquez-Camacho, P Villafuerte-Gutierrez, J A Pérez-Molina, J Losa, E Gotuzzo, N Cheyne
OBJECTIVES: International health agencies have promoted nontargeted universal (opt-out) HIV screening tests in different settings, including emergency departments (EDs). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the testing uptake of strategies (opt-in targeted, opt-in nontargeted and opt-out) to detect new cases of HIV infection in EDs. METHODS: We searched the Pubmed and Embase databases, from 1984 to April 2015, for opt-in and opt-out HIV diagnostic strategies used in EDs...
December 21, 2016: HIV Medicine
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