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HIV case control study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233121/do-retreatment-tuberculosis-patients-need-special-treatment-response-follow-up-beyond-the-standard-regimen-finding-of-five-year-retrospective-study-in-pastoralist-setting
#1
Fentabil Getnet, Henok Sileshi, Wubareg Seifu, Selam Yirga, Abere Shiferaw Alemu
BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes serve as proxy measures of the quality of tuberculosis treatment provided by the health care system, and it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of Directly Observed Therapy-Short course program in controlling the disease, and reducing treatment failure, default and death. Hence, we evaluated tuberculosis treatment success rate, its trends and predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Ethiopian Somali region where 85% of its population is pastoralist...
December 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226217/lipid-profile-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#2
Gebremedhin Gebremicael, Yemane Amare, Feyissa Challa, Atsbeha Gebreegziabxier, Girmay Medhin, Mistire Wolde, Desta Kassa
Background: Understanding whether the preceding low lipid profile leads to active tuberculosis (TB) or active TB leads to low lipid profile is crucial. Methods: Lipid profile concentrations were determined from 159 study participants composed of 93 active TB patients [44 HIV coinfected (HIV+TB+) and 49 HIV negative (HIV-TB+)], 41 tuberculin skin test (TST) positive cases [17 HIV coinfected (HIV+TST+) and 24 HIV negative (HIV-TST+)], and 25 healthy controls (HIV-TST-)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226216/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-tuberculosis-in-prisons-settings-of-east-gojjam-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#3
Mucheye Gizachew Beza, Emirie Hunegnaw, Moges Tiruneh
Background: Tuberculosis, mainly in prisoners, is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where there is no medical screening during prison admission. This creates scarcity of TB data in such settings. Objective: To determine prevalence and associated factors of TB in prisons in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 265 prisoners in three prison sites. Sputum was processed using GeneXpert MTB/RIF...
2017: International Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223583/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates...
December 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217938/sociodemographic-correlates-of-hiv-discordant-and-concordant-couples-in-anambra-state-nigeria
#5
Chinomnso Nnebue, Adaeze Anaekwe, Chidebe Anaekwe
Background: The contribution of discordant partnerships to the burden of HIV/AIDS is significant. An understanding of the characteristics of HIV-affected couples will help modify preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to compare the HIV discordant and concordant partnerships for sociodemographic determinants in comprehensive health centers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: This was an institution based case-control study of 289 (148 HIV-concordant and 141 HIV-discordant) couples, selected using multistage sampling technique...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216874/factors-influencing-the-experience-of-sexual-and-reproductive-healthcare-for-female-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-qualitative-case-study
#6
Gertrude Mwalabu, Catrin Evans, Sarah Redsell
BACKGROUND: Young people living with perinatally-acquired HIV require age-appropriate support regarding sex and relationships as they progress towards adulthood. HIV affects both genders but evidence suggests that young women are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and more prone to engaging in sexual behaviours to meet their daily survival needs. This can result in poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. HIV services in Malawi provide support for young women's HIV-related clinical needs, but it is unclear whether there is sufficient provision for their SRH needs as they become adults...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215531/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-non-hiv-associated-immunosuppression-and-risk-of-cervical-neoplasia
#7
Michael J Silverberg, Wendy A Leyden, Aileen Chi, Steven Gregorich, Megan J Huchko, Shalini Kulasingam, Miriam Kuppermann, Anna Seto, Karen K Smith-McCune, George F Sawaya
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, 2-3, 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cancer (CIN 2 or worse) among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and non-HIV-associated immunosuppression. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 20,146 women with incident CIN 2 or worse and 5:1 age-matched, incidence-density selected women in a control group (n=100,144) enrolled in an integrated health care system from 1996 to 2014...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211835/massive-iatrogenic-outbreak-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-in-rural-cambodia-2014-2015
#8
François Rouet, Janin Nouhin, Du-Ping Zheng, Benjamin Roche, Allison Black, Sophearot Prak, Marie Leoz, Catherine Gaudy-Graffin, Laurent Ferradini, Chandara Mom, Sovatha Mam, Charlotte Gautier, Gérard Lesage, Sreymom Ken, Kerya Phon, Alexandra Kerleguer, Chunfu Yang, William Killam, Masami Fujita, Chhivun Mean, Didier Fontenille, Francis Barin, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Trevor Bedford, Artur Ramos, Vonthanak Saphonn
Background: In 2014-2015, 242 individuals aged 2-89 were newly HIV-1 diagnosed in Roka, a rural commune in Cambodia. A case-control study attributed the outbreak to unsafe injections. We aimed to reconstruct the likely transmission history of the outbreak. Methods: We assessed in 209 (86.4%) HIV-infected cases the presence of hepatitis C and B viruses (HCV, HBV). We identified recent infections using antibody (Ab) avidity testing for HIV and HCV, and HBcIgM Ab for HBV...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210660/host-factors-predictors-in-long-term-nonprogressors-hiv-1-infected-with-distinct-viral-clades
#9
J S Santos, S M Almeida, G F Silveira, J Bordignon, S Lm Teixeira, Acm Lima, S M Raboni
BACKGROUND: HIV-1+ long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) maintain natural control of viral infection. This study sought to identify and characterize HIV- LTNPs series case, regarding the presence of possible host factors that may be associated with this status. METHODS: We evaluated the plasma levels of IP-10/IL-8 chemokines, HLA-B alleles, and IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism in 24 LTNPs who presented with infection by different clades of HIV-1. RESULTS: IL-8 chemokine was significantly higher in progressors than in LTNPs, but there was no difference between the LTNP subgroups...
December 6, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#10
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209326/retroviruses-as-myeloid-cell-riders-what-natural-human-siglec-1-knockouts-tell-us-about-pathogenesis
#11
Javier Martinez-Picado, Paul J McLaren, Amalio Telenti, Nuria Izquierdo-Useros
Myeloid cells initiate immune responses and are crucial to control infections. In the case of retroviruses, however, myeloid cells also promote pathogenesis by enabling viral dissemination; a process extensively studied in vitro using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This viral hijacking mechanism does not rely on productive myeloid cell infection but requires HIV-1 capture via Siglec-1/CD169, a receptor expressed on myeloid cells that facilitates the infection of bystander target cells. Murine retroviruses are also recognized by Siglec-1, and this interaction is required for robust retroviral infection in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204904/the-functionality-of-african-specific-variants-in-the-tgfb1-regulatory-region-and-their-potential-role-in-hivan
#12
M Nel, J-M Buys, F C J Botha, N Wearne, S Prince, J M Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Transcription of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) is regulated by a polymorphic promoter region containing African-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Some of these SNPs have higher frequencies among Southern Africans compared to other African populations and their functionality has only been partially studied. Due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) in Africans we hypothesized that functional African TGFB1-promoter SNPs may contribute to HIVAN pathogenesis...
December 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202880/a-retrospective-study-on-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-at-jinka-general-hospital-southern-ethiopia
#13
Biniam Wondale, Girmay Medihn, Takele Teklu, Wondmeneh Mersha, Mesfin Tamirat, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVE: Information on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes would be useful for the improvement of the TB control program. The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of TB and identify associated factors in TB patients at the Jinka General Hospital (JGH), remote Zone of Ethiopia. RESULT: The result showed that 13.1% (154/1172) of the cases were cured, 60.9% treatment completed, 10.2% died and 9.1% were lost to follow-up. Thus, the overall treatment success rate was 74%...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199100/universal-test-and-treat-and-the-hiv-epidemic-in-rural-south-africa-a-phase-4-open-label-community-cluster-randomised-trial
#14
Collins C Iwuji, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Joseph Larmarange, Eric Balestre, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Frank Tanser, Nonhlanhla Okesola, Thembisa Makowa, Jaco Dreyer, Kobus Herbst, Nuala McGrath, Till Bärnighausen, Sylvie Boyer, Tulio De Oliveira, Claire Rekacewicz, Brigitte Bazin, Marie-Louise Newell, Deenan Pillay, François Dabis
BACKGROUND: Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART), as per the 2015 WHO recommendations, might reduce population HIV incidence. We investigated the effect of universal test and treat on HIV acquisition at population level in a high prevalence rural region of South Africa. METHODS: We did a phase 4, open-label, cluster randomised trial of 22 communities in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We included individuals residing in the communities who were aged 16 years or older...
November 30, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191155/provider-initiated-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-outpatient-departments-of-health-care-facilities-in-ghana-yield-by-screening-strategy-and-target-group
#15
Sally-Ann Ohene, Frank Bonsu, Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey, Ardon Toonstra, Adelaide Sackey, Knut Lonnroth, Mukund Uplekar, Samuel Danso, George Mensah, Felix Afutu, Paul Klatser, Mirjam Bakker
BACKGROUND: Meticulous identification and investigation of patients presenting with tuberculosis (TB) suggestive symptoms rarely happen in crowded outpatient departments (OPDs). Making health providers in OPDs diligently follow screening procedures may help increase TB case detection. From July 2010 to December 2013, two symptom based TB screening approaches of varying cough duration were used to screen and test for TB among general outpatients, PLHIV, diabetics and contacts in Accra, Ghana...
December 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186458/four-days-a-week-antiretroviral-maintenance-therapy-in-virologically-controlled-hiv-1-infected-adults-the-anrs-162-4d-trial
#16
Pierre de Truchis, Lambert Assoumou, Roland Landman, Dominique Mathez, Damien Le Dû, Jonathan Bellet, Karine Amat, Christine Katlama, Guillaume Gras, Olivier Bouchaud, Martin Duracinsky, Emuri Abe, Jean-Claude Alvarez, Jacques Izopet, Juliette Saillard, Jean-Claude Melchior, Jacques Leibowitch, Dominique Costagliola, Pierre-Marie Girard, Christian Perronne
Background: Intermittent treatment could improve the convenience, tolerability and cost of ART, as well as patients' quality of life. We conducted a 48 week multicentre study of a 4-days-a-week antiretroviral regimen in adults with controlled HIV-1-RNA plasma viral load (VL). Methods: Eligible patients were adults with VL < 50 copies/mL for at least 1 year on triple therapy with a ritonavir-boosted PI (PI/r) or an NNRTI. The study protocol consisted of the same regimen taken on four consecutive days per week followed by a 3 day drug interruption...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185094/a-theory-based-exploration-of-condomless-anal-intercourse-intention-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-of-different-sexual-roles-in-taiwan
#17
Jen-Hao Chu, Jiun-Hau Huang
In recent years, men who have sex with men (MSM) have accounted for over 80% of all new HIV cases in Taiwan. More than 70% of new cases have occurred in those aged 15-34 years. Condomless anal intercourse (CAI) has been identified as the main route of HIV transmission among MSM. To systematically examine CAI intention and associated factors among young MSM in Taiwan, an anonymous online survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was conducted. Data from 694 MSM aged 15-39 years were included in the analysis...
November 28, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184648/estimating-the-prevalence-of-positive-tuberculin-skin-test-reactions-in-general-population-and-high-risk-groups-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Reza Tabrizi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mahdi Afshari, Siavosh Abedi, Maryam Akbari, Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Mahmood Moosazadeh
Results of tuberculin skin test (TST) surveys among different populations have been reported in many studies as a method for detecting primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Combining these results provides reliable estimates of primary latent tuberculosis (TB) infection for health policymakers. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection in general and high-risk populations in Iran. National and international databanks were searched using specific keywords. After restricting the search strategy, duplicates exclusion, reviewing titles, abstracts and full texts, and quality assessment, eligible papers were selected...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182638/respondent-driven-sampling-for-identification-of-hiv-and-hcv-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-india-a-cross-sectional-community-based-analysis
#19
Sunil S Solomon, Allison M McFall, Gregory M Lucas, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Muniratnam S Kumar, Santhanam Anand, Thomas C Quinn, David D Celentano, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: A major barrier to achieving ambitious targets for global control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is low levels of awareness of infection among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID). We explored the potential of a strategy routinely used for surveillance in these groups, respondent-driven sampling (RDS), to be used as an intervention to identify HIV- and HCV-infected PWID and MSM who are unaware of their status and those who are viremic across 26 Indian cities at various epidemic stages...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178197/greater-retention-in-care-among-adolescents-on-antiretroviral-treatment-accessing-teen-club-an-adolescent-centred-differentiated-care-model-compared-with-standard-of-care-a-nested-case-control-study-at-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-malawi
#20
Rachel K MacKenzie, Monique van Lettow, Chrissie Gondwe, James Nyirongo, Victor Singano, Victor Banda, Edith Thaulo, Teferi Beyene, Mansi Agarwal, Allyson McKenney, Susan Hrapcak, Daniela Garone, Sumeet K Sodhi, Adrienne K Chan
INTRODUCTION: There are numerous barriers to the care and support of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) that makes this population particularly vulnerable to attrition from care, poor adherence and virological failure. In 2010, a Teen Club was established in Zomba Central Hospital (ZCH), Malawi, a tertiary referral HIV clinic. Teen Club provides ALHIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART) with dedicated clinic time, sexual and reproductive health education, peer mentorship, ART refill and support for positive living and treatment adherence...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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