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HIV case control study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045699/impact-of-hiv-on-the-burden-and-severity-of-influenza-illness-in-malawian-adults-a-prospective-cohort-and-parallel-case-control-study
#1
Antonia Ho, Stephen J Aston, Hannah Jary, Tamara Mitchell, Maaike Alaerts, Mavis Menyere, Jane Mallewa, Mulinda Nyirenda, Dean Everett, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French
Background: The impact of HIV infection on influenza incidence and severity in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings, but is rarely implemented in Africa. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in Blantyre, Malawi. In a parallel case-control study, we explored risk factors for severe influenza presentation of severe (hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)), and mild influenza (influenza-like illness (ILI))...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037298/determinants-of-multidrug-resistance-among-previously-treated-tuberculosis-patients-in-zimbabwe-2014
#2
G Muchena, G Shambira, N Masuka, T Juru, N Gombe, L Takundwa, D Bangure, M Tshimanga
SETTING: Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among previously treated TB patients. DESIGN: A 1:3 case-control study with bivariate analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: Risk factors for MDR-TB were history of nursing an MDR-TB patient (adjusted OR [aOR] 4.46, 95%CI 2.02-9.88), history of hospitalisation for 3 days (aOR 2.91, 95%CI 1.62-5.23) and history of foreign travel and stay outside Zimbabwe (aOR 2...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037257/ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-insertion-for-hydrocephalus-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#3
James J M Loan, Ncedile Mankahla, Graeme Meintjes, A Graham Fieggen
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a recognised complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related opportunistic infections. Symptomatic raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure can be treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion (VPS). In HIV-infected patients however, there is a concern that VPS might be associated with unacceptably high rates of mortality. We aim to systematically review and appraise published literature to determine reported outcomes and identify predictors of outcome following VPS in relevant subgroups of HIV-infected adults...
October 16, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028970/poor-obstetric-and-infant-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-with-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-the-tshepiso-study
#4
Nicole Salazar-Austin, Jennifer Hoffmann, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Ziyaad Waja, Sanjay Lala, Christopher Hoffmann, Kelly E Dooley, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson
Background: Prior to the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and TB. We aimed to describe the impact of TB among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed HIV-infected pregnant women with and without TB disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028223/are-scientific-research-outputs-aligned-with-national-policy-makers-priorities-a-case-study-of-tuberculosis-in-cambodia
#5
Lydia Boudarene, Richard James, Richard Coker, Mishal S Khan
With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. We first conducted a systematic review to compile all studies on TB in Cambodia published since 2000...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026869/associations-between-antiretroviral-treatment-and-avascular-bone-necrosis-the-swiss-hiv-cohort-study
#6
Cornelia Bayard, Bruno Ledergerber, Markus Flepp, Thanh Lecompte, Estelle Moulin, Matthias Hoffmann, Rainer Weber, Cornelia Staehelin, Caroline Di Benedetto, Christoph A Fux, Philip E Tarr, Barbara Hasse
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of avascular bone necrosis (AVN). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and particularly protease inhibitors (PI) have been implicated as a risk factor. We aimed to study the associations of ART with the occurrence of AVN among Swiss HIV Cohort Study participants (SHCS). METHODS: We used incidence density sampling to perform a case control study within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) comparing prospectively collected AVN cases and controls by conditional logistic regression analysis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022077/no-association-between-periodontitis-and-preterm-low-birth-weight-a-case-control-study
#7
Mariana Fampa Fogacci, Elaine de O C Cardoso, Davi da S Barbirato, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Carmelo Sansone
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontitis in pregnant women and adverse pregnancy outcomes by heeding confounding risk factors for preterm low birth weight infants. METHODS: This study was reported according to The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic were screened. Those between 21 and 34 years and gestational age of 28-32 weeks were initially enrolled in the study...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020929/a-scoping-review-of-prevalence-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hiv-infection-amongst-young-people-in-brazil
#8
Igor Pedrosa Saffier, Hélia Kawa, Guy Harling
BACKGROUND: Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. METHODS: We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published studies from any time in the HIV epidemic which provided estimates specific to ages 10-25 (or some subset of this age range) for Brazilians on either: (a) HIV prevalence or incidence; or (b) the association between HIV and socio-demographic or behavioral risk factors...
October 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020764/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-tenofovir-associated-nephrotoxicity-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-in-korea
#9
Jeong Eun Lee, Shinwon Lee, Sang Heon Song, Ihm Soo Kwak, Sun Hee Lee
Background/Aims: Little is known about tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-induced nephrotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Korea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of TDF-associated nephrotoxicity among HIV-infected patients in Korea. Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIVinfected patients in Korea. We included patients who had started TDF or abacavir (ABC)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) between October 2006 and December 2014...
October 12, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020436/short-course-versus-long-course-intravenous-therapy-with-the-same-antibiotic-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-aged-two-months-to-59-months
#10
REVIEW
Zohra S Lassi, Aamer Imdad, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Although controversy exists regarding the specific clinical features used to diagnose pneumonia, the criteria for diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defined and are widely used to triage children for referral and second-line therapy...
October 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017282/plasma-cytokine-predictors-of-tuberculosis-recurrence-in-antiretroviral-treated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-from-durban-south-africa
#11
Aida Sivro, Lyle R McKinnon, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Santhana Gengiah, Natasha Samsunder, Salim S Abdool Karim, Kogieleum Naidoo
Background: Immune correlates of tuberculosis (TB) risk in populations infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain understudied, despite HIV being associated with a high burden of TB disease. Here we describe plasma cytokine correlates of TB recurrence in a well-characterized cohort of HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a history of prior TB cure. Methods: Study participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study initiated at the conclusion of a randomized clinical trial in which individuals presented with untreated HIV infection and active pulmonary TB...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989874/metabolic-status-and-hypogonadism-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-males
#12
Sarita Bajaj, Yashaswi Pathak, Sharad Varma, Sujit Verma
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hypogonadism in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males and to study its relation to age, CD4 count, body mass index (BMI), duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and metabolic status. METHODOLOGY: Eighty-one HIV positive cases and 82 healthy controls were included in this case-control study. Each case underwent a complete physical examination and serum fasting plasma glucose, A1c, lipid profile, total testosterone (TT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were estimated...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978939/non-neutralizing-antibodies-targeting-the-v1v2-domain-of-hiv-exhibit-strong-antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxic-activity
#13
Luzia M Mayr, Thomas Decoville, Sylvie Schmidt, Géraldine Laumond, Jéromine Klingler, Camille Ducloy, Seiamak Bahram, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Christiane Moog
The development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 has proven to be challenging. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whilst exhibiting neutralization breadth and potency, are elicited only in a small subset of infected individuals and have yet to be induced by vaccination. Case-control studies of RV144 identified an inverse correlation of HIV-1 infection risk with antibodies (Abs) to the V1V2 region of gp120 with high antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. The neutralizing activity of Abs was not found to contribute to this protective outcome...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969557/impact-of-high-protein-intake-on-viral-load-and-hematological-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients
#14
Evgeny Vlad Butorov
BACKGROUND: The impact of protein intake level leads to considerable alterations of the host essential amino acid profiles in the context of chronic viral infectious process. Amino acids play an important role in the pathogenesis of virus-related infections both as basic substrates for constant protein synthesis and as regulators in many metabolic pathways. The excess or deficiency of these host essential nutritional elements can play a limiting role in the life cycle of some viruses...
October 2, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969210/prevention-of-parent-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-single-centre-experience-of-14-years-at-tertiary-care-hospital-in-delhi-india
#15
A G Radhika, Sonia Chawla, Sruthi Bhaskaran
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of Parent To Child Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV/AIDS is an integral component of AIDS control programme. PPTCT is an ongoing programme since last 15 years. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in the burden of disease in newborn and infants by prevention of parents to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi from May 2002 to May 2015...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945756/effects-of-schistosomiasis-on-susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-and-hiv-1-viral-load-at-hiv-1-seroconversion-a-nested-case-control-study
#16
Jennifer A Downs, Kathryn M Dupnik, Govert J van Dam, Mark Urassa, Peter Lutonja, Dieuwke Kornelis, Claudia J de Dood, Pytsje Hoekstra, Chifundo Kanjala, Raphael Isingo, Robert N Peck, Myung Hee Lee, Paul L A M Corstjens, Jim Todd, John M Changalucha, Warren D Johnson, Daniel W Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis affects 218 million people worldwide, with most infections in Africa. Prevalence studies suggest that people with chronic schistosomiasis may have higher risk of HIV-1 acquisition and impaired ability to control HIV-1 replication once infected. We hypothesized that: (1) pre-existing schistosome infection may increase the odds of HIV-1 acquisition and that the effects may differ between men and women, and (2) individuals with active schistosome infection at the time of HIV-1 acquisition may have impaired immune control of HIV-1, resulting in higher HIV-1 viral loads at HIV-1 seroconversion...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945296/prognostic-biomarkers-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-disease-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Hongzheng Zhang, Sungjin Kim, Zhengjia Chen, Sreenivas Nannapaneni, Amy Y Chen, Charles E Moore, Gabriel Sica, Marina Mosunjac, Minh Ly T Nguyen, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Thomas E Carey, Lisa A Peterson, Jonathan B McHugh, Martin Graham, Christine M Komarck, Gregory T Wolf, Heather M Walline, Emily Bellile, James Riddell, Sara I Pai, David Sidransky, William H Westra, William N William, J Jack Lee, Adel K El-Naggar, Robert L Ferris, Raja Seethala, Jennifer R Grandis, Zhuo Georgia Chen, Nabil F Saba, Dong M Shin
BACKGROUND: We examined the prognostic value of a panel of biomarkers in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV-positive head and neck cancer) and HIV negative (HIV-negative head and neck cancer). METHODS: Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed using tumors from 41 disease site-matched and age-matched HIV-positive head and neck cancer cases and 44 HIV-negative head and neck cancer controls...
September 25, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939993/efficacy-and-prognosis-of-antiviral-therapy-on-hepatitis-c-following-treatment-of-lymphoma-in-hcv-positive-diffuse-large-cell-lymphoma
#18
Yutaka Tsutsumi, Chie Nakayama, Koki Kamada, Ryo Kikuchi, Daiki Kudo, Shinichi Ito, Satomi Matsuoka, Souichi Shiratori, Yoshiya Yamamoto, Hirohito Naruse, Takanori Teshima
The purpose of this study is to study the usefulness of post-remission antiviral therapy in cases of HCV-RNA-positive diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Antiviral therapy against HCV was performed after remission using CHOP or CHOP-like chemotherapy in combination with rituximab in five successive cases of HCV-RNA-positive diffuse large-cell lymphoma. The control groups consisted of a group of HCV-RNA-positive diffuse large-cell lymphoma cases prior to this trial (control 1), and a group of cases that tested negative for HIV, HCV, and HBV (control 2)...
September 22, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922449/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#19
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910923/-a-qualitative-study-on-high-risk-behaviors-and-related-factors-of-reported-hiv-aids-cases-aged-60-years-and-above-in-some-areas-of-henan-province
#20
N Li, H Li, Y M Ma, P Y Fan, W J Yang, Q Zhu
Objective: To understand the major high risk behaviors and related factors among reported HIV/AIDS cases aged ≥60 years in some areas of Henan province. Methods: In Dengzhou, Xunxian county of Hebi and Xiangcheng county of Xuchang, where the reported number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases aged ≥60 years were high, a face to face interview was conducted among the cases aged ≥60 years during July-August in 2016. The information about the high risk behaviors before HIV infection confirmation were collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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