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HIV case control study

Noboru Hirashima, Hiroaki Iwase, Masaaki Shimada, Nobumitsu Ryuge, Junji Imamura, Hiroki Ikeda, Yasuhito Tanaka, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Chiaki Okuse, Fumio Itoh, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Tsunamasa Watanabe
Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) often accelerates the course of HCV-associated liver disease. Daclatasvir (DCV) plus asunaprevir (ASV) have been shown to be highly effective for HCV-infected patients with genotype 1b. Three patients co-infected with HIV/HCV genotype 1b were enrolled in this study. Prior to initiation of HCV treatment, the variants associated with L31 and Y93 in the non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) region of the HCV genome were confirmed to be absent using a direct sequencing method...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Jody K Takemoto, Tracie L Miller, Jiajia Wang, Denise L Jacobson, Mitchell E Geffner, Russell B Van Dyke, Mariana Gerschenson
OBJECTIVE: To identify relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial respiration in perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) youth. DESIGN: Case-control study METHODS:: Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in pHIV youth in Tanner stages 2-5, 25 youth with IR (IR+) and 50 without IR (IR-) who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). IR was defined as a Homeostatic Model of Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥4.0. A novel, high-throughput oximetry method was used to evaluate cellular respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Gerrit Ahrenstorf, Hui-Zhi Low, Katja Kniesch, David Ordonez, Dirk Meyer-Olson, Fareed Ahmad, Claudia Kücherer, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Matthias Stoll, Torsten Matthias, Reinhold E Schmidt, Torsten Witte
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of LILRA3 and the genetic LILRA3 deletion on transmission and clinical course of HIV infection. DESIGN: Case and control study. METHODS: LILRA3 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. HIV patients were categorized into short-term progressors, normal progressors and long-term non-progressors according to the clinical course. Functional studies were performed using real-time PCR, intracellular flow cytometry and ELISA...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Gustavo Bergonzoli, Luis G Castellanos, Rodolfo Rodríguez, Lina María Garcia
Objectives To explore the relationships among social, economic, environmental, and health services determinants of tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality, and to identify the mechanisms that mediate such associations in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods This was an ecological study of 26 LAC countries that had accurate data available on 38 selected variables for the year 2010. The countries represented 99% of the TB burden in LAC. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations among determinants of health and TB morbidity and mortality...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Divya Balaji, Linda B Mlunde, Olivia C Tran, Barrot Lambdin, Jessie Mbwambo, Cassian Nyandindi, Eva Matiko, Michael Copenhaver, R Douglas Bruce
High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among females who use drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, contrasts strikingly with their low enrollment in HIV risk reduction services such as methadone assisted therapy (MAT). We conducted a case-control study to examine factors associated with non-enrollment in MAT, with a focus on gender-based violence. We interviewed 202 female heroin users not enrolled in MAT as cases and 93 females enrolled in MAT. We fitted logistic regression models with MAT enrollment as the outcome of interest...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Qing Wang, Andrea De Luca, Colette Smith, Robert Zangerle, Helen Sambatakou, Fabrice Bonnet, Colette Smit, Philipp Schommers, Alicia Thornton, Juan Berenguer, Lars Peters, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Adriana Ammassari, Andrea Antinori, Eugenia Quiros Roldan, Cristina Mussini, Jose M Miro, Deborah Konopnicki, Jan Fehr, Maria A Campbell, Monique Termote, Heiner C Bucher
Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common AIDS-defining condition in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Whether chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promote NHL in HIV-infected patients is unclear. Objective: To investigate whether chronic HBV and HCV infection are associated with increased incidence of NHL in HIV-infected patients. Design: Cohort study. Setting: 18 of 33 cohorts from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE)...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Houlin Tang, Zunyou Wu, Yurong Mao, Javier Cepeda, Jamie Morano
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and condom use have been proven to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV sero-different couples, but its full implementation remains a challenge. This study aims to assess HIV seroconversion rate of HIV-negative spouse and its associated risk factors among HIV sero-different couples in rural China. METHODS: An open cohort of HIV sero-different couples enrolled in 30 counties in China between October 1, 2010, and September 30, 2012, and followed-up to December 31, 2012, was constructed retrospectively...
2016: PloS One
D L Fink, L Hedley, R F Miller
Biologic therapies are injectable immunomodulatory agents directed against specific immune cell or chemical targets. They have transformed the lives of HIV-uninfected individuals with severe inflammatory conditions including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. The perceived increased infection risk associated with these agents means that HIV-infected individuals have not been included in randomised control trials of these drugs. The literature for use of biologic therapies in HIV-infected populations is limited to case reports and case series...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Abebayehu Bitew Aniley, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Ejigu Gebeye Zeleke, Assefa Andargie Kassa
BACKGROUND: Early HIV diagnosis and access to treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent its further spread and to protect the health of those living with the virus. However, delay in diagnosis is the major risk factor for uptake of and response to antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Institution-based unmatched case-control study design was used in the study. The study was conducted in Debre-Markos and Finote-Selam Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Cases were people living with HIV who had CD4 count <350cells/mm(3) or WHO clinical stage III and IV regardless of the CD4 count at first presentation and controls were those who had CD4 count ≥350cells/mm(3) or WHO clinical stage I and II...
October 12, 2016: BMC Public Health
Zhiliang Hu, Yongfeng Yang, Jian Cheng, Cong Cheng, Yun Chi, Hongxia Wei
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common opportunistic infection with a high mortality rate in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It is unclear whether mannitol could be used to manage neurological symptoms in HIV-associated CM. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 33 patients with HIV-associated symptomatic CM at our hospital where mannitol was used to relieve neurologic symptoms. With the empirical mannitol therapy, patients had a median of 2 episodes (range, 1-6 episodes) of headaches the day at the starting of anti-cryptococcal therapy...
October 11, 2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
M Senkoro, A M V Kumar, P Chinnakali, S G Mfinanga, S Egwaga, V Kamara, F van Leth, S G Hinderaker
SETTING: Tanzania has an estimated tuberculosis (TB) prevalence of 295 per 100 000 adult population. There is currently no nationally representative information on factors associated with TB in Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and clinical factors associated with bacteriologically confirmed TB in the adult general population of Tanzania. DESIGN: A case-control study nested in a nationally representative TB prevalence survey...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Eva Åkerman, Per-Olof Östergren, Birgitta Essén, Cecilia Fernbrant, Ragnar Westerling
BACKGROUND: Migration from Thailand to Sweden has increased threefold over the last 10 years. Today Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden. Since the year 2000, new HIV cases are also more prevalent among Thai immigrants compared to other immigrant nationalities in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services, contraceptive knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics and social capital among Thai immigrant women in Sweden...
October 10, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Maryse A Wiewel, Michaëla A Huson, Lonneke A van Vught, Arie J Hoogendijk, Peter M C Klein Klouwenberg, Janneke Horn, René Lutter, Olaf L Cremer, Marcus J Schultz, Marc J Bonten, Tom van der Poll
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a prominent reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with HIV. We aimed to investigate the impact of HIV infection on presentation, outcome and host response in sepsis. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study in the ICUs of two tertiary hospitals. For the current analyses, we selected all patients diagnosed with sepsis within 24 hours after admission. Host response biomarkers were analyzed in a more homogeneous subgroup of admissions involving HIV-positive patients with pneumosepsis, matched to admissions of HIV-negative patients for age, gender and race...
October 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Roberta Bruhn, Elizabeth Moreno, Ester C Sabino, Naura Aparecida F Ferreira, Anna Barbara F Carneiro-Proietti, Maria Esther D Lopes, Divaldo Sampaio, Paula Loureiro, Brian Custer, Thelma T Goncalez
BACKGROUND: There has been increased worldwide emphasis on the many benefits of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus awareness for both infection prevention and improved treatment outcomes. Previous studies indicate that donors may use blood donation to be tested; the objectives of this analysis were to assess, among donors with previously undisclosed risk behavior in the 12 months before donation, the frequency of those who have previously been tested for HIV and the demographic and behavioral factors associated with such testing...
September 9, 2016: Transfusion
Dayse Sanchez Guimarães Paião, Everton Ferreira Lemos, Andrea da Silva Santos Carbone, Renata Viebrantz Enne Sgarbi, Alexandre Laranjeira Junior, Fellipe Matos da Silva, Letícia Marques Brandão, Luciana Squarizi Dos Santos, Vaneli Silva Martins, Simone Simionatto, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Maurício Antônio Pompílio, Juliana Urrego, Albert Icksang Ko, Jason Randolph Andrews, Julio Croda
BACKGROUND: Globally, prison inmates are a high-risk population for tuberculosis (TB), but the specific drivers of disease and impact of mass screening interventions are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study to characterize the incidence and risk factors for tuberculosis infection and disease in 12 Brazilian prisons, and to investigate the effect of mass screening on subsequent disease risk. After recruiting a stratified random sample of inmates, we administered a questionnaire to ascertain symptoms and potential risk factors for tuberculosis; performed tuberculin skin testing (TST); collected sera for HIV testing; and obtained two sputum samples for smear microscopy and culture, from participants reporting a cough of any duration...
October 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Stephen Gichuhi, Ephantus Macharia, Joy Kabiru, Alain M'bongo Zindamoyen, Hillary Rono, Ernest Ollando, Joseph Wachira, Rhoda Munene, Timothy Onyuma, Walter G Jaoko, Mandeep S Sagoo, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
OBJECTIVE: To determine modifiable risk factors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Kenya using disease-free controls. METHODS: Adults with conjunctival lesions were recruited at four eye care centres in Kenya and underwent excision biopsy. An equal number of controls having surgery for conditions not affecting the conjunctiva and unrelated to ultraviolet light were group-matched to cases by age group, sex and eye care centre. Associations of risk factors with OSSN were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)...
October 7, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Felix Masiye, Mwendaweli Maboshe, Eveline Klinkenberg, Frank Cobelens, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB cases in a national population based TB prevalence survey. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 among 66 survey clusters in Zambia...
2016: PloS One
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
Ariana Singh, Kamran Ahmed, Abdullatif Aydin, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Prokar Dasgupta
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Fournier's gangrene is a rare, necrotising fasciitis of the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. The disease has a higher incidence in males and risk factors for development include diabetes, HIV, alcoholism and other immune-compromised states. The aggressive disease process is associated with a high mortality rate of 20-30%. In addition, the increasing age and prevalence of diabetes in the population, begs the need for increased clinical awareness of Fournier's gangrene with emphasis on early diagnosis and management...
October 5, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Heidi M Crane, Rob J Fredericksen, Anna Church, Anna Harrington, Paul Ciechanowski, Jennifer Magnani, Kari Nasby, Tyler Brown, Shireesha Dhanireddy, Robert D Harrington, William B Lober, Jane Simoni, Stevan A Safren, Todd C Edwards, Donald L Patrick, Michael S Saag, Paul K Crane, Mari M Kitahata
BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretroviral medications is a key determinant of clinical outcomes. Many adherence intervention trials investigated the effects of time-intensive or costly interventions that are not feasible in most clinical care settings. OBJECTIVE: We set out to evaluate a collaborative care approach as a feasible intervention applicable to patients in clinical care including those with mental illness and/or substance use issues. METHODS: We developed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating an integrated, clinic-based care management approach to improve clinical outcomes that could be integrated into the clinical care setting...
October 5, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
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