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HIV case control study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622640/clinical-course-and-core-variability-in-hbv-infected-patients-without-detectable-anti-hbc-antibodies
#1
Olympia E Anastasiou, Marek Widera, Jens Verheyen, Johannes Korth, Guido Gerken, Fabian A Helfritz, Ali Canbay, Heiner Wedemeyer, Sandra Ciesek
BACKGROUND: The presence of anti-HBc antibodies indicates direct encounter of the immune system with hepatitis B virus (HBV). OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study was to seek for anti-HBc negative but HBV replicating patients and analyze their clinical course and preconditions. STUDY DESIGN: From 1568 HBV-DNA positive patients, 29 patients (1.85%) tested negative for anti-HBc. The absence of anti-HBc could be confirmed in 19 patients using an alternative assay...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619532/major-physical-health-conditions-and-risk-of-suicide
#2
Brian K Ahmedani, Edward L Peterson, Yong Hu, Rebecca C Rossom, Frances Lynch, Christine Y Lu, Beth E Waitzfelder, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Samuel Hubley, Deepak Prabhakar, L Keoki Williams, Nicole Zeld, Elizabeth Mutter, Arne Beck, Dennis Tolsma, Gregory E Simon
INTRODUCTION: Most individuals make healthcare visits before suicide, but many do not have a diagnosed mental health condition. This study seeks to investigate suicide risk among patients with a range of physical health conditions in a U.S. general population sample and whether risk persists after adjustment for mental health and substance use diagnoses. METHODS: This study included 2,674 individuals who died by suicide between 2000 and 2013 along with 267,400 controls matched on year and location in a case-control study conducted in 2016 across eight Mental Health Research Network healthcare systems...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610590/a-continuous-quality-improvement-intervention-to-improve-the-effectiveness-of-community-health-workers-providing-care-to-mothers-and-children-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-in-south-africa
#3
Christiane Horwood, Lisa Butler, Pierre Barker, Sifiso Phakathi, Lyn Haskins, Merridy Grant, Ntokozo Mntambo, Nigel Rollins
BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) play key roles in delivering health programmes in many countries worldwide. CHW programmes can improve coverage of maternal and child health services for the most disadvantaged and remote communities, leading to substantial benefits for mothers and children. However, there is limited evidence of effective mentoring and supervision approaches for CHWs. METHODS: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) intervention amongst CHWs providing home-based education and support to pregnant women and mothers...
June 13, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608786/new-human-immunodeficiency-virus-diagnosis-independently-associated-with-rectal-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#4
Lindley A Barbee, Christine M Khosropour, Julia C Dombrowksi, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: Rectal sexually transmitted infections (STI) have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis, but inferring a causal association requires disentangling them from receptive anal intercourse (RAI). METHODS: We conducted a stratified case-control study by frequency matching 4 controls to each case within year using clinical data from men who have sex with men (MSM) attending the Seattle STD Clinic 2001 to 2014. Cases were MSM with a new HIV diagnosis and negative HIV test at 12 months or less...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600331/does-maternal-hsv-2-coinfection-increase-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Vishalini Sivarajah, Kevin Venus, Mark H Yudin, Kellie E Murphy, Steven A Morrison, Darrell Hs Tan
BACKGROUND: Reducing HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is critical to ending the HIV pandemic. Reports suggest that herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), a common coinfection in HIV-infected individuals, is associated with increased MTCT, but results have been conflicting. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of this relationship (PROSPERO no. CRD42016043315). METHODS: We searched Medline (1981 to June week 3, 2016), EMBASE (1981 to week 26, 2016), relevant conferences (2013-2016) and bibliographies of identified studies for cohort and case-control studies enrolling HIV-positive women during pregnancy or peripartum that quantified the effect of HSV-2 infection on MTCT...
June 9, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597832/development-and-validation-of-the-hcv-mosaic-risk-score-to-assist-testing-for-acute-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-infection-in-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm
#6
Astrid M Newsum, Ineke G Stolte, Jan Tm van der Meer, Janke Schinkel, Marc van der Valk, Joost W Vanhommerig, Anne Buvé, Mark Danta, Arjan Hogewoning, Maria Prins
Current guidelines recommend hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) with ongoing risk behaviour, without specifying the type of risk behaviour. We developed and validated the HCV-MOSAIC risk score to assist HCV testing in HIV-infected MSM. The risk score consisted of six self-reported risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression using data from the Dutch MOSAIC study (n = 213, 2009-2013). Area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, post-test-probability-of-disease and diagnostic gain were calculated...
May 25, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597149/the-renal-pathological-findings-in-japanese-hiv-infected-individuals-with-ckd-a-clinical-case-series-from-a-single-center
#7
Masaki Hara, Kumiko Momoki, Masamitsu Ubukata, Akihito Ohta, Akiko Tonooka, Minoru Ando
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) have emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the detailed study of renal pathological findings currently remains unclear in these Japanese patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to investigate renal pathological findings between January 1996 and July 2016. Our study included 20 Japanese HIV-infected patients with CKD; 10 cases had undergone renal biopsies, and 10 cases had undergone autopsies, respectively...
June 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590068/comparison-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-genotyping-by-ultra-deep-sequencing-and-sanger-sequencing-using-clinical-samples
#8
Mary-Anne Trabaud, Vinca Icard, Christophe Ramière, Jean-Claude Tardy, Caroline Scholtes, Patrice André
Sanger population sequencing (SPS) is the reference technique to monitor HIV-1-infected patients' therapy. Ultra-deep sequencing (UDS), which allows quantitative detection of drug resistance mutations, may be an alternative method. The study aimed to compare reproducibility and predictions of UDS versus SPS in a routine setting. A control containing low-abundance variants was repeatedly tested and clinical plasma samples from 100 patients were prospectively assayed by SPS and UDS using the Roche 454 system...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584718/the-increasing-prevalence-of-hiv-helicobacter-pylori-co-infection-over-time-along-with-the-evolution-of-antiretroviral-therapy-art
#9
Aleksandra Radovanović Spurnić, Branko Brmbolić, Zorica Stojšić, Tatijana Pekmezović, Zoran Bukumirić, Miloš Korać, Dubravka Salemović, Ivana Pešić-Pavlović, Goran Stevanović, Ivana Milošević, Djordje Jevtović
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common human bacterial infections with prevalence rates between 10-80% depending upon geographical location, age and socioeconomic status. H. pylori is commonly found in patients complaining of dyspepsia and is a common cause of gastritis. During the course of their infection, people living with HIV (PLHIV) often have a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms including dyspepsia and while previous studies have reported HIV and H. pylori co-infection, there has been little data clarifying the factors influencing this...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584150/upregulation-of-apoptosis-pathway-genes-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-hiv-infected-individuals-with-antiretroviral-therapy-associated-mitochondrial-toxicity
#10
Yram Foli, Musie Ghebremichael, Min Li, Elijah Paintsil
A case-control study of the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on apoptosis pathway genes; cases (N=16, HIV-infected with mitochondrial toxicity) and controls (N=16, HIV-uninfected). 26 of 84 genes of the apoptosis pathway were differentially expressed. Two genes, DFFA and TNFRSF1A, classified 75% of study participants correctly into either cases or controls. Thus apoptosis may be in the causal pathway of ART-associated mitochondrial toxicity. These two genes could be markers for detecting and monitoring ART-induced mitochondrial toxicity...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582463/drug-resistance-testing-through-remote-genotyping-and-predicted-treatment-options-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infected-tanzanian-subjects-failing-first-or-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Jenny Svärd, Sabina Mugusi, Doreen Mloka, Ujjwal Neogi, Genny Meini, Ferdinand Mugusi, Francesca Incardona, Maurizio Zazzi, Anders Sönnerborg
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been successfully introduced in low-middle income countries. However an increasing rate of ART failure with resistant virus is reported. We therefore described the pattern of drug resistance mutations at antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure in a real-life Tanzanian setting using the remote genotyping procedure and thereafter predicted future treatment options using rule-based algorithm and the EuResist bioinformatics predictive engine. According to national guidelines, the default first-line regimen is tenofovir + lamivudine + efavirenz, but variations including nevirapine, stavudine or emtricitabine can be considered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576902/application-of-pharmacogenomics-to-investigate-adverse-drug-reactions-to-the-disease-modifying-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-control-study-protocol-for-dimethyl-fumarate-induced-lymphopenia
#12
Kaarina Kowalec, Elaine Kingwell, Robert Carruthers, Ruth Ann Marrie, Sasha Bernatsky, Anthony Traboulsee, Colin J D Ross, Bruce Carleton, Helen Tremlett
INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global public health issue. The potential for pharmacogenomic biomarkers has been demonstrated in several therapeutical areas, including HIV infection and oncology. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a licensed disease-modifying therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of DMF in MS has been associated with a severe reduction in lymphocyte counts and reports of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Here, we outline the protocol for a case-control study designed to discover genomic variants associated with DMF-induced lymphopenia...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575375/association-of-c-reactive-protein-with-bacterial-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-pneumonia-among-children-aged-5-years-in-the-perch-study
#13
Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Juliet O Awori, Vicky L Baillie, Stephanie Cascio, Somchai Chuananon, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Bernard E Ebruke, Hubert P Endtz, Anek Kaewpan, Geoff Kahn, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, David P Moore, Daniel E Park, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Rasheed Salaudeen, Phil Seidenberg, Somwe Wa Somwe, Mamadou Sylla, Milagritos D Tapia, Scott L Zeger, Maria Deloria Knoll, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Lack of a gold standard for identifying bacterial and viral etiologies of pneumonia has limited evaluation of C-reactive protein (CRP) for identifying bacterial pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CRP for identifying bacterial vs respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) multicenter case-control study. Methods.: We measured serum CRP levels in cases with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia and a subset of community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573797/is-salivary-iga-level-a-potential-biomarker-for-immunosuppression-in-hiv-positive-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Fawad Javed, Zohaib Akram, Munerah Saleh Binshabaib, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Fahim Vohra
The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether or not assessment of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels could be a potential biomarker for immunosuppression in HIV-positive children. The Patient, Exposure, Comparative, Outcome question was "Is sIgA level a potential biomarker for immunosuppression in HIV-positive children?" Electronic and manual literature searches were conducted in indexed databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS databases) up to and including June 2017...
June 1, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558838/towards-understanding-the-drivers-of-policy-change-a-case-study-of-infection-control-policies-for-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#15
Trust Saidi, Faatiema Salie, Tania S Douglas
BACKGROUND: Explaining policy change is one of the central tasks of contemporary policy analysis. In this article, we examine the changes in infection control policies for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Africa from the time the country made the transition to democracy in 1994, until 2015. We focus on MDR-TB infection control and refer to decentralised management as a form of infection control. Using Kingdon's theoretical framework of policy streams, we explore the temporal ordering of policy framework changes...
May 30, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558662/evaluation-of-gene-xpert-for-routine-diagnosis-of-hiv-associated-tuberculosis-in-nigeria-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Maxwell Oluwole Akanbi, Chad Achenbach, Babafemi Taiwo, John Idoko, Agatha Ani, Yetunde Isa, Oche Agbaji, Christiana Ukoli, Patrick Akande, Mamoudou Maiga, Robert Leo Murphy
BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) is described as a game changer in tuberculosis (TB) control. We evaluated the impact of Xpert on diagnosis, time to treatment, and treatment outcome among patients with HIV associated TB in Nigeria. METHODS: Adults with HIV being evaluated for pulmonary TB (PTB) were consecutively enrolled into the study cohort. At baseline, expectorated sputa were examined using Xpert and smear microscopy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and acid fast bacilli, respectively...
May 30, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555483/point-process-methods-in-epidemiology-application-to-the-analysis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-mortality-in-urban-areas
#17
Jose Antonio Quesada, Inmaculada Melchor, Andreu Nolasco
The analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of disease or death in urban areas has been developed mainly from the ecological studies approach. These designs may have some limitations like the ecological fallacy and instability with few cases. The objective of this study was to apply the point process methodology, as a complement to that of aggregated data, to study HIV/AIDS mortality in men in the city of Alicante (Spain). A case-control study in residents in the city during the period 2004-2011 was designed. Cases were men who died from HIV/AIDS and controls represented the general population, matched by age to cases...
May 26, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540733/hiv-risk-prevalence-and-access-to-care-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-lebanon
#18
Robert Heimer, Russell Barbour, Danielle Khoury, Forrest W Crawford, Fatma Mohamed Shebl, Elie Aaraj, Kaveh Khoshnood
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about HIV prevalence and risk among men who have sex with men in much of the Middle East, including Lebanon. Recent national level surveillance has suggested an increase in HIV prevalence concentrated among men in Lebanon. We undertook a biobehavioral study to provide direct evidence for the spread of HIV. DESIGN: . MSM were recruited by respondent driven sampling, interviewed, and offered HIV testing anonymously at sites located in Beirut, Lebanon from October 2014 through February 2015...
May 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538421/malnutrition-is-associated-with-hiv-infection-in-children-less-than-5-years-in-bobo-dioulasso-city-burkina-faso-a-case-control-study
#19
Ghislain Gnimbar Poda, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Jane C-J Chao
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malnutrition are still 2 major health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso where few studies have been conducted on child malnutrition and HIV infection. This study assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection and also compared the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of an inadequate diet, underweight, stunting, and wasting among HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532195/vertical-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-babies-born-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-southern-brazil
#20
Manoela Muller Barbieri, Renate Von Linsingen, Renato Luiz Sbalqueiro, Edson Gomes Tristão
PURPOSE: Programs for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are essentially focused on prevention actions that occur during prenatal care. This study aimed to evaluate the mother-to-child vertical transmission (MCVT) rate, and identify its possible causes, in a sample of pregnant women with HIV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective and descriptive study. The sample was composed of HIV-positive pregnant women who delivered a live infant in the maternity ward at the hospital of the Federal University of Parana in Brazil, between January 2007 and December 2012...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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