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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453930/ensemble-survival-tree-models-to-reveal-pairwise-interactions-of-variables-with-time-to-events-outcomes-in-low-dimensional-setting
#1
Jean-Eudes Dazard, Hemant Ishwaran, Rajeev Mehlotra, Aaron Weinberg, Peter Zimmerman
Unraveling interactions among variables such as genetic, clinical, demographic and environmental factors is essential to understand the development of common and complex diseases. To increase the power to detect such variables interactions associated with clinical time-to-events outcomes, we borrowed established concepts from random survival forest (RSF) models. We introduce a novel RSF-based pairwise interaction estimator and derive a randomization method with bootstrap confidence intervals for inferring interaction significance...
February 17, 2018: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452942/early-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-combination-of-bedaquiline-and-delamanid-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-armenia-india-and-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Gabriella Ferlazzo, Erika Mohr, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Catherine Hewison, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Naira Khachatryan, Virginia De Avezedo, Lusine Egazaryan, Amir Shroufi, Stobdan Kalon, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline and delamanid have been approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in the past 5 years. Because of theoretical safety concerns, patients have been unable to access the two drugs in combination. Médecins Sans Frontières has supported the use of combination bedaquiline and delamanid for people with few treatment options since 2016. We describe early safety and efficacy of regimens containing the bedaquiline and delamanid combination in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Yerevan, Armenia; Mumbai, India; and Khayelitsha, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452597/evidence-of-reduced-treatment-adherence-among-hiv-infected-paediatric-and-adolescent-populations-in-nairobi-at-the-onset-of-the-unaids-universal-test-and-treat-program
#3
Joseph Kabogo, Erastus Muniu, Fred Wamunyokoli, Rachel Musoke, Elijah Songok
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the efficacy of the World Health Organization (WHO) "Universal Test and Treat" (UTT) policy, initiated in Kenya in September 2016. Under this policy, every human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected person should be initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared intra- and inter-group viral suppression and ART adherence rates for pre-UTT (initiated on ART in March-August 2016) and UTT groups (initiated in September 2016)...
February 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452219/increased-cd4-counts-pain-and-depression-are-correlates-of-lower-sleep-quality-in-treated-hiv-positive-patients-with-low-baseline-cd4-counts
#4
K N Redman, A S Karstaedt, K Scheuermaier
Poor sleep quality leads to increased immune activation and immune activation leads to worse sleep quality. South African HIV positive patients typically have delayed start of treatment, which has been associated with CD4+ effector T cells being more spontaneously activated in chronically treated patients. This cross-sectional study investigated whether subjective sleep quality was associated with CD4+ T lymphocyte reconstitution in treated South African HIV+ patients. One hundred and thirty-nine treated HIV+ patients (109 F, age average (SD)= 43 (9)) were recruited from Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451005/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-postpartum-infection-complications-and-mortality-in-rural-uganda
#5
Lisa M Bebell, Joseph Ngonzi, Mark J Siedner, Winnie R Muyindike, Bosco M Bwana, Laura E Riley, Yap Boum, David R Bangsberg, Ingrid V Bassett
HIV infection may increase risk of postpartum infection and infection-related mortality. We hypothesized that postpartum infection incidence and attributable mortality in Mbarara, Uganda would be higher in HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected women. We performed a prospective cohort study of 4231 women presenting to a regional referral hospital in 2015 for delivery or postpartum care. All febrile or hypothermic women, and a subset of randomly selected normothermic women were followed during hospitalization and with 6-week postpartum phone interviews...
February 16, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446063/direct-and-indirect-healthcare-resource-utilization-and-costs-among-migraine-patients-in-the-united-states
#6
Machaon Bonafede, Sandhya Sapra, Neel Shah, Stewart Tepper, Katherine Cappell, Pooja Desai
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this analysis was to provide a contemporary estimate of the burden of migraine, incorporating both direct and indirect costs, by comparing the costs of migraine patients to a matched group of patients without migraine in a large, nationally representative sample of commercially insured patients in the United States. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the economic burden of migraine in the United States is substantial for payers, patients, and employers...
February 15, 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444987/cardiovascular-risk-prediction-functions-underestimate-risk-in-hiv-infection
#7
Virginia A Triant, Jeremiah Perez, Susan Regan, Joseph M Massaro, James B Meigs, Steven K Grinspoon, Ralph B D'Agostino
Background -Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is elevated in HIV-infected individuals, with contributions from both traditional and non-traditional risk factors. The accuracy of established CVD risk prediction functions in HIV is uncertain. We sought to assess the performance of three established CVD risk prediction functions in a longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected men. Methods -Framingham Heart Study (Framingham) functions for hard coronary heart disease (Framingham CHD) and atherosclerotic CVD (Framingham ASCVD) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA ASCVD) function were applied to the Partners HIV cohort...
February 14, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444749/microbiological-diagnosis-of-adult-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-ten-year-cohort-in-indonesia
#8
Lidya Chaidir, Jessi Annisa, Sofiati Dian, Ida Parwati, Arlisa Alisjahbana, Feby Purnama, Adri van der Zanden, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Reinout van Crevel
We evaluated microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Over a ten-year period, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 1180 adult meningitis suspects. Sensitivity of different methods was compared, and results were stratified for HIV status, disease severity, and CSF volume. TB meningitis was bacteriologically confirmed in 501 patients. Using clinical diagnosis as reference standard (n = 713), sensitivity of different methods was 12.2% (86/703) for microscopy, 42% (73/174) for Xpert MTB/RIF, 46...
January 9, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440761/intimate-partner-violence-correlates-with-a-higher-hiv-incidence-among-msm-a-12-month-prospective-cohort-study-in-shenyang-china
#9
Hong-Yi Wang, Ning Wang, Zhen-Xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Xiang Mao, Wen-Qing Geng, Yong-Jun Jiang, Hong Shang, Jun-Jie Xu
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are highly prevalent worldwide among MSM. However, the association between IPV and HIV seroconversion is virtually unknown. This 12-month prospective cohort study was conducted among MSM in Shenyang, China to explore the causality between IPV and the incidence of HIV. Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHRs) of HIV acquisition were derived from a multivariate time-dependent Cox model and applied to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs). Among 476 HIV-negative MSM subjects, 89(18...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439467/blood-mitochondrial-dna-content-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Matthew A Budd, Kristina Calli, Lindy Samson, Jennifer Bowes, Anthony Y Y Hsieh, John C Forbes, Ari Bitnun, Joel Singer, Fatima Kakkar, Ariane Alimenti, Evelyn J Maan, M E Suzanne Lewis, Carole Gentile, Hélène C F Côté, Jason C Brophy
Long-term outcomes of perinatal exposure to maternal antiretroviral therapy in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are unknown. However, both HIV antiretroviral therapy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with mitochondrial alterations. Leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content can serve as a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. In this cross-sectional, nested case-control study, HEU children with ASD were matched approximately 1:3 on age, sex, and ethnicity to HEU children without ASD, HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) controls, and HUU children with ASD...
February 11, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439188/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-relapses-in-hiv-associated-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-as-observed-in-the-german-hiv-related-lymphoma-cohort-study
#11
Philipp Schommers, Daniel Gillor, Marcus Hentrich, Christoph Wyen, Timo Wolf, Mark Oette, Alexander Zoufaly, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Johannes R Bogner, Marcus Müller, Stefan Esser, Alisa Schleicher, Bjöern Jensen, Albrecht Stoehr, Georg Behrens, Alexander Schultze, Jan Siehl, Jan Thoden, Ninon Taylor, Christian Hoffmann
Outcome of HIV-infected patients with AIDS-related lymphomas has improved during recent years. However, data on incidence, risk factors, and outcome of relapses in AIDS-related lymphomas after achieving complete remission are still limited. This prospective observational multicenter study includes HIV-infected patients with biopsy- or cytology proven malignant lymphomas since 2005. Data on HIV infection and lymphoma characteristics, treatment and outcome were recorded. For this analysis, AIDS-related lymphomas patients in complete remission were analyzed in terms of their relapse-free survival and potential risk factors for relapses...
February 8, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438397/capacity-of-non-invasive-hepatic-fibrosis-algorithms-to-replace-transient-elastography-to-exclude-cirrhosis-in-people-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-multi-centre-observational-study
#12
Melissa Louise Kelly, Stephen M Riordan, Rohan Bopage, Andrew R Lloyd, Jeffrey John Post
INTRODUCTION: Achievement of the 2030 World Health Organisation (WHO) global hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination targets will be underpinned by scale-up of testing and use of direct-acting antiviral treatments. In Australia, despite publically-funded testing and treatment, less than 15% of patients were treated in the first year of treatment access, highlighting the need for greater efficiency of health service delivery. To this end, non-invasive fibrosis algorithms were examined to reduce reliance on transient elastography (TE) which is currently utilised for the assessment of cirrhosis in most Australian clinical settings...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438198/the-association-of-c-reactive-protein-with-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-women
#13
Caitlin A Moran, Anandi N Sheth, C C Mehta, David B Hanna, Deborah R Gustafson, Michael W Plankey, Wendy J Mack, Phyllis C Tien, Audrey L French, Elizabeth T Golub, Arshed Quyyumi, Robert C Kaplan, Ighovwerha Ofotokun
OBJECTIVE: HIV is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, CVD risk is often underestimated in HIV-infected women. C-reactive protein (CRP) may improve CVD prediction in this population. We examined the association of baseline plasma CRP with subclinical CVD in women with and without HIV. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 572 HIV-infected and 211 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study underwent serial high-resolution B-mode carotid artery ultrasonography between 2004 and 2013 to assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and focal carotid artery plaques...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438195/incidence-of-new-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-is-still-increasing-in-french-msm-living-with-hiv
#14
Pierre Pradat, Thomas Huleux, François Raffi, Pierre Delobel, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Pascal Pugliese, Jacques Reynes, David Rey, Bruno Hoen, André Cabie, Firouzé Bani-Sadr, Antoine Cheret, Claudine Duvivier, Christine Jacomet, Anne Fresard, Laurent Hustache-Mathieu, Laurent Cotte
OBJECTIVE: High hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake combined with effective direct-acting antiviral-based regimens resulted in a dramatic decline of HCV infection in French people living with HIV (PLWH). We assessed the yearly incidence of new HCV infection in PLWH enrolled in the large French Dat'AIDS cohort from 2012 to 2016 with a specific focus on MSM. METHODS: The incidence of new HCV infection was determined yearly in HCV-negative PLWH with serological follow-up during 2012-2016...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437750/incidence-and-determinants-of-tuberculosis-infection-among-adult-patients-with-hiv-attending-hiv-care-in-north-east-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Ausman Ahmed, Desalew Mekonnen, Atsede M Shiferaw, Fanuel Belayneh, Melaku K Yenit
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its predictors among adults living with HIV/AIDS in government health facilities in north-east Ethiopia. SETTING: A 5-year retrospective cohort study was conducted from May to June 2015 on 451 adult HIV/AIDS-infected individuals who enrolled in the HIV care clinics of government health facilities in north-east Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 451 HIV-infected adults who newly enrolled in the adult HIV care clinic from 1 July 2010 with complete information were followed until May 2015...
February 6, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436844/the-prevalence-and-patterns-of-substance-use-by-birth-cohort-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-florida
#16
Zachary L Mannes, Vaughn E Bryant, Larry E Burrell, Huiyin Lu, Erin G Ferguson, Zhi Zhou, Robert L Cook, Nicole Ennis
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy is affording longer lifespans for people living with HIV (PLWH), yet factors such as substance use play an increasing role in morbidity and mortality in this population. Though previous studies have examined substance use differences between age cohorts of PLWH, no study has examined the influence of birth cohort on current substance use patterns. Thus, this study investigated the prevalence of past 12-month self-reported substance use between four birth cohorts, <1970 (M age = 54...
February 13, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435907/sustained-virological-response-in-special-populations-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-using-interferon-free-treatments-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-cohort-studies
#17
REVIEW
Vinicius Lins Ferreira, Letícia Paula Leonart, Fernanda Stumpf Tonin, Helena Hiemisch Lobo Borba, Roberto Pontarolo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C treatment has changed considerably in recent years, and many interferon (IFN)-free therapies are now available. Considering the high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) presented by clinical trials for these treatments, high rates of effectiveness are also expected in real-world clinical practice. Hence, this study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of IFN-free therapies for hepatitis C...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434450/incidence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease-due-to-hepatitis-b-or-c-and-coinfected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Patrícia Dos Santos Marcon, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Dimas Alexandre Kliemann, Patrícia Fisch, Angelo Alves de Mattos
AIM: To assess the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed, including patients with chronic liver disease due to HBV or HCV, with and without HIV coinfection. Patients were selected in the largest tertiary public hospital complex in southern Brazil between January 2007 and June 2014...
February 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434253/association-between-maternal-hiv-disclosure-and-risk-factors-for-perinatal-transmission
#19
Lynn M Yee, Donna V McGregor, Sarah H Sutton, Patricia M Garcia, Emily S Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether maternal disclosure of HIV serostatus is associated with uptake of perinatal HIV transmission prevention interventions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of women living with HIV enrolled in a perinatal HIV clinic. Women who disclosed their HIV serostatus to sexual partner(s) prior to delivery were compared to non-disclosers. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. RESULTS: Of 209 women, 71.3% (N = 149) disclosed...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433509/prognostic-indicators-in-the-world-health-organization-s-algorithm-for-seriously-ill-hiv-infected-inpatients-with-suspected-tuberculosis
#20
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa...
February 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
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