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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099036/another-generation-of-stigma-assessing-healthcare-student-perceptions-of-hiv-positive-patients-in-mwanza-tanzania
#1
Sahil Aggarwal, Debora H Lee, William B Minteer, Reece T H Fenning, Shella K Raja, Megan E Bernstein, Kaavya R Raman, Sean P Denny, Priya A Patel, Mark Lieber, Allison O Farfel, Catherine A Diamond
HIV-related stigma remains a persistent global health concern among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) in developing nations. The literature is lacking in studies about healthcare students' perceptions of PLWA. This study is the first effort to understand stigmatizing attitudes toward HIV-positive patients by healthcare students in Mwanza, Tanzania, not just those who will be directly treating patients but also those who will be indirectly involved through nonclinical roles, such as handling patient specimens and private health information...
January 18, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086933/self-collection-based-hpv-testing-for-cervical-cancer-screening-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-uganda-a-descriptive-analysis-of-knowledge-intentions-to-screen-and-factors-associated-with-hpv-positivity
#2
Sheona M Mitchell, Heather N Pedersen, Evelyn Eng Stime, Musa Sekikubo, Erin Moses, David Mwesigwa, Christine Biryabarema, Jan Christilaw, Josaphat K Byamugisha, Deborah M Money, Gina S Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WHIV) are disproportionately impacted by cervical dysplasia and cancer. The burden is greatest in low-income countries where limited or no access to screening exists. The goal of this study was to describe knowledge and intentions of WHIV towards HPV self-collection for cervical cancer screening, and to report on factors related to HPV positivity among women who participated in testing. METHODS: A validated survey was administered to 87 HIV positive women attending the Kisenyi Health Unit aged 30-69 years old, and data was abstracted from chart review...
January 13, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062734/the-performance-of-the-alere-hiv-combo-point-of-care-test-on-stored-serum-samples-useful-for-detection-of-early-hiv-1-infections
#3
Carla van Tienen, Sharona Rugebregt, Sandra Scherbeijn, Hannelore Götz, Corine Geurts van Kessel
INTRODUCTION: The Alere HIV-1/2 Antigen/Antibody Combo point-of-care test is a commercially available 4th-generation rapid test for the diagnosis of HIV infection, including acute infection. We evaluated the sensitivity of this test in samples from patients with acute, recent or chronic HIV-1 infection. METHODS: A validation of the test was performed using 89 HIV-positive serum samples collected in 2008-2016, that were stored at -20°C. Twenty-three samples were only p24-positive (acute infection); 49 samples were antibody-positive and p24-positive (recent infection); 17 samples were only antibody-positive (chronic infection)...
January 6, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059956/improving-laboratory-efficiencies-to-scale-up-hiv-viral-load-testing
#4
George Alemnji, Philip Onyebujoh, John N Nkengasong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043600/benefits-and-challenges-of-molecular-diagnostics-for-childhood-tuberculosis
#5
Cristina Gutierrez
Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042211/a-study-on-the-prevalence-of-genital-trichomoniasis-among-female-outpatients-attending-sexually-transmitted-infection-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#6
Swapna Muthusamy, Selvi Elangovan
INTRODUCTION: Women with high-risk sexual behavior accounts for more than half of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees. The prevalence of trichomoniasis is as low as 5% in the general population to as high as 60% in high-risk population. This infection can pave the way to the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus and other STIs, vice versa and is even associated with cancer. OBJECTIVES: To identify, isolate and study the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in genital specimens of female outpatients...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002185/field-evaluation-of-dried-blood-spots-for-hiv-1-viral-load-monitoring-in-adults-and-children-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment-in-kenya-implications-for-scale-up-in-resource-limited-settings
#7
Mary E Schmitz, Simon Agolory, Muthoni Junghae, Laura N Broyles, Muthusi Kimeu, Joseph Ombayo, Mamo Umuro, Irene Mukui, Kennedy Alwenya, Moses Baraza, Kenneth Ndiege, Samuel Mwalili, Emilia Rivadeneira, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Chunfu Yang, Clement Zeh
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends viral load (VL) as the preferred method for diagnosing antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure; however, operational challenges have hampered the implementation of VL monitoring in most resource-limited settings. This study evaluated the accuracy of dried blood spot (DBS) VL testing under field conditions as a practical alternative to plasma in determining virologic failure (VF). METHODS: From May to December 2013, paired plasma and DBS specimens were collected from 416 adults and 377 children on ART ≥6 months at 12 clinics in Kenya...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992495/options-to-expand-hiv-viral-load-testing-in-south-africa-evaluation-of-the-genexpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-viral-load-assay
#8
Natasha Gous, Lesley Scott, Leigh Berrie, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Expansion of HIV viral load (VL) testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid) was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984765/hpv-prevalence-in-women-attending-cervical-screening-in-rural-malawi-using-the-cartridge-based-xpert-%C3%A2-hpv-assay
#9
Heather A Cubie, David Morton, Edson Kawonga, Mike Mautanga, Ipyana Mwenitete, Ngari Teakle, Bagrey Ngwira, Hilary Walker, Graeme Walker, Savel Kafwafwa, Beatrice Kabota, Reynier Ter Haar, Christine Campbell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early experience with Cepheid Xpert(®) HPV assay (Xpert(®) HPV) suggests that its quick turnaround time and ease of application might make it a relevant contender for routine use in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In the context of a cervical screening service in rural Malawi, we aimed to assess practicalities of local laboratory testing with Xpert(®) HPV and provide preliminary high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence data. STUDY DESIGN: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were collected from women attending cervical screening clinics in Nkhoma, Malawi...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951623/clinical-significance-of-positive-pneumocystis-jirovecii-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-non-human-immunodeficiency-virus-immunocompromised-patients-in-a-real-practice
#10
Hea Yon Lee, Hye Seon Kang, Hwa Young Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Sook Young Lee, Seok Chan Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Yeon Joon Park, Young Kyoon Kim, Ji Young Kang
Background/Aims: Pneumocystis jirovecii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be helpful in diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP); however it has limitations. We evaluated the prevalence of positive P. jirovecii PCR from non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunocompromised patients and tried to determine the risk of PCP development. Methods: Between May 2009 and September 2012, P. jirovecii PCR was performed in bronchoscopic specimens from 1,231 adult non-HIV immunocompromised patients suspected of respiratory infection...
December 13, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951466/clinical-validation-of-a-novel-diagnostic-hiv-2-total-nucleic-acid-qualitative-assay-using-the-abbott-m2000-platform-implications-for-complementary-hiv-2-nucleic-acid-testing-for-the-cdc-4th-generation-hiv-diagnostic-testing-algorithm
#11
Ming Chang, Audrey J S Wong, Dana N Raugi, Robert A Smith, Annette M Seilie, Jose P Ortega, Kyle M Bogusz, Fatima Sall, Selly Ba, Moussa Seydi, Geoffrey S Gottlieb, Robert W Coombs
BACKGROUND: The 2014 CDC 4th generation HIV screening algorithm includes an orthogonal immunoassay to confirm and discriminate HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Additional nucleic acid testing (NAT) is recommended to resolve indeterminate or undifferentiated HIV seroreactivity. HIV-2 NAT requires a second-line assay to detect HIV-2 total nucleic acid (TNA) in patients' blood cells, as a third of untreated patients have undetectable plasma HIV-2 RNA. OBJECTIVES: To validate a qualitative HIV-2 TNA assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-2-infected Senegalese study participants...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942461/prosthetic-vascular-graft-infection-and-prosthetic-joint-infection-caused-by-pseudomonas-stutzeri
#12
Michael J Bonares, Alon Vaisman, Abdu Sharkawy
Pseudomonas stutzeri is infrequently isolated from clinical specimens, and if isolated, more likely represents colonization or contamination rather than infection. Despite this, there are dozens of case reports which describe clinically significant P. stutzeri infections at variable sites. A 69-year-old man had a P. stutzeri infection of a prosthetic vascular graft infection, which he received in Panama City. He was successfully treated with a single antipseudomonal agent for 6 weeks and the removal of the infected vascular graft...
2016: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936146/performance-of-clinical-screening-algorithms-for-tuberculosis-intensified-case-finding-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-western-kenya
#13
Surbhi Modi, Joseph S Cavanaugh, Ray W Shiraishi, Heather L Alexander, Kimberly D McCarthy, Barbara Burmen, Hellen Muttai, Chad M Heilig, Allyn K Nakashima, Kevin P Cain
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of symptom-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), alone and with chest radiography among people living with HIV (PLHIV), including pregnant women, in Western Kenya. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: PLHIV from 15 randomly-selected HIV clinics were screened with three clinical algorithms [World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Health (MOH), and "Improving Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected persons" (ID-TB/HIV) study], underwent chest radiography (unless pregnant), and provided two or more sputum specimens for smear microscopy, liquid culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923228/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-anal-self-sampling-for-human-papillomavirus-screening-in-hiv-infected-patients
#14
Catherine Tamalet, Isabelle Ravaux, Catherine Dhiver, Amelie Menard, Philippe Colson, Andreas Stein
OBJECTIVES: Anal cancer incidence is increasing among HIV-positive patients. No consensus currently exists for the screening of anal dysplasia. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of anal self-sampling and assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among HIV-positive patients from Marseille University Hospitals. METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#15
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903357/-comparative-study-on-the-hiv-epidemic-between-the-chinese-and-burmese-drug-users-in-drug-rehabilitation-places-in-dehong-prefecture-yunnan-province
#16
R H Tang, Z M Zhang, Y C Yang, K D Feng, S J Yang, J N Zhang, R H Ye, M F Qiu, S Duan
Objective: To compare the prevalence of HIV infection and its risk factors among Chinese and Burmese drug users living in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods: We obtained plasma specimens and gathered demographic data from 7 867 drug users with Chinese or Burmese nationality attending rehabilitation clinics in Dehong Prefecture from October 2014 to September 2015. Of these, 7 756 individuals who gave valid questionnaire responses, including 5 389 Chinese and 2 367 Burmese, were enrolled in the study after giving informed consent...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902602/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-dried-blood-spots-for-hiv-1-viral-load-quantification-a-laboratory-assessment-of-3-commercial-assays
#17
Pieter Pannus, Maarten Claus, Maria Mercedes Perez Gonzalez, Nathan Ford, Katrien Fransen
The use of dried blood spots (DBS) instead of plasma as a specimen type for HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing facilitates the decentralization of specimen collection and can increase access to VL testing in resource-limited settings. The performance of DBS for VL testing is lower, however, when compared to the gold standard sample type plasma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, we evaluated 3 VL assays with DBS.Participants were recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Both plasma and DBS specimens were prepared and tested for HIV-1 VL with the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 test v2...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893603/young-low-risk-heterosexual-clients-prefer-a-chlamydia-home-collection-test-to-a-sexually-transmitted-infection-clinic-visit-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Martijn S van Rooijen, Rik H Koekenbier, Alfons Hendriks, Henry J C de Vries, Petra van Leeuwen, Maaike G van Veen
BACKGROUND: Home-based self-collection of specimens for urogenital and anorectal chlamydia testing has been proven feasible and acceptable. We studied the efficiency of chlamydia home collection kits for young low-risk persons to optimize care at the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. METHODS: Low-risk heterosexual persons under 25 years submitting an appointment request online were offered 3 different ways of chlamydia testing: (1) receiving a home collection kit, (2) coming to the clinic without, or (3) with sexual health counseling...
November 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893600/prevalence-and-correlates-of-genital-infections-among-newly-diagnosed-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-entering-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-in-windhoek-namibia
#19
Gaston Djomand, Madeleine Schlefer, Steve Gutreuter, Sarah Tobias, Roopal Patel, Nickolas DeLuca, Julia Hood, Souleymane Sawadogo, Cheng Chen, Alexinah Muadinohamba, David W Lowrance, Naomi Bock
BACKGROUND: Identifying and treating genital infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STI), among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may benefit both public and individual health. We assessed prevalence of genital infections and their correlates among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals enrolling in HIV care services in Namibia. METHODS: Newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults entering HIV care at 2 health facilities in Windhoek, Namibia, were recruited from December 2012 to March 2014...
November 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890949/p16-immunostaining-as-a-predictor-of-anal-and-cervical-dysplasia-in-women-attending-a-sexually-transmitted-infection-clinic
#20
Deepika Pandhi, Kavita Bisherwal, Archana Singal, Kiran Guleria, Kiran Mishra
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenesis caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) leads to over-expression of p16 protein. p16 may act as a marker of HPV integration with host genome and serve as a surrogate marker of HPV oncogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single center study of 75 women (35 HIV-positive and 40 HIV-negative women) was conducted. Anal and cervical specimens were obtained for cytology and p16 immunostaining. RESULTS: The sensitivity of p16 to diagnose anal and cervical dysplasia was 50% and 58...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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