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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660258/pleural-tuberculosis-a-concise-clinical-review
#1
Jane A Shaw, Elvis M Irusen, Andreas H Diacon, Coenraad Fn Koegelenberg
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and the commonest cause of death in people living with HIV. Globally, pleural TB remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural exudates, particularly in TB-endemic areas and in the HIV positive population. Most TB pleural effusions are exudates with high adenosine deaminase (ADA), lymphocyte-rich, straw-coloured and free flowing, with a low yield on mycobacterial culture. TB pleurisy can also present as loculated neutrophil-predominant effusions which mimic parapneumonic effusions...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624559/risk-factors-for-oral-hpv-infection-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-2-cities-united-states-2012-2014
#2
Sara E Oliver, Pamina Gorbach, Beau Gratzer, Martin Steinau, Tom Collins, Adam Parrish, Peter R Kerndt, Richard Crosby, Elizabeth R Unger, Lauri E Markowitz, Elissa Meites
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for cancers attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV), including oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended for U.S. MSM through age 26 years. Oral HPV infection is associated with oropharyngeal cancer. We determined oral HPV prevalence and risk factors among young MSM. METHODS: The Young Men's HPV study enrolled MSM aged 18-26 years from clinics in Chicago and Los Angeles during 2012-2014. Participants self-reported demographics, sexual behaviors, vaccination and HIV status...
April 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621949/a-case-of-secondary-syphilis-with-pulmonary-involvement-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Suttichai Visuttichaikit, Nuntra Suwantarat, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Pansachee Damronglerd
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum. We report a case of a heterosexual, HIV-positive man who presented with secondary syphilis and a lung abscess. A bacterial lung abscess was suspected and a computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle aspiration of the lung abscess was performed. Direct pulmonary involvement by T. pallidum was suggested by a positive PCR result on the aspirated fluid specimen. The clinical signs of secondary syphilis improved, and the lung abscess was resolved after treatment with benzathine penicillin G and amoxicillin-clavulanate...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618501/use-of-external-quality-control-material-for-hiv-1-rna-testing-to-assess-the-comparability-of-data-generated-in-separate-laboratories-and-the-stability-of-hiv-1-rna-in-samples-after-prolonged-storage
#4
Cheryl Jennings, Carrie G Wager, Salvatore R Scianna, Daniel J Zaccaro, Amy Couzens, John W Mellors, Robert W Coombs, James W Bremer
The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) stores specimens from their clinical trials in a biorepository and permits the use of these specimens for non-protocol exploratory studies once the studies for the original protocol are concluded. We sought to assess the comparability of data generated for real-time HIV-1 RNA testing during two clinical trials with data generated from retesting of different aliquots of the same samples after years of storage at -80° C. Overall, there was 92% agreement in the data for 1570 paired samples (Kappa statistic = 0...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584723/transmission-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-within-partner-pairs-a-cross-sectional-study-of-a-primary-hiv-infection-cohort
#5
Joanne D Stekler, Ross Milne, Rachel Payant, Ingrid Beck, Joshua Herbeck, Brandon Maust, Wenjie Deng, Kenneth Tapia, Sarah Holte, Janine Maenza, Claire E Stevens, James I Mullins, Ann C Collier, Lisa M Frenkel
BACKGROUND: Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutations, particularly that of minority drug-resistant variants, remains poorly understood. Population-based studies suggest that drug-resistant HIV-1 is less transmissible than drug-susceptible viruses. We compared HIV-1 drug-resistant genotypes among partner-pairs in order to assess the likelihood of transmission of drug resistance mutations and investigate the role of minority variants in HIV transmission...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565667/undiagnosed-hiv-and-hcv-infection-in-a-new-york-city-emergency-department-2015
#6
Lucia V Torian, Uriel R Felsen, Qiang Xia, Fabienne Laraque, Eric J Rude, Herbert Rose, Adam Cole, Angelica Bocour, Gary J Williams, Robert F Bridgforth, Lisa A Forgione, Howard Doo, Sarah L Braunstein, Demetre C Daskalakis, Barry S Zingman
OBJECTIVES: To measure undiagnosed HIV and HCV in a New York City emergency department (ED). METHODS: We conducted a blinded cross-sectional serosurvey with remnant serum from specimens originally drawn for clinical indications in the ED. Serum was deduplicated and matched to (1) the hospital's electronic medical record and (2) the New York City HIV and HCV surveillance registries for evidence of previous diagnosis before being deidentified and tested for HIV and HCV...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541267/programmatic-impact-of-implementing-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-respiratory-specimens-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-suspected-patients-in-resource-limited-laboratory-settings-of-eastern-nepal
#7
Prakash Shrestha, Hemanta Khanal, Prasanna Dahal, Pranita Dongol
Background: In Nepal, introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay) as an initial confirmation test for tuberculosis (TB) has been considered to have impact as a significant decrease in number of clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases than previous years. This study aims to find out the distribution profile of suspected tuberculosis cases according to patients age, gender, treatment history and HIV status as well as to evaluate the utility of the Xpert assay over conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining method for the proper diagnosis of M...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538464/congenital-cytomegalovirus-parvovirus-and-enterovirus-infection-in-mozambican-newborns-at-birth-a-cross-sectional-survey
#8
Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506084/higher-anti-cmv-igg-concentrations-are-associated-with-worse-neurocognitive-performance-during-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Scott Letendre, Ajay Bharti, Ignacio Perez-Valero, Barbara Hanson, Donald Franklin, Steven Paul Woods, Sara Gianella, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Robert K Heaton, Igor Grant, Alan L Landay, Nell Lurain
Objective: To determine the association of CMV infection with neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults. Design: Cross-sectional, observational, exploratory study. Methods: Anti-CMV IgG concentrations in blood and CMV DNA copies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in stored specimens of 80 HIV+ adults who were previously assessed with a standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive test battery. Thirty-eight were taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART, HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL) and 42 were not taking ART...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503291/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-resource-poor-settings
#10
Rita O Oladele, Akaninyene A Otu, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Globally, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a common and lethal infection in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, particularly in developing countries where rates of PCP increases with rising GDP. Pneumocystis jirovecii cannot be cultured in routine clinical laboratories; thus diagnosis relies on microscopy, histology, serology and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the Pneumocystis DNA. Most of these methods are expensive and require training. Accessing lower respiratory tract specimens in young children is often challenging and only PCR testing of nasopharyngeal aspirates is useful...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491115/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-high-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-involving-condyloma-acuminatum
#11
Kiyong Na, Ji-Youn Sung, Hyun-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND/AIM: Severe nuclear atypia can be associated with condyloma acuminatum. In this study, we investigated nine cases of perianal condyloma acuminatum with severe nuclear atypia and determined whether severe nuclear atypia is sufficient for the diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical data and pathological features of the nine patients were collected. p16 Immunostaining and human papillomavirus genotyping were also performed...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468424/full-depth-measurement-of-tenofovir-transport-in-rectal-mucosa-using-confocal-raman-spectroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#12
Aubrey L Presnell, Oranat Chuchuen, Morgan G Simons, Jason R Maher, David F Katz
The prophylactic activity of antiretroviral drugs applied as microbicides against sexually transmitted HIV is dependent upon their concentrations in infectable host cells. Within mucosal sites of infection (e.g., vaginal and rectal mucosa), those cells exist primarily in the stromal layer of the tissue. Traditional pharmacokinetic studies of these drugs have been challenged by poor temporal and spatial specificity. Newer techniques to measure drug concentrations, involving Raman spectroscopy, have been limited by laser penetration depth into tissue...
February 21, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438560/hiite-hiv-1-incidence-and-infection-time-estimator
#13
Sung Yong Park, Tanzy M T Love, Shivankur Kapoor, Ha Youn Lee, John Hancock
Motivation: Around 2.1 million new HIV-1 infections were reported in 2015, alerting that the HIV-1 epidemic remains a significant global health challenge. Precise incidence assessment strengthens epidemic monitoring efforts and guides strategy optimization for prevention programs. Estimating the onset time of HIV-1 infection can facilitate optimal clinical management and identify key populations largely responsible for epidemic spread and thereby infer HIV-1 transmission chains. Our goal is to develop a genomic assay estimating the incidence and infection time in a single cross-sectional survey setting...
February 9, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438413/spatial-overlap-links-seemingly-unconnected-genotype-matched-tb-cases-in-rural-uganda
#14
Gabriel Chamie, Midori Kato-Maeda, Devy M Emperador, Bonnie Wandera, Olive Mugagga, John Crandall, Michael Janes, Carina Marquez, Moses R Kamya, Edwin D Charlebois, Diane V Havlir
INTRODUCTION: Incomplete understanding of TB transmission dynamics in high HIV prevalence settings remains an obstacle for prevention. Understanding where transmission occurs could provide a platform for case finding and interrupting transmission. METHODS: From 2012-2015, we sought to recruit all adults starting TB treatment in a Ugandan community. Participants underwent household (HH) contact investigation, and provided names of social contacts, sites of work, healthcare and socializing, and two sputum samples...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410230/risk-factors-for-pertussis-among-hospitalised-children-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting-south-africa
#15
NMdu Plessis, G Ntshoe, G Reubenson, R Kularatne, L Blumberg, J Thomas, T Avenant
BACKGROUND: In low and middle-income countries, including South Africa, the epidemiology of pertussis in relation to immunisation, nutritional and HIV status is poorly described. We report on risk factors in South African children hospitalised with pertussis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, hospital-based, sentinel surveillance programme for pertussis in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Hospitalised children (≤10 years) meeting the surveillance criteria for clinically suspected pertussis were screened and enrolled...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378902/asymptomatic-lymphogranuloma-venereum-among-nigerian-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#16
Trevor A Crowell, Justin Hardick, Kara Lombardi, Zahra Parker, Afoke Kokogho, Senate Amusu, Sunday Odeyemi, Andrew Ivo, Stefan D Baral, Rebecca G Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, Manhattan E Charurat, Julie Ake, Charlotte A Gaydos
OBJECTIVES: Recent outbreaks of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been characterised by proctocolitis requiring extended antibiotic treatment compared with infections caused by other serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). We describe the prevalence and clinical features of LGV among Nigerian MSM diagnosed with anorectal CT. METHODS: MSM were recruited for this observational cohort in Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling and screened for HIV and bacterial STIs every three months for up to 18 months...
January 29, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357899/pediatric-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-case-report
#17
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357841/study-on-the-persistence-of-zika-virus-zikv-in-body-fluids-of-patients-with-zikv-infection-in-brazil
#18
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Edna Oliveira Kara, Silvana Pereira Giozza, Camila Helena Aguiar Bôtto-Menezes, Philippe Gaillard, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira Franca, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães de Lacerda, Marcia da Costa Castilho, Patrícia Brasil, Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira, Maeve Brito de Mello, Ximena Pamela Diaz Bermudez, Kayvon Modjarrad, Robyn Meurant, Sihem Landoulsi, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Nathalie Jeanne Nicole Broutet
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) has been identified in several body fluids of infected individuals. In most cases, it remained detected in blood from few days to 1 week after the onset of symptoms, and can persist longer in urine and in semen. ZIKV infection can have dramatic consequences such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV sexual transmission has been documented. A better understanding of ZIKV presence and persistence across biologic compartments is needed to devise rational measures to prevent its transmission...
January 22, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346431/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-two-dried-blood-spot-methods-for-hiv-1-viral-load-monitoring-among-patients-in-hanoi-vietnam
#19
Todd M Pollack, Hao T Duong, Phuong T Truong, Thuy T Pham, Cuong D Do, Donn Colby
The use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for HIV viral load (VL) monitoring is recommended to support the roll-out of routine VL monitoring in low and middle income countries (LMICs). To better understand the use of DBS for VL monitoring, we evaluated two DBS testing methods, Roche TaqMan® Free Virus Evolution protocol (DBS-FVE) and Roche TaqMan® SPEX protocol (DBS-SPEX)) in patients receiving ART at an HIV clinic in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each DBS testing method at the thresholds of 1000 and 5000 copies/ml compared to plasma VL...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302148/association-of-risk-factors-and-drug-resistance-pattern-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-north-india
#20
Pallavi Sinha, G N Srivastava, Anamika Gupta, Shampa Anupurba
Context: India is one of the high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries in the world. Improper implementation in the guidelines for the management of TB and high rate of defaults on the part of the patients are most important risk factors for the development of multi-drug resistant TB. Aims: This study examines the drug resistance profile and the effect of demographic, clinical and behavioral risk factors on the prevalence of TB and multidrug resistance (MDR) in north India...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
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