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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819499/multiple-jejunal-perforation-secondary-to-intestinal-tuberculosis-infection-a-case-report
#1
Anthony Lyonga Ngonge, Domin Sone Majunda Ekaney, Carlson-Babila Sama, Joffi Musonge-Effoe, Valery Sammah Effoe, Gerald Ekwen
Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There is an increase in the incidence of abdominal TB favored by the emergence of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and immunosuppression especially from HIV co-infection. Our case is that of a 31 year old HIV-positive woman, adherent to antiretroviral therapy, who presented with a 2 month history of progressive abdominal distention, drenching night sweat and fatigue, but without fever...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806866/molecular-screening-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-typing-of-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-mcv-from-genital-specimens-between-2012-and-2015
#2
Sedigheh Taghinezhad-S, Amir Hossein Mohseni, Hossein Keyvani, Narges Ghobadi
Background: The present study is the first comprehensive report of the Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in Iran based on the molecular technique for differentiation and typing of the MCV1 and MCV2. Methods: Patients were diagnosed as having tumor-like genital warts less than 5 mm in diameter, and HIV seronegative samples were chosen for this cross-sectional study. TaqMan real-time PCR was used to identify MCV following clinical examination. Typing of the MCV-positive specimens was performed in the SNP A27451G region of MC021L gene...
August 15, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769052/femtogram-level-sensitivity-achieved-by-surface-engineered-silica-nanoparticles-in-the-early-detection-of-hiv-infection
#3
L A Avinash Chunduri, Aditya Kurdekar, Mohan Kumar Haleyurgirisetty, Eswarappa Pradeep Bulagonda, Venkataramaniah Kamisetti, Indira K Hewlett
We have engineered streptavidin labelled Europium doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles which significantly increased sensitivity without compromising the specificity of the immunoassay. As a proof of concept, a time resolved fluorescence based sandwich immunoassay was developed to detect HIV-1 p24 antigen in clinical specimens. The detection range of the silica nanoparticle based immunoassay (SNIA) was found to be between 0.02 to 500 pg/mL in a linear dose dependent manner. SNIA offers 1000 fold enhancement over conventional colorimetric ELISA...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759622/contamination-with-hiv-antibody-may-be-responsible-for-false-positive-results-in-specimens-tested-on-automated-platforms-running-hiv-4th-generation-assays-in-a-region-of-high-hiv-prevalence
#4
Diana Ruth Hardie, Stephen N Korsman, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Molefi Daniel Morobadi, Sabeehah Vawda, Dominique Goedhals
INTRODUCTION: In South Africa where the prevalence of HIV infection is very high, 4th generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen combo immunoassays are the tests of choice for laboratory based screening. Testing is usually performed in clinical pathology laboratories on automated analysers. To investigate the cause of false positive results on 4th generation HIV testing platforms in public sector laboratories, the performance of two automated platforms was compared in a clinical pathology setting, firstly on routine diagnostic specimens and secondly on known sero-negative samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727491/impact-of-point-of-care-xpert-mtb-rif-on-tuberculosis-treatment-initiation-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#5
Richard J Lessells, Graham S Cooke, Nuala McGrath, Mark P Nicol, Marie-Louise Newell, Peter Godfrey-Faussett
RATIONALE: Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics have potential to reduce pre-treatment loss to follow-up and delays to initiation of appropriate TB treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a POC diagnostic strategy on initiation of appropriate TB treatment. METHODS: A cluster randomised trial of adults with cough who were HIV positive and/or at high risk of drug-resistant TB. Two-week time blocks were randomised to two strategies (i) Xpert performed at district hospital laboratory (ii) POC Xpert performed at primary health care clinic...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715920/genital-tract-gbs-and-rate-of-histologic-chorioamnionitis-in-patients-with-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membrane
#6
Krunal Patel, Shauna Williams, George Guirguis, Lisa Gittens-Williams, Joseph Apuzzio
INTRODUCTION: Histologic chorioamnionitis (HC) is a common finding in the placenta from patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The purpose of this study is to determine if HC differs based on the Group B streptococcus (GBS) status in patients managed expectantly with PPROM <34 weeks gestation. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of patients admitted with PPROM between 23 0/7 and 33 6/7 weeks from 2003 to 2014 at one institution...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692542/the-effect-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-on-the-progression-of-hiv-1-seroconversion
#7
Deborah Donnell, Eric Ramos, Connie Celum, Jared Baeten, Joan Dragavon, Jordan Tappero, Jairam R Lingappa, Allan Ronald, Kenneth Fife, Robert W Coombs
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) alters timing and patterns of seroconversion when PrEP use continues after HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective testing of the timing of Fiebig stage HIV-1 seroconversion in the Partners PrEP Study, a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of PrEP conducted in Kenya and Uganda. METHODS: Specimens from 138 seroconverters were collected every 3 months and when HIV-1 infection was suspected based on monthly rapid HIV-1 tests...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683092/comparison-of-quantitative-real-time-pcr-and-direct-immunofluorescence-for-the-detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#8
Bhavani Moodley, Stefano Tempia, John Andrew Frean
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious risk for HIV-positive patients. Asymptomatic infection or colonisation with P. jirovecii has been shown to occur frequently. PCR assays frequently identify such cases, due to their high sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) gene copy number cut-off values have been suggested to differentiate colonisation and infection; these need to be standardised for routine use. We compared the results of qPCR with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine a specific cut-off value...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661234/an-evaluation-of-the-sd-bioline-hiv-syphilis-duo-test
#9
Jeffrey Holden, Joshua Goheen, Mary Jett-Goheen, Mathilda Barnes, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Charlotte A Gaydos
Many health agencies now recommend routine HIV and syphilis testing for pregnant women and most-at-risk populations such as men who have sex with men. With the increased availability of highly sensitive, low cost rapid point-of-care tests, the ability to meet those recommendations has increased, granting wider access to quick and accurate diagnoses. Using blood specimens collected from a Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) sexually transmitted infection clinic, we evaluated the SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis Duo, a rapid test that simultaneously detects antibodies to HIV and syphilis and has the potential to further benefit clinics and patients by reducing costs, testing complexity, and patient wait times...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661232/pulmonary-involvement-of-secondary-syphilis
#10
Yoshihiko Ogawa, Yuichiro Imai, Shingo Yoshihara, Hiroyuki Fujikura, Nobuyasu Hirai, Masatoshi Sato, Taku Ogawa, Kenji Uno, Kei Kasahara, Hisakazu Yano, Keiichi Mikasa
Pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is considered a rare occurrence; however, the number of cases has increased in the 2000s. This is likely due to the increased use of computed tomography scans and molecular diagnostic testing. We report a case of an HIV-positive man with pleural chest pain and bilateral subpleural nodules on chest computed tomography. His rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive, and the specimen of one of the pulmonary nodules obtained by transthoracic biopsy was positive for the polA gene of Treponema pallidum...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659881/rna-profiling-analysis-of-the-serum-exosomes-derived-from-patients-with-active-and-latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Lingna Lv, Cuidan Li, Xiuli Zhang, Nan Ding, Tianshu Cao, Xinmiao Jia, Jinghui Wang, Liping Pan, Hongyan Jia, Zihui Li, Ju Zhang, Fei Chen, Zongde Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) has exceeded HIV as the most lethal infectious disease globally for two consecutive years. Moreover, one third of the world's population is estimated to have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This is mainly because of difficulties associated with diagnosis and treatment for both TB and LTBI patients. Exosomes provide a promising research tool for TB diagnosis and treatment because they are released from various cells containing valuable biochemical information related to disease. In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing analysis on exosomes derived from clinical specimens of healthy controls (HC), active tuberculosis (ATB), and LTBI patients...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658113/the-changing-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-a-spanish-tertiary-hospital-1995-2013
#12
Andrés González-García, Jesús Fortún, Enrique Elorza Navas, Pilar Martín-Dávila, Marta Tato, Enrique Gómez-Mampaso, Santiago Moreno
Important epidemiological changes and improvement of new diagnostic approaches, mainly molecular tools, might have impacted the management and outcome of tuberculosis (TB) in the last years in industrialized countries. In order to describe the epidemiological trends, and changes in clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects in patients with TB, an observational study was performed in a tertiary hospital in Western Europe (Madrid, Spain).All adult patients (>16 years) with a diagnosis of TB in the period 1995 to 2013 were included in the study...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645254/comparing-self-and-provider-collected-swabbing-for-hpv-dna-testing-in-female-to-male-transgender-adult-patients-a-mixed-methods-biobehavioral-study-protocol
#13
Sari L Reisner, Madeline B Deutsch, Sarah M Peitzmeier, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Timothy Cavanaugh, Dana J Pardee, Sarah McLean, Elliot J Marrow, Matthew J Mimiaga, Lori Panther, Marcy Gelman, Jamison Green, Jennifer Potter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer, nearly all cases of which are caused by one of several high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), leads to significant morbidity and mortality in individuals with a cervix. Trans masculine (TM) individuals were born with female reproductive organs and identify as male, man, transgender man, or another diverse gender identity different from their female assigned sex at birth. Routine preventive sexual health screening of TM patients is recommended, including screening for cervical cancer and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, as many as one in three TM patients are not up-to-date per recommended U...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636866/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-trichomonas-vaginalis-and-other-sexually-transmissible-infections-among-women-attending-antenatal-clinics-in-three-provinces-in-papua-new-guinea-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Lisa M Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Claire Ryan, Glennis Rai, Johanna Wapling, Carolyn Tomado, Savarina Huliafi, Gloria Munnull, Patricia Rarau, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Handan Wand, Peter Siba, Glen D L Mola, John M Kaldor, Andrew J Vallely
Background Papua New Guinea (PNG) is estimated to have among the highest prevalences of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) of any Asia-Pacific country, and one of the highest burdens of maternal syphilis globally. The prevalence of curable STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), among pregnant women in PNG is relatively unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional bio-behavioural survey to investigate the epidemiology of CT, NG, TV and other STIs among pregnant women in three provinces of PNG was undertaken...
October 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622370/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-abbott-m2000-and-roche-cobas-ampliprep-cobas-taqman-assays-for-hiv-1-viral-load-determination-using-dried-blood-spots-and-dried-plasma-spots-in-kenya
#15
Clement Zeh, Kenneth Ndiege, Seth Inzaule, Rebecca Achieng, John Williamson, Joy Chih-Wei Chang, Dennis Ellenberger, John Nkengasong
BACKGROUND: Routine HIV viral load testing is not widely accessible in most resource-limited settings, including Kenya. To increase access to viral load testing, alternative sample types like dried blood spots (DBS), which overcome the logistic barriers associated with plasma separation and cold chain shipment need to be considered and evaluated. The current study evaluated matched dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS) against plasma using the Abbott M 2000 (Abbott) and Roche Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) quantitative viral load assays in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604503/multi-country-validation-of-samba-a-novel-molecular-point-of-care-test-for-hiv-1-detection-in-resource-limited-setting
#16
Johnson Ondiek, Zikulah Namukaya, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Suna Balkan, Ali Elbireer, Ines Ushiro Lumb, Charles Kiyaga, Neha Goel, Allyson Ritchie, Patience Ncube, Kenneth Omuomu, Kenneth Ndiege, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Douglas Mangwanya, Mary Glenn Fowler, Lou Nadala, Helen Lee
INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and the prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy are critical to achieving a reduction in the morbidity and mortality of infected infants. The SAMBA HIV-1 Qual Whole Blood Test was developed specifically for early infant diagnosis and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs implemented at the point-of-care in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We have evaluated the performance of this test run on the SAMBA I semi-automated platform with fresh whole blood specimens collected from 202 adults and 745 infants in Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599228/a-european-multicientre-study-on-the-comparison-of-hiv-1-viral-loads-between-veris-hiv-1-assay-and-roche-cobas%C3%A2-taqman%C3%A2-hiv-1-test-abbott-realtime-hiv-1-assay-and-siemens-versant-hiv-1-assay
#17
Patrick Braun, Rafael Delgado, Monica Drago, Diana Fanti, Hervé Fleury, Jörg Hofmann, Jacques Izopet, Sebastian Kühn, Alessandra Lombardi, Alessandro Mancon, Mª Angeles Marcos, Davide Mileto, Karine Sauné, Siobhan O'Shea, Alfredo Pérez-Rivilla, John Ramble, Pascale Trimoulet, Jordi Vila, Duncan Whittaker, Alain Artus, Daniel Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System.(¥) OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. STUDY DESIGN: Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HIV-1 Test, v2...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597093/-pediatric-salivary-gland-tumors-and-tumor-like-lesions
#18
REVIEW
A Agaimy, H Iro, J Zenk
Salivary gland tumors and tumor-like lesions in the pediatric population are uncommon. They comprise a heterogeneous group of infectious/inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Pediatric salivary neoplasms include benign tumors of mesenchymal or epithelial origin as well as malignancies of epithelial (carcinomas), mesenchymal (sarcoma) or hematolymphoid (lymphoma) derivation. Infectious/inflammatory conditions and hematolymphoid malignancies may represent either genuine parenchymal pathology or conditions involving intraglandular lymph nodes of the parotid glands (intraglandular lymphadenopathy and intraglandular nodal lymphomas)...
July 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592547/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-and-mtb-rif-inh-assays-in-a-setting-of-high-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfection-in-south-africa
#19
Lesley Scott, Anura David, Lara Noble, Matilda Nduna, Pedro Da Silva, Andrew Black, Francois Venter, Wendy Stevens
South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for the initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV load. The latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime (RT) MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first-line drug resistance screening but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590928/diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-with-serum-cell-free-dna-in-non-hiv-infected-immunocompromised-patients
#20
Dong Wang, Yang Hu, Ting Li, Heng-Mo Rong, Zhao-Hui Tong
Conventional respiratory tract specimens, such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and induced sputum for diagnosing Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients are difficult to obtain. Besides, bronchoscopy is an invasive procedure that carries the risk of causing rapidly progressive respiratory insufficiency. By contrast, serum cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is easy to obtain and has been proven useful in diagnosing cancer, pregnancy associated complications, parasite infection and sepsis...
May 20, 2017: Oncotarget
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