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hiv clinical specimen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535437/comparative-evaluation-of-three-fda-approved-hiv-ag-ab-combination-tests-using-a-genetically-diverse-hiv-panel-and-diagnostic-specimens
#1
Xiaoxing Qiu, Lori Sokoll, Paul Yip, Debra J Elliott, Renu Dua, Phaedre Mohr, Xiao Yan Wang, Megan Spencer, Priscilla Swanson, George J Dawson, John Hackett
BACKGROUND: HIV Ag/Ab combination assays are recommended by CDC for routine screening and several HIV Ag/Ab combination tests are now FDA-approved. Maintaining high specificity and consistent sensitivity across diverse HIV strains is critical for these assays to accurately detect HIV infection and expedite delivery of patient results. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate performance of three FDA-approved HIV tests: ARCHITECT HIV Combo (Abbott), ADVIA Centaur HIV Combo (Siemens) and BioPlex HIV Ag-Ab (Bio-Rad)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530494/review-anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-in-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-is-screening-and-treatment-justified
#2
Peter Wasserman, David S Rubin, Glenn Turett
Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the fourth most prevalent cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in over 90% of anal carcinoma biopsy specimens from MSM, and is considered a necessary, but alone, insufficient factor for carcinogenesis. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) may be precursive for SCC, and screening cytology with referral of persons with abnormality for high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy, and AIN treatment, has been recommended for prevention...
May 22, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521719/virological-suppression-and-patterns-of-resistance-amongst-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-at-4-nigerian-military-hospitals
#3
Keshinro Babajide, Ayemoba Ojor, Terfa Kene, Ake Julie, Crowell Trevor A, Adamu Yakubu, Mohammed Tahir, Okoye Ifeanyi, Odeyemi Sunday, Crawford Keith, Hughes Lindsay, Akintunde Ezekiel, Umar Tahir, Hamm Tiffany E, Njoku Ogbonnaya S
BACKGROUND: In resource-constrained settings, plasma HIV-1 RNA quantification has not been routinely available for the monitoring of response to antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated virological suppression rates amongst patients on first-line ART in four Nigerian military hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 325 randomly selected adult clinic clients (≥18 years old) on first-line ART regimens at four Nigerian military hospitals. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was assayed using a Roche COBAS TaqMan48 with High Pure System...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515928/single-institutional-experience-of-clinicopathological-analysis-and-treatment-for-lung-cancer-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#4
Satoshi Takahashi, Yusuke Okuma, Kageaki Watanabe, Yukio Hosomi, Akifumi Imamura, Tatsuru Okamura, Akihiko Gemma
The advent of antiretroviral therapy has changed the disease spectrum constitution among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), while the incidence of death due to non-AIDS-defining cancers, particularly lung cancer, continues to increase in the USA and Europe. However, the availability of detailed reports of the clinical characteristics of lung cancer among Asian populations is limited. The present study retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, treatment regimens and outcomes of lung cancer patients with HIV who were treated in a single institution between 1988 and 2013...
May 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506307/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-its-association-with-undernutrition-and-cd4-t-cell-levels-among-hiv-aids-patients-on-haart-in-butajira-ethiopia
#5
Dereje Gedle, Gemechu Kumera, Tewodros Eshete, Kasahun Ketema, Haweni Adugna, Fetuma Feyera
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections and HIV/AIDS have been the major public health problems and remain a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Both problems are linked in a vicious cycle. The magnitude of intestinal parasites was prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS even in the HAART era. However, the pertinent risk factors associated with intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients were not well investigated in Ethiopia particularly at Butajira town...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473986/a-robust-pcr-protocol-for-hiv-drug-resistance-testing-on-low-level-viremia-samples
#6
Shivani Gupta, Tracy Taylor, Aileen Patterson, Binhua Liang, Jared Bullard, Paul Sandstrom, Gary Van Domselaar, Hezhao Ji
The prevalence of drug resistance (DR) mutations in people with HIV-1 infection, particularly those with low-level viremia (LLV), supports the need to improve the sensitivity of amplification methods for HIV DR genotyping in order to optimize antiretroviral regimen and facilitate HIV-1 DR surveillance and relevant research. Here we report on a fully validated PCR-based protocol that achieves consistent amplification of the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene across many HIV-1 subtypes from LLV plasma samples...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472225/recent-bacterial-vaginosis-is-associated-with-acquisition-of-mycoplasma-genitalium
#7
Erica M Lokken, Jennifer E Balkus, James Kiarie, James P Hughes, Walter Jaoko, Patricia A Totten, R Scott McClelland, Lisa E Manhart
We assessed the association between recent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and incident Mycoplasma genitalium, a sexually transmitted bacterium associated with adverse female reproductive health outcomes. Female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya completed a monthly sexual behavior interview and clinical examination. During February 2005-February 2006, vaginal fluid specimens collected from women every other month were tested for M. genitalium by nucleic acid amplification testing. Vaginal microbiota was assessed monthly and categorized by Nugent score (0-3 normal, 4-6 intermediate microbiota, 7-10 BV)...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465649/establishing-a-multicenter-longitudinal-clinical-cohort-study-in-ethiopia-advanced-clinical-monitoring-of-antiretroviral-treatment-project
#8
Alula M Teklu, Eyuel Tsegaye, Daniel Fekade, Abraham Hailemelak, William Weiss, Elham Hassen, Nicole Simmons, Solomon Zewdu, Yifru Berhan, Assefa Getachew, Tesfalem Hagos, Achamyeleh Alebachew, Melake Damena, Yohannes Sitotaw, Yibeltal Assefa, Girmay Medhin, Andrea Ruff
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to describe the establishment of the Advanced Clinical Monitoring of ART Project in Ethiopia for monitoring and evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of the ART program and to show the opportunities it presents. This cohort was established in response to the 2005 call by WHO for establishing additional mechanisms for stronger monitoring of ART and the need for creating the platform to generate evidence to guide the care given for the ever increasing number of patients on ART in Ethiopia...
February 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434810/comparative-performance-of-the-geenius%C3%A2-hiv-1-hiv-2-supplemental-test-in-florida-s-public-health-testing-population
#9
Sally Fordan, Berry Bennett, Meghan Lee, Susanne Crowe
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published updated guidelines in 2014 for the laboratory diagnosis of HIV in the United States, which recommend use of a supplemental immunoassay (IA) that differentiates HIV-1 from HIV-2 after a repeatedly reactive HIV-1/2 antigen/antibody "Combo" screening test. In October 2014, Bio-Rad Laboratories introduced the FDA-cleared Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 Supplemental assay and in July 2016, it replaced the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation rapid test as the second test in the HIV diagnostic algorithm...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#10
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419364/examination-of-cryptococcal-glucuronoxylomannan-antigen-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosing-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patients
#11
Kazuhiro Oshima, Takahiro Takazono, Tomomi Saijo, Masato Tashiro, Shintaro Kurihara, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Misuzu Tsukamoto, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno, Koichi Izumikawa
We clarified the performance of a cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) antigen test using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples, in an HIV-negative Japanese population. Between March 2008 and December 2014, we examined cryptococcal GXM antigens in both serum and BALF specimens from 429 cases at Nagasaki University hospital. The diagnoses, underlying diseases, chest computed tomography findings, and cryptococcal GXM antigen test results were retrospectively investigated. Twenty-three patients were confirmed to have pulmonary cryptococcosis, another six were clinically diagnosed with cryptococcosis because they were seropositive for the GXM antigen, and five possible cryptococcosis cases had BALF samples that were positive for the GXM antigen and serum samples that were negative...
April 17, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406272/dorsal-longitudinal-foreskin-cut-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-hiv-syphilis-and-genital-herpes-in-men-a-cross-sectional-study-in-papua-new-guinea
#12
Andrew J Vallely, David MacLaren, Matthew David, Pamela Toliman, Angela Kelly-Hanku, Ben Toto, Rachael Tommbe, Zure Kombati, Petronia Kaima, Kelwyn Browne, Clement Manineng, Lalen Simeon, Claire Ryan, Handan Wand, Peter Hill, Greg Law, Peter M Siba, W John H McBride, John M Kaldor
INTRODUCTION: Various forms of penile foreskin cutting are practised in Papua New Guinea. In the context of an ecological association observed between HIV infection and the dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut, we undertook an investigation of this relationship at the individual level. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among men attending voluntary confidential HIV counselling and testing clinics. Following informed consent, participants had a face-to-face interview and an examination to categorize foreskin status...
April 3, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399133/establishment-of-reference-intervals-during-normal-pregnancy-through-six-months-postpartum-in-western-kenya
#13
Collins Odhiambo, Paul Omolo, Boaz Oyaro, John Williamson, John Kinuthia, Daniel Matemo, Alison Drake, Grace John-Stewart, Clement Zeh
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with changes in hematological and biochemistry values, yet there are no African reference intervals for clinical management of pregnant women. We sought to 1) develop laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy and up to 24 weeks postpartum and 2) determine the proportion of women in a previous clinical trial who would be misclassified as having out-of-range values using reference intervals from a United States (U.S.) population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a longitudinal sub-study of 120 clinically healthy, HIV-uninfected, self-selected pregnant women seeking antenatal care services at either of two public hospitals in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398997/scale-up-of-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-and-improving-access-to-pediatric-hiv-care-in-global-plan-countries-past-and-future-perspectives
#14
Shaffiq Essajee, Ravikiran Bhairavabhotla, Martina Penazzato, Karusa Kiragu, Ilesh Jani, Sergio Carmona, Bharat Rewari, Charles Kiyaga, John Nkengasong, Trevor Peter
Investment to scale-up early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV has increased substantially in the last decade. This investment includes physical infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and specimen transportation systems as well as specialized mechanisms to deliver laboratory results to clinics. The Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive, as well as related international initiatives to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and treat children living with HIV have been important drivers of this scale-up by mobilizing resources, creating advocacy, developing normative recommendations, and providing direct technical support to countries through the global community of international stakeholders...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393756/norovirus-epidemiology-in-south-african-children-5-years-hospitalised-for-diarrhoeal-illness-between-2009-and-2013
#15
N A Page, M J Groome, S Nadan, R Netshikweta, K H Keddy, B Poonsamy, J Moyes, S Walaza, K Kahn, S A Madhi, M B Taylor, J Mans, C Cohen
Public health interest in norovirus (NoV) has increased in recent years following improved diagnostics, global burden estimates and the development of NoV vaccine candidates. This study aimed to describe the detection rate, clinical characteristics and environmental features associated with NoV detection in hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea in South Africa (SA). Between 2009 and 2013, prospective diarrhoeal surveillance was conducted at four sites in SA. Stool specimens were collected and screened for NoVs and other enteric pathogens using molecular and serological assays...
April 10, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369309/analysis-of-false-negative-hiv-rapid-tests-performed-on-oral-fluid-in-three-international-clinical-research-studies
#16
Marcel E Curlin, Roman Gvetadze, Wanna Leelawiwat, Michael Martin, Charles Rose, Richard W Niska, Tebogo M Segolodi, Kachit Choopanya, Jaray Tongtoyai, Timothy H Holtz, Taraz Samandari, Janet M Mcnicholl
Objective: The OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Test is a point-of-care test capable of detecting HIV-specific antibodies in blood and oral fluid. To understand test performance and factors contributing to false-negative (FN) results in longitudinal studies, we examined results of participants enrolled in the TDF2 study, the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, and the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS), three separate clinical studies of high-risk, HIV-negative persons conducted in Botswana and Thailand...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369198/contribution-of-serology-assays-in-the-evaluation-of-influenza-virus-infection-rates-and-vaccine-efficacy-in-pregnant-women-report-from-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Shabir A Madhi, Marta Nunes, Adriana Weinberg, Locadiah Kuwanda, Andrea Hugo, Stephanie Jones, Nadia van Niekerk, Justin R Ortiz, Kathleen M Neuzil, Keith P Klugman, Eric A F Simoes, Clare L Cutland
Background: The utility of serological testing to evaluate vaccine efficacy of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of IIV against serologically-diagnosed influenza infection (SDI), and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed influenza illness (PCR-CI) in women vaccinated during pregnancy. Methods: We undertook a post-hoc analysis of two randomized clinical trials evaluating IIV efficacy among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected pregnant women...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360379/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-gastrointestinal-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-diagnosed-with-rectal-chlamydia-infection-in-the-uk-an-unlinked-anonymous-cross-sectional-study
#18
Gwenda Hughes, Panida Silalang, John Were, Hemanti Patel, Tristan Childs, Sarah Alexander, Stephen Duffell, Cara Saxon, Cathy Ison, Holly Mitchell, Nigel Field, Claire Jenkins
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal infections (GII) can cause serious ill health and morbidity. Although primarily transmitted through faecal contamination of food or water, transmission through sexual activity is well described, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of GIIs among a convenience sample of MSM who were consecutively diagnosed with rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) at 12 UK genitourinary medicine clinics during 10 weeks in 2012...
March 30, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351689/detection-of-new-hiv-infections-in-a-multicentre-hiv-antiretroviral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-trial
#19
Katrien Fransen, Irith de Baetselier, Elizabeth Rammutla, Khatija Ahmed, Frederick Owino, Walter Agingu, Gustav Venter, Jen Deese, Lut Van Damme, Tania Crucitti
BACKGROUND: Monthly specimens collected from FEM-PrEP-a Phase III trial [1] were investigated for the detection of acute HIV (AHI) infection. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of the study-specific HIV algorithm in detecting AHI, and the performance of each of the serological and molecular tests used in diagnosing new infections, and their contribution to narrowing the window period. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 83 pre-seroconversion specimens from 61 seroconverters from the FEM-PrEP trial were further analyzed in a sub-study...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348783/an-unusual-case-of-thoracic-empyema-caused-by-granulicatella-elegans-nutritionally-variant-streptococci-in-a-patient-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#20
Nomonde R Mvelase, Kanitha Marajh, Olga Hattingh, Koleka P Mlisana
INTRODUCTION: Nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) are an infrequent cause of human infection with Granulicatella elegans being the least encountered species in clinical specimens. The most common infection caused by NVS is infective endocarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report an unusual case of thoracic empyema due to G. elegans in a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The patient responded favourably to drainage and penicillin...
October 2016: JMM Case Reports
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