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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890153/detection-of-leishmania-dna-in-saliva-among-patients-with-hiv-aids-in-trang-province-southern-thailand
#1
Netranapha Pandey, Suradej Siripattanapipong, Saovanee Leelayoova, Jipada Manomat, Mathirut Mungthin, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Lertwut Bualert, Tawee Naaglor, Padet Siriyasatien, Atchara Phumee, Phunlerd Piyaraj
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease causing opportunistic infection among patients with HIV/AIDS. The fatal form of this disease is visceral leishmaniasis (VL). DNA of Leishmania can be detected in saliva, for which the collection is noninvasive and requires little expertise. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a nested-PCR to amplify the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) to detect Leishmania DNA in paired saliva and buffy coat samples of 305 Thai patients with HIV/AIDS in Trang Hospital, Trang Province, southern Thailand...
June 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889865/hiv-infection-in-patients-with-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-zimbabwe-results-from-the-zimbabwe-sti-etiology-study
#2
Peter H Kilmarx, Elizabeth Gonese, David A Lewis, Z Mike Chirenje, Beth A Tippett Barr, Ahmed S Latif, Lovemore Gwanzura, H Hunter Handsfield, Anna Machiha, Owen Mugurungi, Cornelius A Rietmeijer
BACKGROUND: HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) frequently co-occur. We conducted HIV diagnostic testing in an assessment of the etiologies of major STI syndromes in Zimbabwe. METHODS: A total of 600 patients were enrolled at six geographically diverse, high-volume STI clinics in Zimbabwe in 2014-15: 200 men with urethral discharge, 200 women with vaginal discharge, and 100 men and 100 women each with genital ulcer disease (GUD). Patients completed a questionnaire, underwent a genital examination, and had specimens taken for etiologic testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879917/tuberculosis-case-finding-using-population-based-disease-surveillance-platforms-in-urban-and-rural-kenya
#3
Godfrey Bigogo, Kevin Cain, Diana Nyole, Geoffrey Masyongo, Joshua Auko Auko, Newton Wamola, Albert Okumu, Janet Agaya, Joel Montgomery, Martien Borgdorff, Deron Burton
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) case finding is an important component of TB control because it can reduce transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) through prompt detection and treatment of infectious patients. METHODS: Using population-based infectious disease surveillance (PBIDS) platforms with links to health facilities in Kenya we implemented intensified TB case finding in the community and at the health facilities, as an adjunct to routine passive case finding conducted by the national TB program...
June 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876241/rapid-molecular-assays-for-detection-of-tuberculosis
#4
REVIEW
Rkia Eddabra, Hassan Ait Benhassou
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains an important public health problem at the global level. It is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant Mycobacterium strains and HIV co-infection. Over the past decade, important progress has been made for better control of the disease. While microscopy and culture continue to be indispensible for laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis, the range of several molecular diagnostic tests, including the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have expanded tremendously...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862440/cost-analysis-of-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-cambodia-with-and-without-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-for-people-living-with-hiv-aids-and-people-with-presumptive-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#5
Sarah Wood Pallas, Marissa Courey, Chhaily Hy, Wm Perry Killam, Dora Warren, Brittany Moore
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) test has been shown to be effective and cost-effective for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) under conditions with high HIV prevalence and HIV-TB co-infection but less is known about Xpert's cost in low HIV prevalence settings. Cambodia, a country with low HIV prevalence (0.7%), high TB burden, and low multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB burden (1.4% of new TB cases, 11% of retreatment cases) introduced Xpert into its TB diagnostic algorithms for people living with HIV (PLHIV) and people with presumptive MDR TB in 2012...
June 4, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720521/short-term-pifn-%C3%AE-2a-treatment-does-not-significantly-reduce-the-viral-reservoir-of-siv-infected-art-treated-rhesus-macaques
#6
David Palesch, Steven E Bosinger, Maud Mavigner, James M Billingsley, Cameron Mattingly, Diane Carnathan, Mirko Paiardini, Ann Chahroudi, Thomas Vanderford, Guido Silvestri
The major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication is a reservoir of latently infected cells that persists despite long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and causes rapid viral rebound if treatment is interrupted. Type I interferons are immunomodulatory cytokines that induce antiviral factors and have been evaluated for the treatment of HIV-infected individuals, resulting in moderate reduction of viremia and inconclusive data about their effect on reservoir size. Here, we assessed the potential of pegylated IFN-α2a (pIFN-α2a) to reduce the viral reservoir in SIV-infected, ART-treated rhesus macaques (RMs)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707345/hiv-negative-pulmonary-disease-caused-by-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-southern-brazil-clinical-and-microbiological-characterization
#7
Fernanda Guioti Puga, Renata Helena Candido Pocente, Erica Chimara, Valdes Roberto Bollela
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been identified with increasing frequency in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to characterize NTM isolates in respiratory specimens from patients with pulmonary disease and to correlate this with clinical/radiological findings, decision to start treatment and outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed and included all patients who had at least one NTM isolated in respiratory specimens between 2011 and 2014...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704735/heterophilic-interference-in-specimens-yielding-false-reactive-results-on-the-abbott-4th-generation-architect-hiv-ag-ab-combo-assay
#8
S Lavoie, D Caswell, M J Gill, K Kadkhoda, C L Charlton, P N Levett, T Hatchette, R Garceau, J Maregmen, T Mazzulli, R Needle, K Kadivar, J Kim
BACKGROUND: False-reactivity in HIV-negative specimens has been detected in HIV fourth-generation antigen/antibody or 'combo' assays which are able to detect both anti-HIV-1/HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 antigen. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize these specimens and determine the effect of heterophilic interference. STUDY DESIGN: Specimens previously testing as false-reactive on the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay and re-tested on a different (Siemens ADVIA Centaur HIV Ag/Ab) assay...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704387/the-crucial-role-of-molecular-testing-to-facilitate-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-during-pregnancy
#9
C H Ding, H Yusoff, N A S Muttaqillah, Y L Tang, T L Tan, P Periyasamy, A Y L Ban
Pneumocystis pneumonia is an important human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated opportunistic infection, and especially so in pregnant HIV-positive patients. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman in her first trimester of pregnancy who initially presented with acute gastroenteritis symptoms but due to a history of high-risk behaviour and the observation of oral thrush, she was worked up for HIV infection. Her retroviral status was positive and her CD4+ T cell count was only 8 cells/µL. She was also worked up for pneumocystis pneumonia due to the presence of mild resting tachypnoea and a notable drop in oxygen saturation (from 100% to 88%) following brief ambulation...
April 2018: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660258/pleural-tuberculosis-a-concise-clinical-review
#10
Jane A Shaw, Elvis M Irusen, Andreas H Diacon, Coenraad F Koegelenberg
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and the commonest cause of death in people living with HIV. Globally, pleural TB remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural exudates, particularly in TB-endemic areas and in the HIV positive population. Most TB pleural effusions are exudates with high adenosine deaminase (ADA), lymphocyte-rich, straw-coloured and free flowing, with a low yield on mycobacterial culture. TB pleurisy can also present as loculated neutrophil-predominant effusions which mimic parapneumonic effusions...
May 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624559/risk-factors-for-oral-hpv-infection-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-2-cities-united-states-2012-2014
#11
Sara E Oliver, Pamina Gorbach, Beau Gratzer, Martin Steinau, Tom Collins, Adam Parrish, Peter R Kerndt, Richard Crosby, Elizabeth R Unger, Lauri E Markowitz, Elissa Meites
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for cancers attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV), including oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended for U.S. MSM through age 26 years. Oral HPV infection is associated with oropharyngeal cancer. We determined oral HPV prevalence and risk factors among young MSM. METHODS: The Young Men's HPV study enrolled MSM aged 18-26 years from clinics in Chicago and Los Angeles during 2012-2014. Participants self-reported demographics, sexual behaviors, vaccination and HIV status...
April 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621949/a-case-of-secondary-syphilis-with-pulmonary-involvement-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Suttichai Visuttichaikit, Nuntra Suwantarat, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Pansachee Damronglerd
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum. We report a case of a heterosexual, HIV-positive man who presented with secondary syphilis and a lung abscess. A bacterial lung abscess was suspected and a computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle aspiration of the lung abscess was performed. Direct pulmonary involvement by T. pallidum was suggested by a positive PCR result on the aspirated fluid specimen. The clinical signs of secondary syphilis improved, and the lung abscess was resolved after treatment with benzathine penicillin G and amoxicillin-clavulanate...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618501/use-of-external-quality-control-material-for-hiv-1-rna-testing-to-assess-the-comparability-of-data-generated-in-separate-laboratories-and-the-stability-of-hiv-1-rna-in-samples-after-prolonged-storage
#13
Cheryl Jennings, Carrie G Wager, Salvatore R Scianna, Daniel J Zaccaro, Amy Couzens, John W Mellors, Robert W Coombs, James W Bremer
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) stores specimens from its clinical trials in a biorepository and permits the use of these specimens for nonprotocol exploratory studies, once the studies for the original protocol are concluded. We sought to assess the comparability of the data generated from real-time HIV-1 RNA testing during two clinical trials with the data generated from the retesting of different aliquots of the same samples after years of storage at -80°C...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584723/transmission-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-within-partner-pairs-a-cross-sectional-study-of-a-primary-hiv-infection-cohort
#14
Joanne D Stekler, Ross Milne, Rachel Payant, Ingrid Beck, Joshua Herbeck, Brandon Maust, Wenjie Deng, Kenneth Tapia, Sarah Holte, Janine Maenza, Claire E Stevens, James I Mullins, Ann C Collier, Lisa M Frenkel
BACKGROUND: Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutations, particularly that of minority drug-resistant variants, remains poorly understood. Population-based studies suggest that drug-resistant HIV-1 is less transmissible than drug-susceptible viruses. We compared HIV-1 drug-resistant genotypes among partner-pairs in order to assess the likelihood of transmission of drug resistance mutations and investigate the role of minority variants in HIV transmission...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565667/undiagnosed-hiv-and-hcv-infection-in-a-new-york-city-emergency-department-2015
#15
Lucia V Torian, Uriel R Felsen, Qiang Xia, Fabienne Laraque, Eric J Rude, Herbert Rose, Adam Cole, Angelica Bocour, Gary J Williams, Robert F Bridgforth, Lisa A Forgione, Howard Doo, Sarah L Braunstein, Demetre C Daskalakis, Barry S Zingman
OBJECTIVES: To measure undiagnosed HIV and HCV in a New York City emergency department (ED). METHODS: We conducted a blinded cross-sectional serosurvey with remnant serum from specimens originally drawn for clinical indications in the ED. Serum was deduplicated and matched to (1) the hospital's electronic medical record and (2) the New York City HIV and HCV surveillance registries for evidence of previous diagnosis before being deidentified and tested for HIV and HCV...
May 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541267/programmatic-impact-of-implementing-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-respiratory-specimens-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-suspected-patients-in-resource-limited-laboratory-settings-of-eastern-nepal
#16
Prakash Shrestha, Hemanta Khanal, Prasanna Dahal, Pranita Dongol
Background: In Nepal, introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay) as an initial confirmation test for tuberculosis (TB) has been considered to have impact as a significant decrease in number of clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases than previous years. This study aims to find out the distribution profile of suspected tuberculosis cases according to patients age, gender, treatment history and HIV status as well as to evaluate the utility of the Xpert assay over conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining method for the proper diagnosis of M...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538464/congenital-cytomegalovirus-parvovirus-and-enterovirus-infection-in-mozambican-newborns-at-birth-a-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506084/higher-anti-cmv-igg-concentrations-are-associated-with-worse-neurocognitive-performance-during-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Scott Letendre, Ajay Bharti, Ignacio Perez-Valero, Barbara Hanson, Donald Franklin, Steven Paul Woods, Sara Gianella, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Robert K Heaton, Igor Grant, Alan L Landay, Nell Lurain
Objective: To determine the association of CMV infection with neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults. Design: Cross-sectional, observational, exploratory study. Methods: Anti-CMV IgG concentrations in blood and CMV DNA copies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in stored specimens of 80 HIV+ adults who were previously assessed with a standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive test battery. Thirty-eight were taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART, HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL) and 42 were not taking ART...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503291/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-resource-poor-settings
#19
Rita O Oladele, Akaninyene A Otu, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Globally, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a common and lethal infection in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, particularly in developing countries where rates of PCP increases with rising GDP. Pneumocystis jirovecii cannot be cultured in routine clinical laboratories; thus diagnosis relies on microscopy, histology, serology and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the Pneumocystis DNA. Most of these methods are expensive and require training. Accessing lower respiratory tract specimens in young children is often challenging and only PCR testing of nasopharyngeal aspirates is useful...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491115/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-high-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-involving-condyloma-acuminatum
#20
Kiyong Na, Ji-Youn Sung, Hyun-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND/AIM: Severe nuclear atypia can be associated with condyloma acuminatum. In this study, we investigated nine cases of perianal condyloma acuminatum with severe nuclear atypia and determined whether severe nuclear atypia is sufficient for the diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical data and pathological features of the nine patients were collected. p16 Immunostaining and human papillomavirus genotyping were also performed...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
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