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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468424/full-depth-measurement-of-tenofovir-transport-in-rectal-mucosa-using-confocal-raman-spectroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#1
Aubrey L Presnell, Oranat Chuchuen, Morgan G Simons, Jason R Maher, David F Katz
The prophylactic activity of antiretroviral drugs applied as microbicides against sexually transmitted HIV is dependent upon their concentrations in infectable host cells. Within mucosal sites of infection (e.g., vaginal and rectal mucosa), those cells exist primarily in the stromal layer of the tissue. Traditional pharmacokinetic studies of these drugs have been challenged by poor temporal and spatial specificity. Newer techniques to measure drug concentrations, involving Raman spectroscopy, have been limited by laser penetration depth into tissue...
February 21, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438560/hiite-hiv-1-incidence-and-infection-time-estimator
#2
Sung Yong Park, Tanzy M T Love, Shivankur Kapoor, Ha Youn Lee, John Hancock
Motivation: Around 2.1 million new HIV-1 infections were reported in 2015, alerting that the HIV-1 epidemic remains a significant global health challenge. Precise incidence assessment strengthens epidemic monitoring efforts and guides strategy optimization for prevention programs. Estimating the onset time of HIV-1 infection can facilitate optimal clinical management and identify key populations largely responsible for epidemic spread and thereby infer HIV-1 transmission chains. Our goal is to develop a genomic assay estimating the incidence and infection time in a single cross-sectional survey setting...
February 9, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438413/spatial-overlap-links-seemingly-unconnected-genotype-matched-tb-cases-in-rural-uganda
#3
Gabriel Chamie, Midori Kato-Maeda, Devy M Emperador, Bonnie Wandera, Olive Mugagga, John Crandall, Michael Janes, Carina Marquez, Moses R Kamya, Edwin D Charlebois, Diane V Havlir
INTRODUCTION: Incomplete understanding of TB transmission dynamics in high HIV prevalence settings remains an obstacle for prevention. Understanding where transmission occurs could provide a platform for case finding and interrupting transmission. METHODS: From 2012-2015, we sought to recruit all adults starting TB treatment in a Ugandan community. Participants underwent household (HH) contact investigation, and provided names of social contacts, sites of work, healthcare and socializing, and two sputum samples...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410230/risk-factors-for-pertussis-among-hospitalised-children-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting-south-africa
#4
NMdu Plessis, G Ntshoe, G Reubenson, R Kularatne, L Blumberg, J Thomas, T Avenant
BACKGROUND: In low and middle-income countries, including South Africa, the epidemiology of pertussis in relation to immunisation, nutritional and HIV status is poorly described. We report on risk factors in South African children hospitalised with pertussis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, hospital-based, sentinel surveillance programme for pertussis in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Hospitalised children (≤10 years) meeting the surveillance criteria for clinically suspected pertussis were screened and enrolled...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378902/asymptomatic-lymphogranuloma-venereum-among-nigerian-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#5
Trevor A Crowell, Justin Hardick, Kara Lombardi, Zahra Parker, Afoke Kokogho, Senate Amusu, Sunday Odeyemi, Andrew Ivo, Stefan D Baral, Rebecca G Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, Manhattan E Charurat, Julie Ake, Charlotte A Gaydos
OBJECTIVES: Recent outbreaks of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been characterised by proctocolitis requiring extended antibiotic treatment compared with infections caused by other serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). We describe the prevalence and clinical features of LGV among Nigerian MSM diagnosed with anorectal CT. METHODS: MSM were recruited for this observational cohort in Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling and screened for HIV and bacterial STIs every three months for up to 18 months...
January 29, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357899/pediatric-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-case-report
#6
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357841/study-on-the-persistence-of-zika-virus-zikv-in-body-fluids-of-patients-with-zikv-infection-in-brazil
#7
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Edna Oliveira Kara, Silvana Pereira Giozza, Camila Helena Aguiar Bôtto-Menezes, Philippe Gaillard, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira Franca, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães de Lacerda, Marcia da Costa Castilho, Patrícia Brasil, Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira, Maeve Brito de Mello, Ximena Pamela Diaz Bermudez, Kayvon Modjarrad, Robyn Meurant, Sihem Landoulsi, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Nathalie Jeanne Nicole Broutet
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) has been identified in several body fluids of infected individuals. In most cases, it remained detected in blood from few days to 1 week after the onset of symptoms, and can persist longer in urine and in semen. ZIKV infection can have dramatic consequences such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV sexual transmission has been documented. A better understanding of ZIKV presence and persistence across biologic compartments is needed to devise rational measures to prevent its transmission...
January 22, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346431/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-two-dried-blood-spot-methods-for-hiv-1-viral-load-monitoring-among-patients-in-hanoi-vietnam
#8
Todd M Pollack, Hao T Duong, Phuong T Truong, Thuy T Pham, Cuong D Do, Donn Colby
The use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for HIV viral load (VL) monitoring is recommended to support the roll-out of routine VL monitoring in low and middle income countries (LMICs). To better understand the use of DBS for VL monitoring, we evaluated two DBS testing methods, Roche TaqMan® Free Virus Evolution protocol (DBS-FVE) and Roche TaqMan® SPEX protocol (DBS-SPEX)) in patients receiving ART at an HIV clinic in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each DBS testing method at the thresholds of 1000 and 5000 copies/ml compared to plasma VL...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302148/association-of-risk-factors-and-drug-resistance-pattern-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-north-india
#9
Pallavi Sinha, G N Srivastava, Anamika Gupta, Shampa Anupurba
Context: India is one of the high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries in the world. Improper implementation in the guidelines for the management of TB and high rate of defaults on the part of the patients are most important risk factors for the development of multi-drug resistant TB. Aims: This study examines the drug resistance profile and the effect of demographic, clinical and behavioral risk factors on the prevalence of TB and multidrug resistance (MDR) in north India...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294581/-incidence-rates-of-hiv-1-epidemics-among-4-high-risk-groups-in-sichuan-province-during-2011-2015
#10
H Yang, L Su, L Ye, L Xiao, Y Hu, M G Shen, D B Wei, D Yuan, G S Zhou, H L Liu, J Yu, S Liang
Objective: Data from the HIV/AIDS surveillance sentinel sites was used to identify the recent HIV-1 infections and to estimate the HIV-1 incidence and epidemic trends among intravenous drug users (IDU), MSM, female sex workers and men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinics in Sichuan province. Methods: Specimens collected from IDUs, MSM, female sex workers and men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinics sentinel sites were confirmed as HIV-1 positive and tested with BED-CEIA. Annual HIV-1 prevalence and incidence rates were calculated and the incidence was adjusted by McNermar method...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281620/dual-strain-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-infection-in-the-us-peru-and-8-countries-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-nested-cross-sectional-viral-genotyping-study
#11
Christine Johnston, Amalia Magaret, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Alexander L Greninger, Daniel Reeves, Joshua Schiffer, Keith R Jerome, Cassandra Sather, Kurt Diem, Jairam R Lingappa, Connie Celum, David M Koelle, Anna Wald
BACKGROUND: Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system's protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic) and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study) in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2-11 months) were included...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279452/prevalence-and-genotype-distribution-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-urine-among-men-attending-std-clinics-in-guangdong-province-china-2016
#12
Yaohua Xue, Heping Zheng, Weiming Tang, Zhida Mai, Jinmei Huang, Shujie Huang, Xiaolin Qin, Lei Chen, Lei Zheng
Studies rarely assessed the genotype distribution of chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in urine among men attending STD clinics (MSCs) in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CT infection by examining urine samples among MSCs from different geographic areas of Guangdong province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSCs from ten HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Guangdong province. CT DNA in men urine samples were extracted and detected by using the Roche cobas® 4800 CT/NG...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261707/field-evaluation-of-hiv-point-of-care-testing-for-early-infant-diagnosis-in-cape-town-south-africa
#13
Lorna Dunning, Max Kroon, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) coverage and uptake remains challenging. Point-of-care (POC) testing may improve access and turn-around-times, but, while several POC technologies are in development there are few data on their implementation in the field. METHODS: We conducted an implementation study of the Alere q Detect POC system for EID at two public sector health facilities in Cape Town. HIV-exposed neonates undergoing routine EID testing at a large maternity hospital and a primary care clinic received both laboratory-based HIV PCR testing per local protocols and a POC test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240636/the-etiology-of-genital-ulcer-disease-and-coinfections-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-zimbabwe-results-from-the-zimbabwe-sti-etiology-study
#14
More Mungati, Anna Machiha, Owen Mugurungi, Mufuta Tshimanga, Peter H Kilmarx, Justice Nyakura, Gerald Shambira, Vitalis Kupara, David A Lewis, Elizabeth Gonese, Beth A Tippett Barr, H Hunter Handsfield, Cornelis A Rietmeijer
BACKGROUND: In many countries, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are treated syndromically. Thus, patients diagnosed as having genital ulcer disease (GUD) in Zimbabwe receive a combination of antimicrobials to treat syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and genital herpes. Periodic studies are necessary to assess the current etiology of GUD and assure the appropriateness of current treatment guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 6 geographically diverse clinics in Zimbabwe serving high numbers of STI cases to enroll men and women with STI syndromes, including GUD...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240635/the-etiology-of-male-urethral-discharge-in-zimbabwe-results-from-the-zimbabwe-sti-etiology-study
#15
Cornelis A Rietmeijer, More Mungati, Anna Machiha, Owen Mugurungi, Vitalis Kupara, Luanne Rodgers, Peter H Kilmarx, Amy Herman Roloff, Elizabeth Gonese, Beth A Tippett-Barr, Gerald Shambira, David A Lewis, H Hunter Handsfield, Mufuta Tshimanga
INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are managed syndromically in most developing countries. In Zimbabwe, men presenting with urethral discharge are treated with a single intramuscular dose of kanamycin or ceftriaxone in combination with a week's course of oral doxycycline. This study was designed to assess the current etiology of urethral discharge and other STIs to inform current syndromic management regimens. METHODS: We conducted a study among 200 men with urethral discharge presenting at 6 regionally diverse STI clinics in Zimbabwe...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235968/mycobacterial-blood-culture-as-the-only-means-of-diagnosis-of-disseminated-tuberculosis-in-advanced-hiv-infection
#16
Alice Joan Mathuram, Joy Sarojini Michael, Vijay Prakash Turaka, Sudha Jasmine, Ronald Carey, I Ramya
The diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis (TB) in advanced HIV infection is often delayed because of difficulty in obtaining suitable specimens for culture. A total of 32 such patients from South India with positive mycobacterial blood cultures were studied over ten years. Almost all (90%) had a febrile illness and the majority (68.7%) had clinical lung involvement, but only 27.3% had positive sputum smears. Liver biopsy yielded a positive diagnosis in only 1/7. Cytopenia was almost universal (96.9%). Bone marrow cultures were, however, positive in 54...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232958/architect-hiv-combo-ag-ab%C3%A2-and-realtime%C3%A2-hiv-1-assays-detect-diverse-hiv-strains-in-clinical-specimens
#17
Mary A Rodgers, Ana S Vallari, Julie Yamaguchi, Vera Holzmayer, Barbara Harris, Coumba Toure-Kane, Souleymane M'Boup, Samar Badreddine, Carole McArthur, Nicaise Ndembi, Dora Ngum Mbanya, Lazare Kaptué, Gavin Cloherty
Periodic evaluation of the impact of viral diversity on diagnostic tests is critical to ensure current technologies are keeping pace with viral evolution. To determine whether HIV diversity impacts the ARCHITECT HIV Combo Ag/Ab (HIV Combo) or RealTime HIV-1 (RT) assays, a set of N=199 HIV clinical specimens from Cameroon, Senegal, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand were sequenced and tested in both assays. The panel included historical Group N and P specimens and a newly identified Group N specimen. These and specimens classified as H, U/URF, CRF01, 02, 06, 09, 11, 13, 18, 22, 37, and 43 were detected by both the RT assay (1...
December 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226632/novel-bovine-associated-pvapn-plasmid-type-in-rhodococcus-equi-identified-from-lymph-nodes-of-slaughtered-cattle-and-lungs-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#18
M G Ribeiro, G H B Lara, P da Silva, M M J Franco, A L de Mattos-Guaraldi, A P C de Vargas, R I Sakate, F R Pavan, B S Colhado, F V R Portilho, R G Motta, T Kakuda, S Takai
Rhodococcus equi is a well-recognized Gram-positive intracellular facultative bacterium that is opportunistic in nature, which causes pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multiple host animals. The pathogenicity of the microorganism has been attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). To date, three host-associated virulence plasmid types of R. equi have been identified as follows: the circular pVAPA and pVAPB, related, respectively, to equine and porcine isolates, and a recently described linear pVAPN plasmid associated with bovine strains, although these three types are found in human isolates...
December 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208530/analytical-performances-of-simultaneous-detection-of-hiv-1-hiv-2-and-hepatitis-c-specific-antibodies-and-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-by-multiplex-immunochromatographic-rapid-test-with-serum-samples-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Leman Robin, Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Zita Aleyo Nodjikouambaye, Laura Charmant, Mathieu Matta, Sylvie Simon, Mounir Filali, Souleymane Mboup, Laurent Bélec
BACKGROUND: The HIV/HCV/HBsAg Triplex consists in manually performed, visually interpreted, lateral flow, immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test simultaneously detecting in 15min human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 and hepatitis C virus (HCV)- specific antibodies (Ab) (IgG and IgM) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum, plasma and whole blood. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a prospective panel of serum samples from adult inpatients included from routine analysis irrespectively of age and sex, including 250 sera positive for HIV-1-specific Ab, 250 for HCV-specific Ab, 250 for HBsAg and 250 sera negative for HIV- and HCV- Ab and HBsAg, and from 110 HIV-2-infected patients living in Ivory Coast, according to the results obtained by the reference chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) Abbott Architect i2000SR analyzer (Abbott Diagnostic, Chicago, IL, USA)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204224/bacteriology-and-antibiogram-of-urinary-tract-infection-among-female-patients-in-a-tertiary-health-facility-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#20
REVIEW
Angus N Oli, Vivian B Akabueze, Chijioke E Ezeudu, George U Eleje, Obiora S Ejiofor, Ifeanyichukwu U Ezebialu, Charlotte B Oguejiofor, Ifeoma M Ekejindu, George O Emechebe, Kenneth N Okeke
Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common contagion among men and women with the incidence relatively higher among women due to their differing anatomy. An understanding of the kind of pathogens implicated in urinary tract infections as well as antibiotic susceptibility profiling may help the clinician make rationally correct empirical choice in their treatment. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the type and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial uropathogens isolated from female patients attending Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH), Awka, Nigeria...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
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