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Cerebral Contusion

Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Rafet Özay, Erhan Türkoğlu, Bora Gürer, Habibullah Dolgun, Oya Evirgen, Berrin İmge Ergüder, Nazlı Hayırlı, Levent Gürses, Zeki Şekerci, Erdal Reşit Yılmaz
BACKGROUND: The development of secondary brain injury via oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well known. Decorin inactivates Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), complement system (CS) and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which are related the oxidative stress and apoptosis. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Decorin (DC) on TBI. METHODS: A total of 24 male rats were used and divided into four groups as follows; control, trauma, DC, and methylprednisolone (MP)...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Roger W Byard, Matthew Cox, Peter Stockham
The body of a 19-year-old male was found apparently concealed underneath bushes with recent head and facial trauma, and multiple superficial abrasions. Subsequently, it was discovered that the decedent had been running into objects and buildings following the ingestion the evening before of what was thought to be lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Blood staining of a nearby wall close to where the body was lying was in keeping with the described behavior. Toxicology revealed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy), in addition to two only recently available drugs 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, (25B-NBOMe), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone, (MDPBP)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Bora Gürer, Hayri Kertmen, Habibullah Dolgun, Zeki Sekerci
Cerebral cortical contusions are one of the most common computed tomography findings in head-injured patients and common sequel of traumatic brain injury. These contusions tend to show a progressive increase in mass effect on repeated imaging, most small contusions do not require surgical evacuation. However, progression to subdural hematoma (SDH) in a late aspect is unique. Here we present a 71-year-old man with bifrontal contusion, who deteriorated 43 days after initial trauma with sudden onset of acute SDH...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Deepak Kumar Gupta, Ajay Bisht, Priyam Batra, Purva Mathur, Ashok Kumar Mahapatra
BACKGROUND: The management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) aims to maintain the normal cerebral perfusion in spite of the mass lesions that may occur (haematoma, contusion, and oedema). The monitoring of the intracranial pressure (ICP) is a step in that direction. The intra-parenchymal catheters have the lowest incidence of infection compared to intra-ventricular/subdural catheters with reliable and accurate pressure recordings. The major disadvantage of the intra-parenchymal catheters is the cost, especially in developing nations...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Soumaya Boudokhane, Amine Kalai, Aymen Haj Salah, Houda Migaou, Sana Salah, Anis Jellad, Mourad Gahbiche, Zohra Ben Salah Frih
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the demographic characteristics and the pathway of severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) victims in the Tunisian population. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our study included 26 patients victims of STBI hospitalized in intensive care unit, among 450 traumatic head injuries admitted to the Teaching Hospital of Fattouma Bourguiba in Monastir during the year 2014. The studied parameters were: demographic characteristics of the population, circumstances of the accident, transport modalities to the hospital, assessments of the injury types, duration of coma, length of hospitalization in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and finally the discharge mode after the ICU stay (transfer to neurosurgery ward, to rehabilitation unit, or home discharged)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Soumaya Boudokhane, Hichem Ben Brahim, Aymen Haj Salah, Houda Migaou, Anis Jellad, Zohra Ben Salah Frih
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors influencing long-term functional and professional outcomes in patients post severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive analytical transversal and cross-sectional study involving patients with STBI dated more than 1 year and managed in rehabilitation department on an outpatient basis. Described parameters were: coma duration, post-traumatic amnesia duration (PTA), duration of hospitalization in intensive care unit, rehabilitation delay management, brain imaging findings, motor impairment, neuropsychological impairment assessed with Neurobehavioral Rating Scale-Revised (NRS-R), functional outcomes assessed with Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and disability assessed with Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Abhishek Desai, Taeyeop Park, Jaquel Barnes, Karl Kevala, Huazhen Chen, Hee-Yong Kim
BACKGROUND: Adequate consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is vital for normal development and functioning of the central nervous system. The long-chain n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid are anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective in the models of central nervous system injury including traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested whether a higher brain DHA status in a mouse model on an adequate dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) leads to reduced neuroinflammation and improved spontaneous recovery after TBI in comparison to a moderately lowered brain DHA status that can occur in humans...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Brian T Kalish, Michael J Whalen
Weight drop models in rodents have been used for several decades to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Weight drop models have been used to replicate focal cerebral contusion as well as diffuse brain injury characterized by axonal damage. More recently, closed head injury models with free head rotation have been developed to model sports concussions, which feature functional disturbances in the absence of overt brain damage assessed by conventional imaging techniques...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anastasia Tsyben, Iddo Paldor, John Laidlaw
Although common after subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit (DIND) rarely occur following elective clipping of unruptured aneurysms. The onset of this complication is variable and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. We report two patients with CVS associated with DIND following unruptured aneurysmal clipping. The literature is reviewed and the potential mechanisms in the context of patient presentations are discussed. A woman aged 53 and a man aged 70 were treated with elective clipping of unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms, the older patient also having an anterior communicating artery aneurysm clipped...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Michael D Singleton
BACKGROUND: Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky...
September 2, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Nicole D Osier, C Edward Dixon
Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a mechanical model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that was developed nearly 30 years ago with the goal of creating a testing platform to determine the biomechanical properties of brain tissue exposed to direct mechanical deformation. Initially used to model TBIs produced by automotive crashes, the CCI model rapidly transformed into a standardized technique to study TBI mechanisms and evaluate therapies. CCI is most commonly produced using a device that rapidly accelerates a rod to impact the surgically exposed cortical dural surface...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Mohit Patel, Ha Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Michael Gelsomino, Saman Shabani, Wade Mueller
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma can mimic various pathologies, including arteriovenous malformation, hemorrhage from ischemic stroke, cerebral contusion, metastatic disease, lymphoma, and infection. The literature is limited regarding diagnostic confusion with meningioma. Herein, we present two patients that exhibited imaging, including cerebral angiography during preoperative embolization, which was consistent with meningioma, but where final surgical diagnosis revealed glioblastoma. CASE 1: A 57-year-old female presented with headaches, ataxia, and memory lapses for the past month...
August 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Judith Bellapart, Catherine Abi-Fares, Kylie Cuthbertson, Kimble Dunster, Sara Diab, David G Platts, Christopher Raffel, Levon Gabrielian, Adrian Barnett, Jennifer Paratz, Rob Boots, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microcirculation after head injury is heterogeneous and temporally variable. Regions at risk of infarction such as peri-contusional areas are vulnerable to anaemia. However, direct quantification of the cerebral microcirculation is clinically not feasible. This study describes a novel experimental head injury model correlating cerebral microcirculation with histopathology analysis. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cerebral microcirculation at the ischaemic penumbrae is reduced over time when compared with non-injured regions...
August 26, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Shameem Ahmed, Siba Prosad Paul
Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous disorder with skin, eye, and brain involvement. Hemiplegia in children with SWS after a mild head injury is known to occur in up to one-fifth of cases. A3-year male child presented with a sudden onset hemiplegia following a mild head injury. He was known to have seizure disorder and was being treated with sodium valproate. CTscan of the brain showed contusion. He was admitted for neurological observations and the patient made complete recovery with conservative treatment...
August 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Colin Cryer, Ted R Miller, Ronan A Lyons, Alison K Macpherson, Katherine Pérez, Eleni Th Petridou, Nick Dessypris, Gabrielle S Davie, Pauline J Gulliver, Jens Lauritsen, Soufiane Boufous, Bruce Lawrence, Brandon de Graaf, Claudia A Steiner
BACKGROUND: Governments wish to compare their performance in preventing serious injury. International comparisons based on hospital inpatient records are typically contaminated by variations in health services utilisation. To reduce these effects, a serious injury case definition has been proposed based on diagnoses with a high probability of inpatient admission (PrA). The aim of this paper was to identify diagnoses with estimated high PrA for selected developed countries. METHODS: The study population was injured persons of all ages who attended emergency department (ED) for their injury in regions of Canada, Denmark, Greece, Spain and the USA...
August 8, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
M Carmen Rebollo-Soria, Carlos Arregui-Dalmases, David Sánchez-Molina, Juan Velázquez-Ameijide, Ignasi Galtés
INTRODUCTION: There are several studies about M1 type vehicle-pedestrian collision injury pattern, and based on them, there has been several changes in automobiles for pedestrian protection. However, the lack of sufficient studies about injury pattern in motorbikes-pedestrian collisions leads to a lack of optimization design of these vehicles. The objective of this research is to study the injury pattern of pedestrians involved in collisions with motorized two-wheeled vehicles. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of pedestrian's deaths after collisions with motorcycles in an urban area, like Barcelona was performed...
October 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Randall Z Allison, Kazuma Nakagawa, Michael Hayashi, Daniel J Donovan, Matthew A Koenig
BACKGROUNDS: After traumatic brain injury (TBI), hemorrhagic progression of contusions (HPCs) occurs frequently. However, there is no established predictive score to identify high-risk patients for HPC. METHODS: Consecutive patients who were hospitalized (2008-2013) with non-penetrating moderate or severe TBI were studied. The primary outcome was HPC, defined by both a relative increase in contusion volume by ≥30 % and an absolute increase by ≥10 mL on serial imaging...
July 29, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Xin Wei, Chen-Chen Hu, Ya-Li Zhang, Shang-Long Yao, Wei-Ke Mao
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial role of telmisartan in cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the potential mechanisms related to the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. TBI model was established by cold-induced brain injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h survival groups to investigate cerebral edema development with time and received 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg telmisartan by oral gavage, 1 h prior to TBI to determine the efficient anti-edemic dose...
August 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Aleksandar Stankov, Viktorija Belakaposka-Srpanova, Natasa Bitoljanu, Ljupco Cakar, Zdravko Cakar, Gorazd Rosoklija
In the recent years it has been confirmed that the main component of the immune response in an injury of the nerve cell comes from microglia and macrophages. The main challenge in the field of microglia research is to detect the different stages of cellular activation by visualization of the cell morphology. The existing visualization techniques are based on surface molecules expression in resting and activated microglia cells. For visualization of the microglial cells and their functional state we used double labeling method for cd-68 and iba1 in brain contusions with different survival time...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
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