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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457329/the-companion-dog-as-a-model-for-human-aging-and-mortality
#1
Jessica M Hoffman, Kate E Creevy, Alexander Franks, Dan G O'Neill, Daniel E L Promislow
Around the world, human populations have experienced large increases in average lifespan over the last 150 years, and while individuals are living longer, they are spending more years of life with multiple chronic morbidities. Researchers have used numerous laboratory animal models to understand the biological and environmental factors that influence aging, morbidity, and longevity. However, the most commonly studied animal species, laboratory mice and rats, do not experience environmental conditions similar to those to which humans are exposed, nor do we often diagnose them with many of the naturally occurring pathologies seen in humans...
February 19, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457328/cognitive-performance-in-late-adolescence-and-long-term-risk-of-early-heart-failure-in-swedish-men
#2
Martin Lindgren, Peter Eriksson, Annika Rosengren, Josefina Robertson, Linus Schiöler, Maria Schaufelberger, David Åberg, Kjell Torén, Margda Waern, Maria Åberg
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) incidence appears to increase among younger individuals, raising questions of how risk factors affect the younger population. We investigated the association of cognitive performance in late adolescence with long-term risk of early HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed a cohort of Swedish men enrolled in mandatory military conscription in 1968-2005 (n = 1 225 300; mean age 18.3 years) until 2014 for HF hospitalization, using data from the Swedish National Inpatient Registry...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457204/prevention-and-management-of-childhood-obesity
#3
Aashima Dabas, Anju Seth
Childhood obesity has been recognized as a global pandemic. Preventive strategies have proven to be the most effective public health intervention in curbing this pandemic. A multi-component approach involving dietary modification and advocacy for a healthy lifestyle comprising of regular physical activity, minimizing screen time and behavioral interventions have been found beneficial in preventing obesity. A life-cycle approach has been recommended where preventive interventions go as far back as affecting maternal, fetal and early childhood nutrition and lifestyle...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455937/the-impact-of-patient-and-surgical-factors-on-the-rate-of-postoperative-infection-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-new-zealand-joint-registry-study
#4
James O Smith, Christopher M A Frampton, Gary J Hooper, Simon W Young
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The potential to define and modify risk factors for infection represents an important opportunity to reduce the incidence of PJI. This study uses New Zealand Joint Registry data to identify independent risk factors associated with PJI after primary THA. METHODS: Data on 91,585 THAs performed between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed. Factors associated with revision for PJI within 12 months were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455896/layered-stigma-co-occurring-depression-and-obesity-in-the-public-eye
#5
Claudia Luck-Sikorski, Georg Schomerus, Thomas Jochum, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVES: Obesity and depression are common conditions in the general public and show a high level of co-morbidity. Both conditions are stigmatized, i.e., associated with negative attitudes and discrimination. Previous research shows that devalued conditions can overlap or combine to produce a layered stigma which is associated with more negative health outcomes than either single devalued condition alone. This study therefore set out to investigate the double stigma of obesity and depression...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455406/conversional-weight-loss-surgery-an-australian-experience-of-converting-laparoscopic-adjustable-gastric-bands-to-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#6
M Devadas, D J Ku
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, capable of producing more than 50% excess weight loss at 10-year follow-up (James Clin Dermatol 1; 22:276-80; O'Brien Br J Surg 2; 102:611-17; Buchwald et al. Metab Syndr 3; 347-56). The success of bariatric surgery extends far beyond weight loss, with up to 80-90% of patients having improvement or resolution of many of their weight-related co-morbidities including type II diabetes mellitus and hypertension (Puzziferri et al...
February 17, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455214/an-overview-of-complications-affecting-the-central-nervous-system-following-bariatric-surgery
#7
Azra Zafar, Ismail A Khatri
Bariatric surgery has been considered as an effective treatment for morbid obesity. Apart from procedures related complications, a broad spectrum of neurological disorders affecting any part of neuraxis has been reported following BS. Central nervous system complications, although less common than peripheral nervous system complications, carry significant morbidity and potential mortality. Encephalopathy, behavioral and psychiatric disorders, myelopathy and optic neuropathy are the most frequently reported CNS complications...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#8
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453463/impact-of-gastric-emptying-and-small-intestinal-transit-on-blood-glucose-intestinal-hormones-glucose-absorption-in-the-morbidly-obese
#9
Nam Q Nguyen, Tamara L Debreceni, Jenna E Burgess, Max Bellon, Judith Wishart, Scott Standfield, Charles-Henri Malbert, Michael Horowitz
This study evaluated gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal (SI) transit in people with morbid obesity and their relationships to glycaemia, incretin hormones, and glucose absorption METHODS: GE and caecal arrival time (CAT) of a mixed meal were assessed in 22 morbidly obese (50.2 ± 2.5 years; 13 F:9 M; BMI: 48.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2 ) and 10 lean (38.6 ± 8.4 years; 5 F:5 M; BMI: 23.9 ± 0.7 kg/m2 ) subjects, using scintigraphy. Blood glucose, plasma 3-O-methylglucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452783/oxidative-stress-is-increased-in-sarcopenia-and-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-sarcopenic-obesity
#10
Francesco Bellanti, Antonino D Romano, Aurelio Lo Buglio, Valeria Castriotta, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Antonio Greco, Gaetano Serviddio, Gianluigi Vendemiale
OBJECTIVES: To define whether circulating markers of oxidative stress correlate with sarcopenia in terms of glutathione balance and oxidative protein damage, and whether these biomarkers are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. 115 out of 347 elderly subjects were classified as non-sarcopenic non-obese (NS-NO), sarcopenic non-obese (S-NO), non-sarcopenic obese (NS-O), and sarcopenic obese (S-O)...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452290/lean-body-weight-is-the-best-scale-for-venous-thromboprophylaxis-algorithm-in-severely-obese-patients-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#11
Bénédicte Gaborit, Pierre-Antoine Moulin, Thierry Bege, Sandrine Boullu, Clara Vincentelli, Olivier Emungania, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Stéphane Berdah, Joe-Elie Salem, Anne Dutour, Corinne Frere
Severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). How standard low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) regimen should be adapted to provide both sufficient efficacy and safety in this setting is unclear. We aimed to compare the influence of four body size descriptors (BSD) on peak anti-Xa levels in BS obese patients receiving LMWH fixed doses to identify which one had the greatest impact. One hundred and thirteen BS obese patients [median body mass index (BMI), 43...
February 13, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451645/intragastric-balloons-in-high-risk-obese-patients-in-a-brazilian-center-initial-experience
#12
Alana Costa Borges, Paulo César Almeida, Stella M T Furlani, Marcelo DE Sousa Cury, Shantanu Gaur
OBJECTIVE: to assess the short-term efficacy, tolerance and complications in high-risk morbidly obese patients treated with an intragastric balloon as a bridge for surgery. METHODS: we conducted a post-hoc analysis study in a Brazilian teaching hospital from 2010 to 2014, with 23 adult patients with a BMI of 48kg/m2, who received a single intragastric air or liquid balloon. We defined efficacy as 10% excess weight loss, and complications, as adverse events consequent to the intragastric balloon diagnosed after the initial accommodative period...
2018: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451331/sliding-free-transverse-rectus-abdominis-myocutaneous-flap-for-closure-of-a-massive-abdominal-wall-defect-a-case-report
#13
Annika Senghaas, Thomas Kremer, Volker J Schmidt, Leila Harhaus, Christoph Hirche, Ulrich Kneser, Amir K Bigdeli
Despite considerable advances in reconstructive surgery, massive abdominal wall defects continue to pose a significant surgical challenge. We report the case of a 72-year-old morbidly obese female patient with Clostridium septicum-related gas gangrene of the abdominal wall. After multidisciplinary treatment and multiple extensive debridements, a massive full-thickness defect (40 cm × 35 cm) of the right abdominal wall was present. The abdominal contents were covered with a resorbable mesh to prevent evisceration...
February 16, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451110/-risk-of-heart-failure-diminished-thanks-to-stomach-reduction-in-obesity
#14
B Botter, E Koolen, G van Montfort, F Bracke, A Bouwman, M Buise
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic disease and a risk factor for heart failure. In end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation may be the only available treatment option, but obesity is a contraindication for this treatment because of its unfavourable prognosis. Bariatric surgery and its subsequent weight loss may affect the indication for transplantation in patients with heart failure and morbid obesity. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 46-year-old patient with morbid obesity and heart failure underwent gastric sleeve resection in preparation of a heart transplantation...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450656/laparoscopic-subtotal-gastrectomy-in-morbid-obese-patients-a-valid-option-to-laparoscopic-gastric-bypass-in-particular-circumstances-prospective-study
#15
Italo Braghetto, Gustavo Martinez, Owen Korn, Marcelo Zamorano, Enrique Lanzarini, Enrique Narbona
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) without resection of the distal stomach is largely performed over the world for morbid obesity. Potential risk of gastric remnant carcinoma development has been suggested. PURPOSE: To present the results obtained after LRYGB with resection of distal stomach. METHOD: This prospective study includes 400 consecutive patients. The mean body weight was 105.9 ± 16.8 Kg (range 83-145 kg), and body mass index (BMI) was 38...
February 15, 2018: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450564/-influence-of-morbid-obesity-on-morbidity-after-partial-liver-resection
#16
L Oczko, F Rauchfuß, U Settmacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449364/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-update-of-mechanisms-contributing-to-this-clinical-entity
#17
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Michael A Hill, James R Sowers
Heart failure and related morbidity and mortality are increasing at an alarming rate, in large part, because of increases in aging, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The clinical outcomes associated with heart failure are considerably worse for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without diabetes mellitus. In people with diabetes mellitus, the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of overt clinical coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, has led to the descriptive terminology, diabetic cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446981/diet-pattern-and-respiratory-morbidity-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#18
Emily P Brigham, Lyn M Steffen, Stephanie J London, Danielle Boyce, Gregory B Diette, Nadia N Hansel, Jessica Rice, Meredith C McCormack
RATIONALE: Dietary intake is a potential risk factor for respiratory morbidity in adult populations. Few studies capture the effect of diet patterns, representative of combination of nutrients consumed, on respiratory morbidity in combination with objective measures of lung function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patterns of dietary intake in relation to respiratory morbidity and objective measures of lung function in a U.S. POPULATION: <AbstractText Label="METHODS" NlmCategory="METHODS">The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study enrolled 15,792 participants from four U...
February 15, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444663/gender-related-differences-in-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-lifestyle-behaviors-in-treatment-seeking-adolescents-with-severe-obesity
#19
Lisa Ha Barstad, Pétur B Júlíusson, Line Kristin Johnson, Jens Kristoffer Hertel, Samira Lekhal, Jøran Hjelmesæth
BACKGROUND: Obesity during adolescence is associated with cardiovascular mortality in adulthood. The adverse obesity-related cardiometabolic risk profile is already observed in adolescence. We aimed to examine possible gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents with severe obesity, hypothesizing that boys would have both a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as well as less healthy lifestyle behaviors than girls. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of treatment-seeking adolescents with severe obesity who attended the Morbid Obesity Centre at Vestfold Hospital Trust and who were consecutively enrolled in the Vestfold Register of Obese Children between September 2009 and September 2015...
February 14, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442282/complications-within-90-days-after-radical-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer-results-of-a-multicenter-prospective-study-in-japan
#20
Megumi Hirobe, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tetsuya Shindo, Koji Ichihara, Hiroshi Hotta, Atsushi Takahashi, Ryuichi Kato, Masahiro Yanase, Masanori Matsukawa, Naoki Itoh, Yasuharu Kunishima, Keisuke Taguchi, Hiroki Horita, Naoya Masumori
PURPOSE: We prospectively evaluated the 90-day postoperative mortality and morbidity of open radical cystectomy by using a standardized reporting methodology. Additionally, we assessed the preoperative characteristics to determine risk factors for major complications. METHODS: This multicenter prospective study included 185 consecutive patients undergoing open radical cystectomy from October 2010 through March 2014. Postoperative complications within 90 days were recorded and graded according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
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