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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422112/accurate-and-effective-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-detection-method-using-gap-filling-ligation-coupled-with-high-resolution-capillary-electrophoresis-based-single-strand-conformation-polymorphism
#1
Woong Choi, Jongseok Lee, Eunjin Cho, Gyoo Yeol Jung
Tuberculosis (TB) has severely threatened public health via emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. For effective TB treatment, rapid, accurate, and multiplex detection of drug resistance is extremely important. However, conventional methods for TB diagnosis are time consuming and have a limited effect on treatment. Nucleic acid-based molecular detection methods have been developed as an effective MDR/XDR-TB diagnosis technology. Among the nucleic acid-based methods, ligation-dependent methods are attractive as MDR/XDR-MTB detection technologies, but multiplex analysis is limited by the detection method...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410695/linezolid-induced-optic-neuropathy-in-xdr-pulmonary-tb-a-case-series
#2
Anand Srivastava, Silpa Kshetrimayum, Sanjiv Kumar Gupta, Surya Kant
Optic neuropathy has been reported as a side effect of long-term use of linezolid. This is particularly seen in cases of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) where treatment with linezolid may continue for about 24-30 months. We, hereby, report two cases of XDR-TB treated patients with a regimen containing linezolid who developed progressive painless loss of vision during the course of treatment. In both the cases, the visual symptoms resolved completely on withdrawing linezolid. Early recognition of this rare side effect and timely withdrawal may salvage the eyesight of such patients...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404672/increased-tuberculosis-patient-mortality-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-second-line-antituberculous-drugs
#3
Sophia B Georghiou, Marva Seifert, Donald G Catanzaro, Richard S Garfein, Timothy C Rodwell
Rapid molecular diagnostics have great potential to limit the spread of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). These technologies detect mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome that confer phenotypic drug resistance. However, there is little data published regarding the relationships between the detected Mtb resistance mutations and M/XDR-TB treatment outcomes, limiting our current ability to exploit the full potential of molecular diagnostics. We analyzed clinical, microbiological and sequencing data for 451 patients and their clinical isolates collected in a multinational, observational cohort study to determine if there was an association between Mtb resistance mutations and patient mortality...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404233/molecular-detection-of-drug-resistance-to-ofloxacin-and-kanamycin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-using-multiplex-allele-specific-pcr
#4
Richa Kumari, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba
Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is the biggest global health challenge as it hinders the tuberculosis control program and makes the disease more worsen. Molecular methods interrupt the spread of drug resistance by facilitating the appropriate anti- tuberculosis therapy at correct time through rapid diagnosis of multi drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study we standardized and evaluated the diagnostic utility of multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR) targeting gyrA D94G and rrs A1401G mutations for detection of resistance against two key drugs (ofloxacin and kanamycin) of second line anti tuberculosis treatment...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390957/isoniazid-derivatives-and-their-anti-tubercular-activity
#5
REVIEW
Yuan-Qiang Hu, Shu Zhang, Feng Zhao, Chuan Gao, Lian-Shun Feng, Zao-Sheng Lv, Zhi Xu, Xiang Wu
Tuberculosis (TB), which has been a scourge of humanity for thousands of years, is a worldwide pandemic disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The emergence of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB), multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant TB (TDR-TB) increase the challenges to eliminate TB worldwide. Isoniazid (INH), a critical frontline anti-TB drug, is one of the most effective drugs used to treatment of TB infection for more than 60 years...
April 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389352/simple-strategy-to-assess-linezolid-exposure-in-patients-with-multi-drug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#6
Jasper Kamp, Mathieu S Bolhuis, Simon Tiberi, Onno W Akkerman, Rosella Centis, Wiel C de Lange, Jos G Kosterink, Tjip S van der Werf, Giovanni B Migliori, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
Linezolid is used increasingly for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). However, linezolid can cause severe adverse events, such as peripheral and optical neuropathy or thrombocytopenia related to higher drug exposure. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to predict the area under the concentration curve (AUC) for linezolid using a limited number of blood samples. Data from patients with MDR-/XDR-TB who received linezolid and therapeutic drug monitoring as part of their TB treatment were used...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374900/spoligotyping-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#7
Suzana Shirly, Sivakumar Shanmugam, K R Uma Devi, P N Swarna Latha, Joy S Michael
OBJECTIVE: Spoligotyping is a valuable genotyping tool to study the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). The aim of this study was to analyse different spoligotype patterns of M. tb strains isolated from tuberculosis patients from different parts of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 163 M. tb isolates were spoligotyped between January 2014 and January 2015. 47% (n=77) were from patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis; of these, 10 were MDR and 7 were Pre-XDR...
April 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367796/contact-investigation-after-a-fatal-case-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-in-an-aircraft-germany-july-2013
#8
Maria An der Heiden, Barbara Hauer, Lena Fiebig, Gisela Glaser-Paschke, Markus Stemmler, Claudia Simon, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Andreas Gilsdorf, Walter Haas
In July 2013, a passenger died of infectious extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) on board of an aircraft after a 3-hour flight from Turkey to Germany. Initial information indicated the patient had moved about the aircraft coughing blood. We thus aimed to contact and inform all persons exposed within the aircraft and to test them for newly acquired TB infection. Two-stage testing within 8 weeks from exposure and at least 8 weeks after exposure was suggested, using either interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) or tuberculin skin test (TST)...
March 23, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361737/therapy-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#9
Barbara J Seaworth, David E Griffith
The global epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin was recently reported as larger than previously estimated, with at least 580,000 new cases reported in 2015. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), MDR-TB with additional resistance to a second-line fluoroquinolone and injectable, continues to account for nearly 10% of MDR cases globally. Cases in India, China, and the Russian Federation account for >45% of the cases of MDR-TB...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344011/the-epidemiology-pathogenesis-transmission-diagnosis-and-management-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-incurable-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens, Kelly E Dooley, Ruth McNerney, Megan Murray, Jennifer Furin, Edward A Nardell, Leslie London, Erica Lessem, Grant Theron, Paul van Helden, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, David Dowdy, Annelies Van Rie, Gilman K H Siu, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Camilla Rodrigues, Taane G Clark, Frik A Sirgel, Aliasgar Esmail, Hsien-Ho Lin, Sachin R Atre, H Simon Schaaf, Kwok Chiu Chang, Christoph Lange, Payam Nahid, Zarir F Udwadia, C Robert Horsburgh, Gavin J Churchyard, Dick Menzies, Anneke C Hesseling, Eric Nuermberger, Helen McIlleron, Kevin P Fennelly, Eric Goemaere, Ernesto Jaramillo, Marcus Low, Carolina Morán Jara, Nesri Padayatchi, Robin M Warren
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis)...
March 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336312/old-antibiotics-for-emerging-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-xdr-tb
#11
Philippe Brouqui, Fanny Quenard, Michel Drancourt
Recently, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a therapeutic challenge. In addition to drug resistance, drug adverse events, intravenous delivery, cost and availability of some antibiotics in low-income countries have led to a look back to old drugs, especially those efficient against closely related organisms such as Mycobacterium leprae. Here we review the available drugs that respect the conditions above and could be upgraded to first-line therapy for treating MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331031/an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#12
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Zhiyi Lan, Dick Menzies
This systematic review aimed to update the current evidence for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment.We searched for studies that reported treatment information and clinical characteristics for at least 25 patients with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary MDR-TB and either end of treatment outcomes, 6-month culture conversion or severe adverse events (SAEs). We assessed the association of these outcomes with patients' characteristics or treatment parameters. We identified 74 studies, including 17 494 participants...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320727/primary-clofazimine-and-bedaquiline-resistance-among-isolates-from-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#13
Jian Xu, Bin Wang, Minghao Hu, Fengmin Huo, Shaochen Guo, Wei Jing, Eric Nuermberger, Yu Lu
Clofazimine has been repurposed for the treatment of tuberculosis especially for MDR-TB. To test the susceptibility to clofazimine for Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, MICs of clofazimine were determined using the microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA) method for 80 drug-resistant isolates and 10 drug-susceptible isolates for comparison. Five clofazimine-resistant strains isolated from previously treated pre-XDR and XDR-TB patients without prior exposure to clofazimine or bedaquiline had clofazimine MICs ≥1...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284077/multiplex-detection-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-using-binary-deoxyribozyme-sensors
#14
Hillary N Bengtson, Susanne Homolka, Stefan Niemann, Ana Júlia Reis, Pedro Eduardo da Silva, Yulia V Gerasimova, Dmitry M Kolpashchikov, Kyle H Rohde
Current diagnostic tools for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have many disadvantages including low sensitivity, slow turnaround times, or high cost. Accurate, easy to use, and inexpensive point of care molecular diagnostic tests are urgently needed for the analysis of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mtb strains that emerge globally as a public health threat. In this study, we established proof-of-concept for a novel diagnostic platform (TB-DzT) for Mtb detection and the identification of drug resistant mutants using binary deoxyribozyme sensors (BiDz)...
August 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281912/naphthofuroquinone-derivatives-show-strong-antimycobacterial-activities-against-drug-resistant-mycobacteria
#15
Woong Sik Jang, Young-Sang Choi, Sukyung Kim, Md Anirban Jyoti, Hoonhee Seo, Juhye Han, Yong-Sik Kim, Jiwon Lyu, Kung-Woo Nam, Byung-Eui Lee, Kee-In Lee, Ho-Yeon Song
Tuberculosis, one of the world's major health problems, has become more serious due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In this study, we performed three anti-MTB assays to evaluate the anti-mycobacterial activity of naphthofuroquinone derivatives against drug-resistant MTB. Among them, methyl 5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]-7,12-dioxo-7,12-dihydrodinaphtho[1,2-b:2',3'-d]furan-6-carboxylate (DFC2) exhibited strong anti-mycobacterial activity against MTB H37Ra, H37Rv and four drug-resistant MTB strains...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279848/structure-activity-relationship-studies-on-3-5-dinitrophenyl-tetrazoles-as-antitubercular-agents
#16
Jan Němeček, Pavel Sychra, Miloslav Macháček, Markéta Benková, Galina Karabanovich, Klára Konečná, Věra Kavková, Jiřina Stolaříková, Alexandr Hrabálek, Kateřina Vávrová, Ondřej Soukup, Jaroslav Roh, Věra Klimešová
In this study, we described the structure-activity relationships of substituted 3,5-dinitrophenyl tetrazoles as potent antitubercular agents. These simple and readily accessible compounds possessed high in vitro antimycobacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with submicromolar minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The most promising compounds showed low in vitro cytotoxicity and negligible antibacterial and antifungal activities, highlighting their highly selective antimycobacterial effects...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278765/antimycobacterial-docking-and-molecular-dynamic-studies-of-pentacyclic-triterpenes-from-buddleja-saligna-leaves
#17
Alveera Singh, Katharigatta N Venugopala, Mohammed A Khedr, Mellendran Pillay, Kenneth U Nwaeze, Yacoob Coovadia, Francis Shode, Bharti Odhav
Buddleja saligna (family Buddlejaceae) is a medicinal plant endemic to South Africa. Two isomeric pentacyclic triterpenes, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, were isolated from the leaves of B. saligna using silica gel column chromatography. Compounds oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were subjected to derivatization with acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine to obtain oleanolic acid-3-acetate and ursolic acid-3-acetate, respectively. The structures of these compounds were fully characterized by detailed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations, which included (1)H and (13)C NMR...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273983/primary-extrapulmonary-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-of-the-hip-in-an-immunocompetent-female-a-case-report
#18
Sankalp Yadav, Gautam Rawal
The problem of drug resistant Tuberculosis (TB) is looming large in the developing countries. TB of the skeletal system is rare and the primary extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) of the hip joint has never been reported in the medical literature so far. The present case is a very rare case of primary XDR-TB of right hip joint in an immunocompetent Indian female. The present case is an important addition to the medical literature, as it will serve as a valuable source of information to the medical and surgical fraternity...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265350/cost-effectiveness-of-bedaquiline-in-mdr-and-xdr-tuberculosis-in-italy
#19
Luigi R Codecasa, Mondher Toumi, Anna D'Ausilio, Andrea Aiello, Francesco Damele, Roberta Termini, Alessia Uglietti, Robert Hettle, Giorgio Graziano, Saverio De Lorenzo
Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of bedaquiline plus background drug regimens (BR) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in Italy. Methods: A Markov model was adapted to the Italian setting to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR) versus BR in the treatment of MDR-TB and XDR-TB over 10 years, from both the National Health Service (NHS) and societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of life-years gained (LYG)...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240569/selected-questions-and-controversies-about-bedaquiline-a-view-from-the-field
#20
K Dheda, A Esmail, J Limberis, G Maartens
Although there has been a slow decline in tuberculosis (TB) incidence worldwide, the prevalence of drug-resistant TB in most high-burden countries has increased. Drug-resistant TB is associated with high mortality, is a threat to health care workers in TB-endemic countries and is prohibitively costly, which diverts resources away from drug-susceptible cases. Amplification of resistance means that there is an increasing proportion of patients with multidrug-resistant TB who have extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) or are programmatically untreatable...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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