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XDR tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907875/s-substituted-3-5-dinitrophenyl-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-thiols-and-tetrazole-5-thiols-as-highly-efficient-antitubercular-agents
#1
Galina Karabanovich, Jan Němeček, Lenka Valášková, Alejandro Carazo, Klára Konečná, Jiřina Stolaříková, Alexandr Hrabálek, Oto Pavliš, Petr Pávek, Kateřina Vávrová, Jaroslav Roh, Věra Klimešová
Two new classes of antitubercular agents, namely 5-alkylsulfanyl-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazoles and 2-alkylsulfanyl-5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, and their structure-activity relationships are described. These compounds possessed excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with no cross resistance with first or second-line anti-TB drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most promising compounds reached 0...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#2
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a critical global health issue. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895634/cytosolic-proteome-profiling-of-aminoglycosides-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-using-maldi-tof-ms
#3
Divakar Sharma, Manju Lata, Rananjay Singh, Nirmala Deo, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Deepa Bisht
Emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is the consequence of the failure of second line TB treatment. Aminoglycosides are the important second line anti-TB drugs used to treat the multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Main known mechanism of action of aminoglycosides is to inhibit the protein synthesis by inhibiting the normal functioning of ribosome. Primary target of aminoglycosides are the ribosomal RNA and its associated proteins. Various mechanisms have been proposed for aminoglycosides resistance but still some are unsolved...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890360/anti-tubercular-peptides-a-quest-of-future-therapeutic-weapon-to-combat-tuberculosis
#4
REVIEW
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Paul Agastian
Tuberculosis (TB) is a symbolic menace to mankind, infecting almost one third of the world's populace and causing over a million mortalities annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the key pathogen of TB that invades and replicates inside the host's macrophage. With the emerging dilemma of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), the exigency for developing new TB drugs is an obligation now for worldwide researchers. Among the propitious antimycobacterial agents examined in last few decades, anti-tubercular peptides have been substantiated to be persuasive with multiple advantages such as low immunogenicity, selective affinity to bacterial negatively charged cell envelopes and most importantly divergent mechanisms of action...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868466/double-blind-placebo-controlled-1-1-randomized-phase-iii-clinical-trial-of-immunoxel-honey-lozenges-as-an-adjunct-immunotherapy-in-269-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#5
Uyanga Batbold, Dmytro O Butov, Galyna A Kutsyna, Narantsetseg Damdinpurev, Elena A Grinishina, Otgonbayar Mijiddorj, Mikola E Kovolev, Khaliunaa Baasanjav, Tatyana S Butova, Munkhburam Sandagdorj, Ochirbat Batbold, Ariungerel Tseveendorj, Erkhemtsetseg Chunt, Svetlana I Zaitzeva, Hanna L Stepanenko, Natalia I Makeeva, Igor V Mospan, Volodymyr S Pylypchuk, John L Rowe, Peter Nyasulu, Vichai Jirathitikal, Allen I Bain, Marina G Tarakanovskaya, Aldar S Bourinbaiar
AIM: Safer and shorter antituberculosis treatment (ATT) regimens represent the unmet medical need. PATIENTS & METHODS: The patients were randomly assigned into two arms: the first (n = 137) received once-daily sublingual honey lozenge formulated with botanical immunomodulator Immunoxel and the second (n = 132) received placebo lozenges along with conventional ATT. Immunoxel and placebo arms were demographically similar: 102 versus 106 had drug-susceptible TB; 28 versus 20 multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); 7 versus 7 extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB); and 22 versus 20 TB-HIV...
November 21, 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865234/rapid-detection-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-tb-strains-from-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-cases-isolated-from-smear-negative-pulmonary-samples-in-an-intermediate-reference-laboratory-in-india
#6
Himanshu Vashistha, M Hanif, Sanjeev Saini, Ashwani Khanna, Srashty Sharma, Zeeshan Sidiq, Vasim Ahmed, Manoj Dubey, K K Chopra, Divya Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of the study were first, to determine the recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-negative sputum samples through liquid culture (using MGIT 960) and solid culture (using LJ slant) and second, to screen multidrug-resistant isolates through line probe assay and further third, to identify XDR isolates through MGIT second-line DST from these positive MDR cultures in Delhi region...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861363/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-a-24-month-treatment-regimen-including-delamanid-in-a-child-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Marina Tadolini, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Nicola Principi
RATIONAL: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are emerging problems in several countries. These infections require long and expensive treatment regimens. Recently, 2 new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have been approved in several countries for use in adults with severe, difficult-to-treat MDR-TB, and it has been suggested that they could also be administered to children with MDR-TB and limited treatment options. However, no study has been completed on their efficacy...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818361/classifying-new-anti-tb-drugs-rationale-and-future-perspectives
#8
Simon Tiberi, Anna Scardigli, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Marcela Muñoz-Torrico, Miguel Ángel Salazar-Lezama, Antonio Spanevello, Dina Visca, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Jose A Caminero Luna
The classification of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is important as it serves the clinician in building an appropriate anti-TB regimen for multidrug (MDR-) and extensively drug resistant (XDR-) TB cases which do not fulfil criteria for the shorter MDR-TB regimen. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently approved a revision of the classification of new anti-TB drugs based on current evidence on each drug. In the previous WHO guidelines the drug choice was based on their efficacy and toxicity, in a step-down manner from Group 1, including first-line drugs and Group 2-5 including second- line drugs, to Group 5 including drugs with potentially limited efficacy or limited clinical evidence...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816662/applicability-of-the-shorter-bangladesh-regimen-in-high-mdr-tb-settings
#9
Giovanni Sotgiu, Simon Tiberi, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Zhenia Fuentes, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori
In spite of the recent introduction of two new drugs (delamanid and bedaquiline) and a few repurposed compounds to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB), clinicians are facing increasing problems in designing effective regimens in severe cases. Recently a 9 to 12-month regimen (known as Bangladesh regimen) proved to be effective in treating MDR-TB cases. It included an initial phase of 4 to 6 months of kanamycin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, high dose isoniazid and ethambutol followed by 5 months of moxifloxacin, clofazimine, pyrazinamide and ethambutol...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810467/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-testing-challenges-recent-developments-and-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
T Schön, P Miotto, C U Köser, M Viveiros, E Böttger, E Cambau
Drug-resistance testing, or antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), is mandatory for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cases of failure on standard therapy. We reviewed the different methods and techniques of phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Although multiresistant and extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) tuberculosis is present worldwide, AST for M. tuberculosis (AST-MTB) is still mainly performed according to the resources available rather than the drug-resistance rates. Phenotypic methods, i.e. culture-based AST, are commonly used in high-income countries to confirm susceptibility of new cases of tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807339/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-report-and-literature-review-on-two-cases-requiring-prolonged-treatment
#11
Martha Matos-Tocasca, Gabriel De la Cruz-Ku, Erick Auccacusi, Diego Fernandez-Salas, Tatiana García-Ahuanari, Bryan Valcarcel-Valdivia
BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a global problem due to the high morbidity and mortality it causes. Peru is one of the countries with the highest numbers of cases of XDR-TB, which increase every year. CASE REPORT We present the case of two siblings who developed XDR-TB, underwent surgery twice, and were in individualized treatment for more than 6 years. Finally they achieved remission of symptoms, despite not having standardized treatment schemes during their diagnosis period...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807153/highly-multiplexed-ten-color-detection-of-isoniazid-fluoroquinolone-amikacin-and-kanamycin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-an-automated-assay-suitable-for-point-of-care-use
#12
Soumitesh Chakravorty, Sandy S Roh, Jennifer Glass, Laura E Smith, Ann Marie Simmons, Kevin Lund, Sergey Lokhov, Xin Liu, Peng Xu, Guolong Zhang, Laura E Via, Qingyu Shen, Xianglin Ruan, Xing Yuan, Hong Zhu Zhu, Ekaterina Viazovkina, Shubhada Shenai, Mazhgan Rowneki, Jong Seok Lee, Clifton E Barry, Qian Gao, David Persing, Robert Kwiatkawoski, Martin Jones, Alexander Gall, David Alland
Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) cannot be easily or quickly diagnosed. We developed a rapid, automated, point-of-care assay for XDR-TB, plus resistance to the drug Isoniazid. Using a simple filter-based cartridge with an integrated sample processing function, the assay identified a wide selection of wild type and mutant sequences associated with XDR-TB directly from sputum. Four new large Stokes-shift fluorophores were developed, which when combined with six conventional fluorophores, enabled 10-color probe detection in a single PCR tube...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806934/progress-in-resistance-mechanisms-and-diagnosis-of-non-first-line-anti-tb-drugs
#13
Liu Yang, Wang Bangxing, Liu Zhiyong, Han Yi, Tan Yaoju, Li Xinjie, Liu Jianxiong, Tan Shouyong, Zhang Tianyu
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the three major infectious diseases in China and all over the world. In 2014, for the first time, TB killed more people than HIV did. Non-first line anti-TB drugs are used as main drugs in the treatment of MDR-TB. However, MDR-TB can gradually develop as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) because of poor diagnosis, the unreasonable treatment, poor medical conditions and so on. The death rate of XDR-TB is close to lung cancer. Research on the mechanism of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has turned to non first-line anti-TB drugs: second and third line drugs and some new anti-TB drugs in development...
October 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806714/the-emerging-threat-of-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-west-africa-preparing-for-large-scale-tuberculosis-research-and-drug-resistance-surveillance
#14
Florian Gehre, Jacob Otu, Lindsay Kendall, Audrey Forson, Awewura Kwara, Samuel Kudzawu, Aderemi O Kehinde, Oludele Adebiyi, Kayode Salako, Ignatius Baldeh, Aisha Jallow, Mamadou Jallow, Anoumou Dagnra, Kodjo Dissé, Essosimna A Kadanga, Emmanuel Oni Idigbe, Catherine Onubogu, Nneka Onyejepu, Aissatou Gaye-Diallo, Awa Ba-Diallo, Paulo Rabna, Morto Mane, Moumine Sanogo, Bassirou Diarra, Zingue Dezemon, Adama Sanou, Madikay Senghore, Brenda A Kwambana-Adams, Edward Demba, Tutty Faal-Jawara, Samrat Kumar, Leopold D Tientcheu, Adama Jallow, Samba Ceesay, Ifedayo Adetifa, Assan Jaye, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Beate Kampmann, Richard A Adegbola, Souleymane Mboup, Tumani Corrah, Bouke C de Jong, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem. Adequate management requires baseline drug-resistance prevalence data. In West Africa, due to a poor laboratory infrastructure and inadequate capacity, such data are scarce. Therefore, the true extent of drug-resistant TB was hitherto undetermined. In 2008, a new research network, the West African Network of Excellence for Tuberculosis, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), was founded, comprising nine study sites from eight West African countries (Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo)...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790280/performance-of-the-bact-alert-3d-system-versus-solid-media-for-recovery-and-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-korea
#15
Seoung-Cheol Kim, Bo-Young Jeon, Jin-Sook Kim, In Hwan Choi, Jiro Kim, Jeongim Woo, Soojin Kim, Hyeong Woo Lee, Monoldorova Sezim, Sang-Nae Cho
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem, and accurate and rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended drug-resistant (XDR) TB is important for appropriate treatment. In this study, performances of solid and liquid culture methods were compared with respect to MDR- and XDR-TB isolate recovery and drug susceptibility testing. METHODS: Sputum specimens from 304 patients were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen method. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates were tested for recovery on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and the BacT Alert 3D system...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789629/draft-genome-sequences-of-two-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-myanmar
#16
Htin Lin Aung, Thanda Tun, Elizabeth Permina, Wint Wint Nyunt, Si Thu Aung, Kyi Kyi Thinn, John A Crump, Gregory M Cook
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and lately, extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) are increasing global health concerns. Here, we present the genome sequences of two MDR-TB isolates from Myanmar, one of 27 countries with a high MDR-TB burden, and describe a number of mutations consistent with these being XDR-TB isolates.
October 27, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789378/whole-genome-sequencing-for-m-xdr-tuberculosis-surveillance-and-for-resistance-testing
#17
REVIEW
T Walker, M Merker, T Kohl, D W Crook, S Niemann, F Z Borstel, P Peto
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can help relate Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes to one another to assess genetic relatedness and infer the likelihood of transmission between cases. The same sequence data is now increasingly being used to predict drug resistance and susceptibility as well. Controlling the spread of tuberculosis and providing patients with the correct treatment are central to the World Health Organization's target to 'End TB' by 2035, to which the global prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis remains one of the main obstacles to success...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784282/mechanisms-of-first-line-antimicrobial-resistance-in-multi-drug-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#18
Navisha Dookie, A Willem Sturm, Prashini Moodley
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, drug resistant tuberculosis is a major public health crisis in the face of the colossal HIV pandemic. METHODS: In an attempt to understand the distribution of drug resistance in our setting, we analysed the rpoB, katG, inhA, pncA and embB genes associated with resistance to key drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the KwaZulu-Natal province. RESULTS: Classical mutations were detected in the katG, inhA and embB genes associated with resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776589/provider-perspectives-on-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-case-study
#19
A Daftary, N Padayatchi
OBJECTIVE: To examine influences on health care workers' (HCWs') capacity to deliver health care for multi- and/or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in South Africa. DESIGN: Qualitative data were collected via group and individual interviews with a purposive sample of 17 HCWs at a centralised, tertiary TB facility and analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: 1) personal infection control practices among HCWs may be weakened by a workplace culture comprising low motivation, disparate risk perceptions and practices across workforce hierarchies, physical discomfort, and problems managing patients with treatment-induced hearing loss...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776583/carbapenems-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-review-of-the-evidence
#20
D Jaganath, G Lamichhane, M Shah
Carbapenems, a more recent β-lactam class, represent a unique anti-tuberculosis option, as emerging evidence demonstrates that they target the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall and β-lactamase. This provides a potentially new agent against M. tuberculosis, in particular for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB), where options are limited. In this review, we examine the current evidence on the activity of carbapenems against M. tuberculosis. The predominance of work is in vitro, and suggests that carbapenems kill M...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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