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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028800/spatial-distribution-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-patients-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#1
Thandi Kapwata, Natashia Morris, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Primrose Mpangase, Kristin N Nelson, Salim Allana, James C M Brust, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Neel R Gandhi, N Sarita Shah
BACKGROUND: KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, has among the highest burden of XDR TB worldwide with the majority of cases occurring due to transmission. Poor access to health facilities can be a barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of TB, which can contribute to ongoing transmission. We sought to determine the geographic distribution of XDR TB patients and proximity to health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: We recruited adults and children with XDR TB diagnosed in KwaZulu-Natal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993337/whole-transcriptome-and-genomic-analysis-of-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-identifies-downregulation-of-etha-as-a-mechanism-of-ethionamide-resistance
#2
Lynne de Welzen, Vegard Eldholm, Kashmeel Maharaj, Abigail L Manson, Ashlee M Earl, Alexander S Pym
Genetic based drug susceptibility testing has improved the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis, but is limited by our lack of knowledge of all resistance mechanisms. Next generation sequencing has assisted in identifying the principal genetic mechanisms of resistance for many drugs, but a significant proportion of phenotypic drug resistance is unexplained genetically. Few studies have formally compared the transcriptome of susceptible and resistant M. tuberculosis We carried out comparative whole genome transcriptomics on extensively drug-resistant (XDR) clinical isolates using RNA-sequencing (RNAseq) to find novel transcriptional mediated mechanisms of resistance...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980217/incremental-cost-effectiveness-of-bedaquiline-for-the-treatment-of-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-model-based-analysis
#3
Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Francesca Conradie, Norbert Ndjeka, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: Nearly 20,000 people were diagnosed with multi-drug and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) in South Africa in 2015, yet only one-half of the patients who start treatment are expected to have a successful outcome. There is increasing evidence of the effectiveness and safety of new drug regimens containing bedaquiline for MDR/RR-TB; however, whether they are affordable for high-burden, limited-resource settings is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the incremental cost effectiveness of a bedaquiline-based regimen for MDR/RR-TB treatment in South Africa compared with the standard kanamycin-based regimen...
October 4, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974394/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-anyplex%C3%A2-ii-mtb-mdr-and-mtb-xdr-tests-based-on-multiplex-real-time-pcr-and-melting-temperature-analysis-to-identify-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-drug-resistance
#4
Yuriko Igarashi, Kinuyo Chikamatsu, Akio Aono, Lina Yi, Hiroyuki Yamada, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
We evaluated the performance of two multiplex, real-time PCR tests (Anyplex II MTB/MDR and MTB/XDR; Seegene, Seoul, Korea), designed to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and drug-resistance mutations associated with isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectable drugs. We analyzed 122 clinical isolates with the Anyplex II MTB/MDR test, 68 of which were also tested with the Anyplex II MTB/XDR test. The Anyplex II MTB/MDR and MTB/XDR tests showed the following respective sensitivities and specificities: 68...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970158/predictors-of-poor-treatment-outcomes-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Arshad Javaid, Irfan Ullah, Haleema Masud, Anila Basit, Waqas Ahmad, Zahid Ahmad Butt, Muhammad Qasim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the characteristics, treatment outcomes and risk factors for poor treatment outcomes among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including all patients with MDR-TB attended at the MDR-TB unit in Peshawar was conducted between January 2012 and April 2014. Patients were followed until an outcome of TB treatment was recorded as successful (cured or completed) or unsuccessful...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968017/-diagnostic-accuracy-of-three-technologies-for-the-diagnosis-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#6
Nelson José Alvis-Zakzuk, María De Los Ángeles Carrasquilla, Verónica Jhajaira Gómez, Jaime Robledo, Nelson Rafael Alvis-Guzmán, José Mauricio Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) tuberculoses are a global public health problem. Their timely detection might reduce the burden of the disease and the economic impact on health systems worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review of the diagnostic accuracy of three molecular tests to detect multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review following Cochrane methodology was carried out to study the diagnostic accuracy of three molecular tests to detect MDR-TB and XDR-TB in previous studies among immunocompetent population...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961957/identification-of-novel-mutations-associated-with-cycloserine-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Jiazhen Chen, Shuo Zhang, Peng Cui, Wanliang Shi, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Objectives: d -Cycloserine is an important second-line drug used to treat MDR- and XDR-TB. However, the mechanisms of resistance to d -cycloserine are not well understood. Here we investigated the molecular basis of d -cycloserine resistance using in vitro -isolated resistant mutants. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was subjected to mutant selection on 7H11 agar plates containing varying concentrations of d -cycloserine. A total of 18 d -cycloserine-resistant mutants were isolated and subjected to WGS...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959248/rifabutin-resistance-associated-with-double-mutations-in-rpob-gene-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#8
Wei Jing, Yu Pang, Zhaojing Zong, Jing Wang, Ru Guo, Fengmin Huo, Guanglu Jiang, Yifeng Ma, Hairong Huang, Naihui Chu
The objective of this study was to investigate the cross-resistance between rifampin (RIF) and rifabutin (RFB) among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates, and the correlations between specific rpoB mutations and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of RIF and RFB. A total of 256 RIF-resistant isolates were included from the National Tuberculosis Clinical Laboratory in China. The MICs of MTB isolates against RIF and RFB were determined by using a microplate alamarBlue assay. In addition, all the MTB isolates were sequenced for mutations in rpoB gene...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947708/fitness-compensatory-mutations-facilitate-the-spread-of-drug-resistant-f15-lam4-kzn-and-f28-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#9
Charissa C Naidoo, Manormoney Pillay
While the acquisition of drug resistance is often accompanied by fitness costs, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has developed mechanisms to overcome these costs in the form of compensatory mutations. In an attempt to dissect strain-specific differences in biological fitness, 10 M. tuberculosis genomes, representing F15/LAM4/KZN, Beijing, F11 and F28 genotypes were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Drug-susceptible F15/LAM4/KZN strains differed by 43 SNPs, demonstrating that heterogeneity exists even among closely-related strains...
September 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941848/drug-development-against-tuberculosis-past-present-and-future
#10
REVIEW
Mahesh S Vasava, Manoj N Bhoi, Sanjay K Rathwa, Mayuri A Borad, Sneha G Nair, Hitesh D Patel
Infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was observed as early as 5000 years ago with evidence, which is a primeval enemy of the humanoid race. MTB is the pathogen which is responsible for causing the infectious disease tuberculosis; it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in poor low-income countries as well as in developing countries because of non-availability of reliable laboratory facilities. The current treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is lengthy, complex, and connected with severe harmful side effects and poor outcomes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926571/whole-genome-sequencing-illuminates-the-evolution-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-southwest-nigeria
#11
Madikay Senghore, Jacob Otu, Adam Witney, Florian Gehre, Emma L Doughty, Gemma L Kay, Phillip Butcher, Kayode Salako, Aderemi Kehinde, Nneka Onyejepu, Emmanuel Idigbe, Tumani Corrah, Bouke de Jong, Mark J Pallen, Martin Antonio
Nigeria has an emerging problem with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing was used to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and genetics of multi-drug resistance among patients from two tertiary referral centers in Southwest Nigeria. In line with previous molecular epidemiology studies, most isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this dataset belonged to the Cameroon clade within the Euro-American lineage. Phylogenetic analysis showed this clade was undergoing clonal expansion in this region, and suggests that it was involved in community transmission of sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919150/in-vitro-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-azole-drugs-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#12
Belén R Imperiale, Ángel A Cataldi, Nora S Morcillo
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis has been associated with the persistence of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the organism of infected individuals, who are reservoirs of the bacilli and the source for spreading the disease in the community. New active anti-TB drugs exerting their metabolic action at different stages and on latent/dormant bacilli are urgently required to avoid endogenous reactivations and to be part of treatments of multi- and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB)...
September 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911354/drug-resistance-patterns-among-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#13
S K Sharma, J Chaubey, B K Singh, R Sharma, A Mittal, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: xtra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a growing public health concern, and data on drug resistance are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens from 2468 clinically diagnosed EPTB patients received at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory (IRL) of a tertiary centre in India were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Xpert® MTB/RIF testing, liquid culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) using automated BACTEC MGIT™ 960™. Line-probe assay (LPA) was performed on all culture-positive isolates...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840010/delamanid-and-bedaquiline-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Simon Tiberi, Marina Tadolini, Margareth Dalcolmo, Adrian Rendon, Susanna Esposito, Giovanni Battista Migliori
The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). As evidence is lacking, the World Health Organization recommends their use under specific conditions in adults, delamanid only being recommended in children ≥6 years of age. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the new drugs in children. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was performed, to evaluate the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid or bedaquiline-containing regimens in children with confirmed M/XDR-TB...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826447/trends-in-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-china-data-from-a-clinical-tuberculosis-centre
#15
S Liao, C Cai, F-M Huo, J-N Wu, C-C Kong, H-R Huang, S-F Xu, Z-G Sun
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) among in-patients in Beijing Chest Hospital, Beijing, China, using a 10-year retrospective study. DESIGN: From 2005 to 2014, 18 310 in-patients with TB were recruited for the study, most of whom were referrals; no distinction was made between new and previously treated cases. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed in culture-positive cases using the proportion method to determine multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819600/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-of-the-lumbar-spine-in-a-six-year-old-child-a-case-report
#16
Siddharth Sanjay Shah, Aakanksha Arvind Goregaonkar, Arvind Balkrishna Goregaonkar
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a challenging paradigm shift faced by the TB control programs worldwide today. The treatment is further compounded with unique management difficulties faced in pediatric patients. Treatment of XDR-TB requires prolonged chemotherapy with second-line drugs which offer lesser potency and increased risk of drug-related side effects. We present a case of spinal XDR-TB in a child, managed with extended second-line antitubercular chemotherapy (ATT)...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814276/treatment-outcomes-of-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-hunan-province-china
#17
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Hengzhong Yi, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Kunyun Yang, Liqiong Bai, Darren J Gray, Archie C A Clements, Zuhui Xu
BACKGROUND: The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has posed additional challenges for global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, as limited treatment options are available and treatment outcomes are often sub-optimal. This study determined treatment outcomes among a cohort of MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients in Hunan Province, China, and identified factors associated with poor treatment outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using data obtained from medical records of TB patients in Hunan Chest Hospital, and from the internet-based TB management information system managed by the Tuberculosis Control Institute of Hunan Province, for the period 2011 to 2014...
August 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810312/-analysis-of-infection-and-drug-resistance-in-6-107-cases-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-chengdu-area
#18
D M Wang, Q F Li, M Zhu, Y H Xu, J Luo, Y J Li, J Zhong, Z J Wu
Objective: To analyze the infection and drug resistance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in order to provide useful references for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: A total of 6 107 suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, including lymph node, pleural, peritoneal, meningeal, urinary tract, and bone tuberculosis, were collected retrospectively from January 2013 to December 2015 in Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu. There were 4 033 male and 2 074 female patients, and the average age was 37 years...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793873/epidemiological-trends-and-outcomes-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-shandong-china
#19
Xiao-Chun He, Ning-Ning Tao, Yao Liu, Xian-Xin Zhang, Huai-Chen Li
BACKGROUND: Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis (TB) has posed a great threat to global health and finance systems, especially for developing countries with high TB and Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) TB burden. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-uninfected TB case confirmed and treated in Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital (SPCH) between January 2008 and December 2015. Unique characteristics of XDR-TB were identified; its longitudinal changes and survival were analyzed...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789982/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genotypes-and-predominant-clones-among-the-multidrug-resistant-isolates-in-spain-1998-2005
#20
Sofía Samper, Patricia Gavín, María Isabel Millán-Lou, María José Iglesias, María Soledad Jiménez, David Couvin, Nalin Rastogi
Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is gradually decreasing in Spain, there is an increase in the proportion of foreign-born cases. This changing scenario is slowly shifting the local TB epidemiology from endemic to imported cases with an increased risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MDR/XDR strains from Spain (n=366 MTBC isolates, 1 strain per patient) isolated between 1998 and 2005 were retained for this retrospective analysis...
August 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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