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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810312/-analysis-of-infection-and-drug-resistance-in-6-107-cases-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-chengdu-area
#1
D M Wang, Q F Li, M Zhu, Y H Xu, J Luo, Y J Li, J Zhong, Z J Wu
Objective: To analyze the infection and drug resistance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in order to provide useful references for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: A total of 6 107 suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, including lymph node, pleural, peritoneal, meningeal, urinary tract, and bone tuberculosis, were collected retrospectively from January 2013 to December 2015 in Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu. There were 4 033 male and 2 074 female patients, and the average age was 37 years...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793873/epidemiological-trends-and-outcomes-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-shandong-china
#2
Xiao-Chun He, Ning-Ning Tao, Yao Liu, Xian-Xin Zhang, Huai-Chen Li
BACKGROUND: Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis (TB) has posed a great threat to global health and finance systems, especially for developing countries with high TB and Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) TB burden. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-uninfected TB case confirmed and treated in Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital (SPCH) between January 2008 and December 2015. Unique characteristics of XDR-TB were identified; its longitudinal changes and survival were analyzed...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789982/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genotypes-and-predominant-clones-among-the-multidrug-resistant-isolates-in-spain-1998-2005
#3
Sofía Samper, Patricia Gavín, Isabel Millán, María José Iglesias, María Soledad Jiménez, David Couvin, Nalin Rastogi
Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is gradually decreasing in Spain, there is an increase in the proportion of foreign-born cases. This changing scenario is slowly shifting the local TB epidemiology from endemic to imported cases with an increased risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MDR/XDR strains from Spain (n=366 MTBC isolates, 1 strain per patient) isolated between 1998 and 2005 were retained for this retrospective analysis...
August 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776529/treatment-outcome-of-patients-having-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-gujarat-india
#4
Krunal Prajapati, Vishal Mishra, Mira Desai, Rajesh Solanki, Purvi Naik
BACKGROUND: To investigate the factors affecting treatment outcome of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in Gujarat, India. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted on patients with XDR TB from January 2012 to October 2016. Details of demography, clinical symptoms, sputum/culture and radiological examination, drug treatment, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and treatment outcome were recorded in pretested case record form (CRF). Data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and paired student's t test...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774560/a-novel-nanoemulsion-vaccine-induces-mucosal-interleukin-17-responses-and-confers-protection-upon-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-challenge-in-mice
#5
Mushtaq Ahmed, Douglas M Smith, Tarek Hamouda, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Ali Fattom, Shabaana A Khader
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is contracted via aerosol infection, typically affecting the lungs. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine and has variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB. Additionally, chemotherapy is associated with low compliance contributing to development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mtb. Thus, there is an urgent need for the design of more effective vaccines against TB...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754093/a-comparison-of-the-conditional-inference-survival-forest-model-to-random-survival-forests-based-on-a-simulation-study-as-well-as-on-two-applications-with-time-to-event-data
#6
Justine B Nasejje, Henry Mwambi, Keertan Dheda, Maia Lesosky
BACKGROUND: Random survival forest (RSF) models have been identified as alternative methods to the Cox proportional hazards model in analysing time-to-event data. These methods, however, have been criticised for the bias that results from favouring covariates with many split-points and hence conditional inference forests for time-to-event data have been suggested. Conditional inference forests (CIF) are known to correct the bias in RSF models by separating the procedure for the best covariate to split on from that of the best split point search for the selected covariate...
July 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749390/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india-current-evidence-on-diagnosis-management
#7
REVIEW
Rajendra Prasad, Abhijeet Singh, Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Nikhil Gupta
Emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has significantly threatened to jeopardize global efforts to control TB, especially in HIV endemic regions. XDR-TB is mainly an iatrogenically created issue, and understanding the epidemiological and risk factors associated with it is of paramount importance in curbing this menace. Emergence of this deadly phenomenon can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment with second-line drugs in rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) as well as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743645/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-morocco
#8
Wifak Ennassiri, Sanae Jaouhari, Wafa Cherki, Reda Charof, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Ouafae Lahlou
OBJECTIVES: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has recently been identified as a major global health threat. The aim of the study was to evaluate the XDR-TB presence within TB isolates in Morocco, and its association with the demographic, clinical and epidemiological features. METHODS: A total of 524 patients from the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, representative of all the geographic regions, were subject to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST)...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739779/in-vitro-drug-susceptibility-of-bedaquiline-delamanid-linezolid-clofazimine-moxifloxacin-and-gatifloxacin-against-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-from-beijing-china
#9
Yu Pang, Zhaojing Zong, Fengmin Huo, Wei Jing, Yifeng Ma, Lingling Dong, Yunxu Li, Liping Zhao, Yuhong Fu, Hairong Huang
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a deadly form of TB that can be incurable due to its extreme drug resistance. In this study, we aimed to explore in vitro drug susceptibility of bedaquiline (BDQ), delamanid (DMD), linezolid (LZD), clofazimine (CLO), moxifloxacin (MXF), and gatifloxacin (GAT) against 90 XDR-TB strains isolated from patients in China. We also described the genetic characteristics of XDR-TB isolates with acquired drug resistance. Resistance to MFX, GAT, LZD, CLO, DMD and BDQ was found in 82 (91...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713434/first-insight-into-a-nationwide-genotypic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-previously-treated-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-benin-west-africa
#10
Dissou Affolabi, N'Dira Sanoussi, Sergio Codo, Fréderic Sogbo, Prudence Wachinou, Faridath Massou, Aderemi Kehinde, Séverin Anagonou
BACKGROUND: Molecular studies on tuberculosis (TB) are rare in low-resource countries like Benin, where data on molecular study on previously treated TB cases is unavailable. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January to December 2014, all smear- and culture-positive previously treated pulmonary TB patients from all TB clinics were systematically recruited. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping were performed on all isolates. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients recruited, 71 (71...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709481/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-a-daunting-challenge-to-the-current-end-tb-strategy-and-policy-recommendations
#11
REVIEW
Md Arifur Rahman, Atanu Sarkar
Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the most formidable challenges to the End TB Strategy that has targeted a 95% reduction in TB deaths and 90% reduction in cases by 2035. Globally, there were an estimated 55,100 new XDR-TB cases in 2015 in 117 countries. However, only one in 30 XDR-TB cases had been reported so far. Drug susceptibility test (DST) is the mainstay for diagnosing XDR-TB, but the lack of laboratory facilities in the resource-limited endemic countries limit its uses...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707584/a-review-of-recent-advancements-in-anti-tubercular-molecular-hybrids
#12
Parvesh Singh, Bukola Jaiyeola, Nagaraju Kerru, Oluwakemi Ebenezer, Ajay Bissessur
Tuberculosis (TB) accounts for millions of deaths worldwide every year. Diverse survival strategies adopted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has substantially hindered the existing anti-TB regimen thereby leading to multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) strains of TB. The steady decrease in current antibiotics' efficacy against these adversities is an indicator that their adequate replenishment in future is almost impossible, placing society on the precipice of a catastrophe. Over the past many years, researchers have been continuously generating new armamentarium of anti-TB drugs by tailoring the properties of available drugs or designing completely new agents...
July 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706448/genotypic-distribution-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-northern-thailand
#13
Risara Jaksuwan, Prasit Tharavichikul, Jayanton Patumanond, Charoen Chuchottaworn, Sakarin Chanwong, Saijai Smithtikarn, Jongkolnee Settakorn
BACKGROUND: Multidrug/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) is a major public health problem, and early detection is important for preventing its spread. This study aimed to demonstrate the distribution of genetic site mutation associated with drug resistance in M/XDR-TB in the northern Thai population. METHODS: Thirty-four clinical MTB isolates from M/XDR-TB patients in the upper northern region of Thailand, who had been identified for drug susceptibility using the indirect agar proportion method from 2005 to 2012, were examined for genetic site mutations of katG, inhA, and ahpC for isoniazid (INH) drug resistance and rpoB for rifampicin (RIF) drug resistance...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678713/genome-wide-analysis-of-mdr-and-xdr-tuberculosis-from-belarus-machine-learning-approach
#14
Roman Sergeevich Sergeev, Ivan Kavaliou, Uladzislau Sataneuski, Andrei Gabrielian, Alex Rosenthal, Michael Tartakovsky, Alexander Tuzikov
Emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms has been recognized as a serious threat to public health worldwide. This problem is extensively discussed in the context of tuberculosis treatment. Alterations in pathogen genomes are among the main mechanisms by which microorganisms exhibit drug resistance. Analysis of 144 M. tuberculosis strains of different phenotypes including drug susceptible, MDR and XDR isolated in Belarus was fulfilled in this paper. A wide range of machine learning methods that can discover SNPs related to drug-resistance in the whole bacteria genomes was investigated...
June 27, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669673/investigation-of-a-pre-xdr-beijing-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transmission-to-a-healthcare-worker-in-france-2016
#15
Anaïs Appelgren, David Morquin, Sébastien Dufour, Vincent Le Moing, Jacques Reynes, Anne Lotthé, Sylvie Parer, Catherine Corbeau, Alexandra Aubry, Wladimir Sougakoff, Jérôme Solassol, Lucas Bonzon, Yann Dumont, Sylvain Godreuil
We report a case of occupational contamination of a healthcare worker (HCW) by a pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) Beijing strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the University Hospital of Montpellier, France. The index case was identified using the genetic fingerprinting of isolates. This report underscores the risk of healthcare-associated contamination by pre-XDR TB in low-incidence countries, the importance of molecular tools for tuberculosis care, and calls for increased vigilance in the management of MDR/XDR TB patients...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652235/nifurtimox-is-ineffective-against-drug-resistant-mycobacteria
#16
Mike Marvin Ruth, Jasper Jan Nicolaas Sangen, Heiman Frank Louis Wertheim, Jakko van Ingen
Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and diseases caused by the naturally drug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging health threats.….
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630430/a-multinational-analysis-of-mutations-and-heterogeneity-in-pzase-rpsa-and-pand-associated-with-pyrazinamide-resistance-in-m-xdr-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
S M Ramirez-Busby, T C Rodwell, L Fink, D Catanzaro, R L Jackson, M Pettigrove, A Catanzaro, F Valafar
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important first-line drug in all existing and new tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens. PZA-resistance in M. tuberculosis is increasing, especially among M/XDR cases. Noted issues with PZA Drug Susceptibility Testing (DST) have driven the search for alternative tests. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of PZA molecular diagnostics in M/XDR TB cases. A set of 296, mostly XDR, clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from four countries were subjected to DST for eight drugs, confirmatory Wayne's assay, and whole-genome sequencing...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630205/the-impact-of-gyrb-and-eis-mutations-in-improving-second-line-drug-resistance-detection-among-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-georgia
#18
N Bablishvili, N Tukvadze, E Shashkina, B Mathema, N R Gandhi, H M Blumberg, R R Kempker
SETTING: The country of Georgia has a high burden of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the detection of mutations in gyrB and eis genes increased the sensitivity of detecting phenotypic resistance to ofloxacin and kanamycin or capreomycin as compared to use of the first generation MTBDRsl assay alone which evaluates for mutations in gyrA and rrs genes.DESIGN: A retrospective study of storedMycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. All isolates underwent DNA sequencing of resistance determining regions...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625141/bedaquiline-a-new-hope-for-shorter-and-better-anti-tuberculosis-regimens
#19
Niccolò Riccardi, Filippo Del Puente, Federica Magnè, Lucia Taramasso, Antonio Di Biagio
In 2014, an estimated 1.8 million people died from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB); moreover, 680,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Currently available anti-MDR and XDR regimens are long-lasting and expensive, need high adherence and are undermined by a high frequency of adverse drug events, thus leading to a low success rate; moreover, in the last 50 years only two new molecules, bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid, have been approved and released for treatment of MDR-TB. BDQ is a diarylquinoline anti-mycobacterial drug, active regardless the state of MTB; in fact, its efficacy is conserved against replicating and non-replicating bacilli, despite extracellular or intracellular location...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620844/comparison-of-the-characteristics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-sputum-and-lung-lesions-in-chronic-tuberculosis-patients
#20
M-S Hong, Y Kim, E-J Cho, J-S Lee, H-K Kwak, J-H Kim, C-T Kim, J-S Cho, S-K Park, D Jeon, Y-I Choi, H Lee, S-Y Eum
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in sputum originates from lung cavities in tuberculosis (TB) patients. But drug susceptibility testing (DST) of sputum Mtb can not be conducted the same as in the lung because mutagenesis of bacilli may be happening in the lung during treatment and result in the possibility of the presence of heterogeneous drug-resistant subpopulations in the different lung lesions. This could be one of the reasons for low cure rates for multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB. We studied the resected lungs of nine surgery patients with chronic TB...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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