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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331720/temporal-spatial-gait-parameter-models-of-very-slow-walking
#1
Andrew J J Smith, Edward D Lemaire
This study assessed the relationship between walking speed and common temporal-spatial stride-parameters to determine if a change in gait strategy occurs at extremely slow walking speeds. Stride-parameter models that represent slow walking can act as a reference for lower extremity exoskeleton and powered orthosis controls since these devices typically operate at walking speeds less than 0.4 m/s. Full-body motion capture data were collected from 30 health adults while walking on a self-paced treadmill, within a CAREN-Extended virtual reality environment...
January 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313896/great-ape-walking-kinematics-implications-for-hominoid-evolution
#2
Emma M Finestone, Mary H Brown, Stephen R Ross, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVES: Great apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics. METHODS: High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244216/relationship-between-glenoid-deformity-and-gait-characteristics-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-brachial-plexus-injury
#3
Kelsey Hennen, Dustin L Crouch, Ian D Hutchinson, Zhongyu Li, Katherine Saul
Neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) results in substantial postural and functional impairments associated with underlying muscular and osseous deformities. We examined the relationship between glenoid deformity severity and gait in a rat model of NBPI, an established model for studying the in vivo pathomechanics of NBPI. At 8 weeks post-operatively, we monitored the gait of twenty-four rat pups who exhibited varying degrees of glenoid deformity following unilateral brachial plexus neurectomy and chemodenervation interventions administered 5 days postnatal...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243945/coordination-in-gait-demonstration-of-a-spectral-approach
#4
Genevieve K R Williams, Domenico Vicinanza
Many important notions in Life Sciences are linked with the idea of cycles, periodicity, fluctuations and transitions. The aim of this paper is to use spectral analysis in a unique way to study and quantify whole body coordination during gait. A participant walked at 3 km/h and ran at 15 km/h on a treadmill for 2 minutes. Position of the approximate center of rotation of the toe, ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow and wrist, heel, PSIS and head were collected (CODAmotion; 100 Hz). Fast Fourier Transform was performed on x-coordinate data of the 1) knee marker; 2) 4 markers attached to the free lower limb (toe, ankle, heel and knee); 3) left and right free lower limbs; 4) whole body (all markers)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193393/modified-first-or-second-cervical-nerve-transplantation-technique-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-laryngeal-neuropathy-in-horses
#5
F Rossignol, O Brandenberger, J D Perkins, J-P Marie, C Mespoulhès-Rivière, N G Ducharme
BACKGROUND: In horses, the only established method for reinnervation of the larynx is the nerve-muscle pedicle implantation, whereas in human medicine, direct nerve implantation is a standard surgical technique for selective laryngeal reinnervation in patients suffering from bilateral vocal fold paralysis. OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe a modified first or second cervical nerve transplantation technique for the treatment of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) in horses and (2) evaluate the outcomes of reinnervation using direct nerve needle-stimulation of the first cervical nerve and exercising endoscopy before and after surgery...
November 28, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176075/detection-of-surface-emg-activity-from-extensor-digitorum-brevis-muscle-in-healthy-children-walking
#6
Francesco Di Nardo, Annachiara Strazza, Michela Sara Palmieri, Alessandro Mengarelli, Laura Burattini, Ornella Orsini, Antonio Bortone, Sandro Fioretti
The purpose of the study was the assessment of activation patterns of Extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) muscle in healthy children, during walking at self-selected speed and cadence. To this aim, Statistical gait analysis was performed on surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals of EDB, in a large number (hundreds) of strides per subject. sEMG data from Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Gastrocnemius Lateralis (GL) were also investigated for comparative purposes. Results from twenty-three healthy children showed a large variability in number of muscle activations, occurrence frequency, and onset-offset instants across considered strides...
November 26, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170707/is-the-relationship-between-stride-length-frequency-and-velocity-influenced-by-running-on-a-treadmill-or-overground
#7
Joshua Bailey, Tiffany Mata, John A Mercer
The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between stride length (SL), stride frequency (SF), and velocity while running on a treadmill and overground. Participants (n=10; 22.3±2.6 yrs; 1.71±.08 m; 71.4±15.5 kg) completed a total of 14 runs (7 treadmill, 7 overground) with each run at a different velocity. SL, SF, and velocity data were recorded using wearable technology (Garmin, Fenix2). The outdoor trials occurred first. The treadmill velocities were selected to match the range of velocities used overgroud...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161625/prediction-of-walk-to-run-transition-using-stride-frequency-a-test-retest-reliability-study
#8
Ernst Albin Hansen, Andreas Møller Nielsen, Lasse Andreas Risgaard Kristensen, Pascal Madeleine, Michael Voigt
The transition from walking to running has previously been predicted to occur at a point where the stride frequency starts getting closer to the running attractor than to the walking attractor. The two behavioural attractors were considered to be represented by the freely chosen stride frequencies during unrestricted treadmill walking and running. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the predicted walk-to-run transition stride frequency. Healthy individuals (n=25) performed walking and running on a treadmill in a day-to-day test-retest design...
November 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159682/physiological-and-biomechanical-responses-of-highly-trained-distance-runners-to-lower-body-positive-pressure-treadmill-running
#9
Kyle R Barnes, Jessica N Janecke
BACKGROUND: As a way to train at faster running speeds, add training volume, prevent injury, or rehabilitate after an injury, lower-body positive pressure treadmills (LBPPT) have become increasingly commonplace among athletes. However, there are conflicting evidence and a paucity of data describing the physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running in highly trained or elite caliber runners at the running speeds they habitually train at, which are considerably faster than those of recreational runners...
November 21, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140780/full-body-animation-of-human-locomotion-in-reduced-gravity-using-physics-based-control
#10
Yun-Hyeong Kim, Taesoo Kwon, Daeun Song, Young J Kim
The proposed physics-based approach can generate stable and robust full-body animation of various gaits under different gravitational conditions. As input, this method takes motion-captured human motions in the Earth's gravity and builds an inverted-pendulum on cart (IPC) control model, which is analyzed using the motion-captured data. The authors use a pre-estimation model based on the Froude number to predict the desired velocity and stride frequency of a character model in hypogravity and then generate full-body animation using a pendulum trajectory generator, motion planner, and tracking...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108053/effect-of-band-and-knife-castration-of-beef-calves-on-welfare-indicators-of-pain-at-three-relevant-industry-ages-i-acute-pain
#11
D M Meléndez, S Marti, E A Pajor, D Moya, C E M Heuston, D Gellatly, E D Janzen, K S Schwartzkopf-Genswein
Three experiments evaluated the effect of band and knife castration on acute pain for the first 7 d after the procedure on 1-wk-, 2-mo-, and 4-mo-old calves. All calves were blocked by age and weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: sham castration (control, CT), band castration (BA), and knife castration (KN). Experiment 1 evaluated 1-wk-old Angus bull calves ( = 34; 43.0 ± 6.61 kg BW), Exp. 2 evaluated 2-mo-old Angus bull calves ( = 34; 91.5 ± 11.93 kg BW), and Exp. 3 evaluated 4-mo-old Angus bull calves ( = 35; 157...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096180/influence-of-anterior-load-carriage-on-lumbar-muscle-activation-while-walking-in-stable-and-unstable-shoes
#12
Frederik Petri Svenningsen, Emma Kaalund, Tine Åkær Christensen, Per Hedeager Helsinghoff, Nanett Yoo-Jin-Bruun Gregersen, Uwe Gustav Kersting, Anderson Souza Oliveira
Load carriage can be harmful for workers, and alternative interventions to reduce back pain while walking and carrying loads are necessary. Unstable shoes have been used to improve balance and reduce back pain, but it is unknown whether walking wearing unstable shoes while carrying loads anteriorly causes excessive trunk extensors muscle activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different shoe types and anterior load carriage on gait kinematics and lumbar electromyographic (EMG) activity...
October 28, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074288/strategy-quantification-using-body-worn-inertial-sensors-in-a-reactive-agility-task
#13
Chika U Eke, Stephen M Cain, Leia A Stirling
Agility performance is often evaluated using time-based metrics, which provide little information about which factors aid or limit success. The objective of this study was to better understand agility strategy by identifying biomechanical metrics that were sensitive to performance speed, which were calculated with data from an array of body-worn inertial sensors. Five metrics were defined (normalized number of foot contacts, stride length variance, arm swing variance, mean normalized stride frequency, and number of body rotations) that corresponded to agility terms defined by experts working in athletic, clinical, and military environments...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059198/optimal-stride-frequencies-in-running-at-different-speeds
#14
Ben T van Oeveren, Cornelis J de Ruiter, Peter J Beek, Jaap H van Dieën
During running at a constant speed, the optimal stride frequency (SF) can be derived from the u-shaped relationship between SF and heart rate (HR). Changing SF towards the optimum of this relationship is beneficial for energy expenditure and may positively change biomechanics of running. In the current study, the effects of speed on the optimal SF and the nature of the u-shaped relation were empirically tested using Generalized Estimating Equations. To this end, HR was recorded from twelve healthy (4 males, 8 females) inexperienced runners, who completed runs at three speeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046416/it-s-just-sand-between-the-toes-how-particle-size-and-shape-variation-affect-running-performance-and-kinematics-in-a-generalist-lizard
#15
Philip J Bergmann, Kyle J Pettinelli, Marian E Crockett, Erika G Schaper
Animals must cope with and be able to move effectively on a variety of substrates. Substrates composed of granular media, such as sand and gravel, are extremely common in nature, and vary tremendously in particle size and shape. Despite many studies of the properties of granular media and comparisons of locomotion between granular and solid substrates, the effects of systematically manipulating these media on locomotion is poorly understood. We studied granular media ranging over four orders of magnitude in particle size, and differing in the amount of particle shape variation, to determine how these factors affected substrate physical properties and sprinting in the generalist lizard Eremias arguta We found that media with intermediate particle sizes had high bulk densities, low angles of stability and low load-bearing capacities...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038311/integration-of-swimming-kinematics-and-ram-suspension-feeding-in-a-model-american-paddlefish-polyodon-spathula
#16
Grant E Haines, S Laurie Sanderson
Ram suspension-feeding fishes swim with an open mouth to force water through the oral cavity and extract prey items that are too small to be pursued individually. Recent research has indicated that, rather than using a dead-end mechanical sieve, American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula Walbaum) employ vortical cross-step filtration. In this filtration mechanism, vortical flow that is generated posterior to the branchial arches organizes crossflow filtration processes into a spatial structure across the gill rakers...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023456/gait-parameters-are-differently-affected-by-concurrent-smartphone-based-activities-with-scaled-levels-of-cognitive-effort
#17
Carlotta Caramia, Ivan Bernabucci, Carmen D'Anna, Cristiano De Marchis, Maurizio Schmid
The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users) were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load), call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964089/ultrasound-propagation-through-dilute-polydisperse-microbubble-suspensions
#18
Nicholas C Ovenden, Jean-Pierre O'Brien, Eleanor Stride
In a fully nonlinear model of wave propagation through bubbly media, computational complexity arises when the medium contains a polydisperse bubble population. This is because a nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the bubble response must be solved for the current radius of each bubble size present at every spatial location and at every time step. In biomedical ultrasound imaging, commercial contrast agents typically possess a wide range of bubble sizes that exhibit a variety of differing behaviours at ultrasound frequencies of clinical interest...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958634/effect-of-noise-and-filtering-on-largest-lyapunov-exponent-of-time-series-associated-with-human-walking
#19
Sina Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari
This study aimed to determine the effect of added noise, filtering and time series length on the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) value calculated for time series obtained from a passive dynamic walker. The simplest passive dynamic walker model comprising of two massless legs connected by a frictionless hinge joint at the hip was adopted to generate walking time series. The generated time series was used to construct a state space with the embedding dimension of 3 and time delay of 100 samples. The LyE was calculated as the exponential rate of divergence of neighboring trajectories of the state space using Rosenstein's algorithm...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950580/velocity-correlations-and-spatial-dependencies-between-neighbors-in-a-unidirectional-flow-of-pedestrians
#20
Jakub Porzycki, Jarosław Wąs, Leila Hedayatifar, Forough Hassanibesheli, Krzysztof Kułakowski
The aim of the paper is an analysis of self-organization patterns observed in the unidirectional flow of pedestrians. On the basis of experimental data from Zhang et al. [J. Zhang et al., J. Stat. Mech. (2011) P0600410.1088/1742-5468/2011/06/P06004], we analyze the mutual positions and velocity correlations between pedestrians when walking along a corridor. The angular and spatial dependencies of the mutual positions reveal a spatial structure that remains stable during the crowd motion. This structure differs depending on the value of n, for the consecutive nth-nearest-neighbor position set...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
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