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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140780/full-body-animation-of-human-locomotion-in-reduced-gravity-using-physics-based-control
#1
Yun-Hyeong Kim, Taesoo Kwon, Daeun Song, Young J Kim
The proposed physics-based approach can generate stable and robust full-body animation of various gaits under different gravitational conditions. As input, this method takes motion-captured human motions in the Earth's gravity and builds an inverted-pendulum on cart (IPC) control model, which is analyzed using the motion-captured data. The authors use a pre-estimation model based on the Froude number to predict the desired velocity and stride frequency of a character model in hypogravity and then generate full-body animation using a pendulum trajectory generator, motion planner, and tracking...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108053/effect-of-band-and-knife-castration-of-beef-calves-on-welfare-indicators-of-pain-at-three-relevant-industry-ages-i-acute-pain
#2
D M Meléndez, S Marti, E A Pajor, D Moya, C E M Heuston, D Gellatly, E D Janzen, K S Schwartzkopf-Genswein
Three experiments evaluated the effect of band and knife castration on acute pain for the first 7 d after the procedure on 1-wk-, 2-mo-, and 4-mo-old calves. All calves were blocked by age and weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: sham castration (control, CT), band castration (BA), and knife castration (KN). Experiment 1 evaluated 1-wk-old Angus bull calves ( = 34; 43.0 ± 6.61 kg BW), Exp. 2 evaluated 2-mo-old Angus bull calves ( = 34; 91.5 ± 11.93 kg BW), and Exp. 3 evaluated 4-mo-old Angus bull calves ( = 35; 157...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096180/influence-of-anterior-load-carriage-on-lumbar-muscle-activation-while-walking-in-stable-and-unstable-shoes
#3
Frederik Petri Svenningsen, Emma Kaalund, Tine Åkær Christensen, Per Hedeager Helsinghoff, Nanett Yoo-Jin-Bruun Gregersen, Uwe Gustav Kersting, Anderson Souza Oliveira
Load carriage can be harmful for workers, and alternative interventions to reduce back pain while walking and carrying loads are necessary. Unstable shoes have been used to improve balance and reduce back pain, but it is unknown whether walking wearing unstable shoes while carrying loads anteriorly causes excessive trunk extensors muscle activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different shoe types and anterior load carriage on gait kinematics and lumbar electromyographic (EMG) activity...
October 28, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074288/strategy-quantification-using-body-worn-inertial-sensors-in-a-reactive-agility-task
#4
Chika U Eke, Stephen M Cain, Leia A Stirling
Agility performance is often evaluated using time-based metrics, which provide little information about which factors aid or limit success. The objective of this study was to better understand agility strategy by identifying biomechanical metrics that were sensitive to performance speed, which were calculated with data from an array of body-worn inertial sensors. Five metrics were defined (normalized number of foot contacts, stride length variance, arm swing variance, mean normalized stride frequency, and number of body rotations) that corresponded to agility terms defined by experts working in athletic, clinical, and military environments...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059198/optimal-stride-frequencies-in-running-at-different-speeds
#5
Ben T van Oeveren, Cornelis J de Ruiter, Peter J Beek, Jaap H van Dieën
During running at a constant speed, the optimal stride frequency (SF) can be derived from the u-shaped relationship between SF and heart rate (HR). Changing SF towards the optimum of this relationship is beneficial for energy expenditure and may positively change biomechanics of running. In the current study, the effects of speed on the optimal SF and the nature of the u-shaped relation were empirically tested using Generalized Estimating Equations. To this end, HR was recorded from twelve healthy (4 males, 8 females) inexperienced runners, who completed runs at three speeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046416/it-s-just-sand-between-the-toes-how-particle-size-and-shape-variation-affect-running-performance-and-kinematics-in-a-generalist-lizard
#6
Philip J Bergmann, Kyle J Pettinelli, Marian E Crockett, Erika G Schaper
Animals must cope with and be able to move effectively on a variety of substrates. Substrates composed of granular media, such as sand and gravel, are extremely common in nature, and vary tremendously in particle size and shape. Despite many studies of the properties of granular media and comparisons of locomotion between granular and solid substrates, the effects of systematically manipulating these media on locomotion is poorly understood. We studied granular media ranging over four orders of magnitude in particle size, and differing in the amount of particle shape variation, to determine how these factors affected substrate physical properties and sprinting in the generalist lizard Eremias arguta We found that media with intermediate particle sizes had high bulk densities, low angles of stability and low load-bearing capacities...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038311/integration-of-swimming-kinematics-and-ram-suspension-feeding-in-a-model-american-paddlefish-polyodon-spathula
#7
Grant E Haines, S Laurie Sanderson
Ram suspension-feeding fishes swim with an open mouth to force water through the oral cavity and extract prey items that are too small to be pursued individually. Recent research has indicated that, rather than using a dead-end mechanical sieve, American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula Walbaum) employ vortical cross-step filtration. In this filtration mechanism, vortical flow that is generated posterior to the branchial arches organizes crossflow filtration processes into a spatial structure across the gill rakers...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023456/gait-parameters-are-differently-affected-by-concurrent-smartphone-based-activities-with-scaled-levels-of-cognitive-effort
#8
Carlotta Caramia, Ivan Bernabucci, Carmen D'Anna, Cristiano De Marchis, Maurizio Schmid
The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users) were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load), call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964089/ultrasound-propagation-through-dilute-polydisperse-microbubble-suspensions
#9
Nicholas C Ovenden, Jean-Pierre O'Brien, Eleanor Stride
In a fully nonlinear model of wave propagation through bubbly media, computational complexity arises when the medium contains a polydisperse bubble population. This is because a nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the bubble response must be solved for the current radius of each bubble size present at every spatial location and at every time step. In biomedical ultrasound imaging, commercial contrast agents typically possess a wide range of bubble sizes that exhibit a variety of differing behaviours at ultrasound frequencies of clinical interest...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958634/effect-of-noise-and-filtering-on-largest-lyapunov-exponent-of-time-series-associated-with-human-walking
#10
Sina Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari
This study aimed to determine the effect of added noise, filtering and time series length on the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) value calculated for time series obtained from a passive dynamic walker. The simplest passive dynamic walker model comprising of two massless legs connected by a frictionless hinge joint at the hip was adopted to generate walking time series. The generated time series was used to construct a state space with the embedding dimension of 3 and time delay of 100 samples. The LyE was calculated as the exponential rate of divergence of neighboring trajectories of the state space using Rosenstein's algorithm...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950580/velocity-correlations-and-spatial-dependencies-between-neighbors-in-a-unidirectional-flow-of-pedestrians
#11
Jakub Porzycki, Jarosław Wąs, Leila Hedayatifar, Forough Hassanibesheli, Krzysztof Kułakowski
The aim of the paper is an analysis of self-organization patterns observed in the unidirectional flow of pedestrians. On the basis of experimental data from Zhang et al. [J. Zhang et al., J. Stat. Mech. (2011) P0600410.1088/1742-5468/2011/06/P06004], we analyze the mutual positions and velocity correlations between pedestrians when walking along a corridor. The angular and spatial dependencies of the mutual positions reveal a spatial structure that remains stable during the crowd motion. This structure differs depending on the value of n, for the consecutive nth-nearest-neighbor position set...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948846/the-influence-of-inertial-sensor-sampling-frequency-on-the-accuracy-of-measurement-parameters-in-rearfoot-running
#12
Christian Mitschke, Falk Zaumseil, Thomas L Milani
Increasingly, inertial sensors are being used for running analyses. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of inertial sensor sampling frequencies (SF) on the accuracy of kinematic, spatio-temporal, and kinetic parameters. We hypothesized that running analyses at lower SF result in less signal information and therefore the inability to sufficiently interpret measurement data. Twenty-one subjects participated in this study. Rearfoot strikers ran on an indoor running track at a velocity of 3...
September 26, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947176/gait-kinetics-kinematics-spatiotemporal-and-foot-plantar-pressure-alteration-in-response-to-long-distance-running-systematic-review
#13
Hyun Kyung Kim, Seyed Ali Mirjalili, Justin Fernandez
The aim of this systematic review was to obtain an improved insight of the present state of knowledge regarding the effect of long-distance running on gait kinetics, kinematics, spatiotemporal and foot plantar pressure. Electronic databases were searched for articles relating to biomechanical modification following long-distance running, published in English between 1990 and 2016. All the studies presenting gait parameters before and after long-distance running were included. A modified Quality Index was used for assessing methodological quality...
September 22, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919877/analysis-of-correlation-between-an-accelerometer-based-algorithm-for-detecting-parkinsonian-gait-and-updrs-subscales
#14
Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero, Albert Samà, Carlos Pérez-López, Daniel Rodríguez-Martín, Sheila Alcaine, Berta Mestre, Paola Quispe, Benedetta Giuliani, Gabriel Vainstein, Patrick Browne, Dean Sweeney, J Manuel Moreno Arostegui, Àngels Bayes, Hadas Lewy, Alberto Costa, Roberta Annicchiarico, Timothy Counihan, Gearòid Ò Laighin, Joan Cabestany
BACKGROUND: Our group earlier developed a small monitoring device, which uses accelerometer measurements to accurately detect motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's (On and Off state) based on an algorithm that characterizes gait through the frequency content of strides. To further validate the algorithm, we studied the correlation of its outputs with the motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part-III (UPDRS-III). METHOD: Seventy-five patients suffering from Parkinson's disease were asked to walk both in the Off and the On state while wearing the inertial sensor on the waist...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886464/muscle-activity-during-backward-and-forward-running-with-body-weight-support
#15
Kenji Masumoto, Michael T Soucy, Joshua P Bailey, John A Mercer
We investigated muscle activity during backward (BR) and forward (FR) running with body weight support (BWS). Ten participants completed BR and FR on a lower body positive pressure treadmill while selecting a preferred speed (PS) for different BWS conditions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%BWS). Muscle activity from the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), preferred stride frequency (PSF), and PS were measured. Magnitude of muscle activity (BF, TA, and GA), RPE, PSF, and PS were not influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P>0...
September 5, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860998/human-biomechanical-and-cardiopulmonary-responses-to-partial-gravity-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Charlotte Richter, Bjoern Braunstein, Andrew Winnard, Mona Nasser, Tobias Weber
The European Space Agency has recently announced to progress from low Earth orbit missions on the International Space Station to other mission scenarios such as exploration of the Moon or Mars. Therefore, the Moon is considered to be the next likely target for European human space explorations. Compared to microgravity (μg), only very little is known about the physiological effects of exposure to partial gravity (μg < partial gravity <1 g). However, previous research studies and experiences made during the Apollo missions comprise a valuable source of information that should be taken into account when planning human space explorations to reduced gravity environments...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807934/a-novel-bounding-gait-in-swimming-turtles-implications-for-aquatic-locomotor-diversity
#17
Christopher J Mayerl, Richard W Blob
Turtles are an iconic lineage in studies of animal locomotion, typifying the use of slow, alternating footfalls during walking. Alternating movements of contralateral limbs are also typical during swimming gaits for most freshwater turtles. Here, we report a novel gait in turtles, in which the pleurodire Emydura subglobosa swims using a bounding gait that coordinates bilateral protraction of both forelimbs with bilateral retraction of both hindlimbs. Use of this bounding gait is correlated with increased limb excursion and decreased stride frequency, but not increased velocity when compared with standard swimming strokes...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796904/kinematic-discrimination-of-ataxia-in-horses-is-facilitated-by-blindfolding
#18
E Olsen, N FouchÉ, H Jordan, T Pfau, R J Piercy
BACKGROUND: Agreement among experienced clinicians is poor when assessing the presence and severity of ataxia, especially when signs are mild. Consequently, objective gait measurements might be beneficial for assessment of horses with neurological diseases. OBJECTIVES: To assess diagnostic criteria using motion capture to measure variability in spatial gait-characteristics and swing duration derived from ataxic and non-ataxic horses, and to assess if variability increases with blindfolding...
August 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768747/how-innate-is-locomotion-in-precocial-animals-a-study-on-the-early-development-of-spatio-temporal-gait-variables-and-gait-symmetry-in-piglets
#19
Charlotte Vanden Hole, Jana Goyens, Sara Prims, Erik Fransen, Miriam Ayuso Hernando, Steven Van Cruchten, Peter Aerts, Chris Van Ginneken
Locomotion is one of the most important ecological functions in animals. Precocial animals, such as pigs, are capable of independent locomotion shortly after birth. This raises the question whether coordinated movement patterns and the underlying muscular control in these animals is fully innate or whether there still exists a rapid maturation. We addressed this question by studying gait development in neonatal pigs through the analysis of spatio-temporal gait characteristics during locomotion at self-selected speed...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703859/the-operational-implications-of-donor-behaviors-following-enrollment-in-stride-strategies-to-reduce-iron-deficiency-in-blood-donors
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ritchard G Cable, Rebecca J Birch, Bryan R Spencer, David J Wright, Walter Bialkowski, Joseph E Kiss, Jorge Rios, Barbara J Bryant, Alan E Mast
BACKGROUND: Donor behaviors in STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency), a trial to reduce iron deficiency, were examined. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Six hundred ninety-two frequent donors were randomized to receive either 19 or 38 mg iron for 60 days or an educational letter based on their predonation ferritin. Compliance with assigned pills, response to written recommendations, change in donation frequency, and future willingness to take iron supplements were examined...
October 2017: Transfusion
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