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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332310/arboreal-locomotion-in-eurasian-harvest-mice-micromys-minutus-rodentia-muridae-the-gaits-of-small-mammals
#1
Nikolaos-Evangelos Karantanis, Leszek Rychlik, Anthony Herrel, Dionisios Youlatos
Body size imposes significant constraints on arboreal locomotion. Despite the wealth of research in larger arboreal mammals, there is a lack of data on arboreal gaits of small mammals. In this context, the present study explores arboreal locomotion in one of the smallest rodents, the Eurasian harvest mice Micromys minutus (∼10 g). We examined gait metrics (i.e., diagonality, duty factor [DF], DF index, velocity, stride length, and stride frequency) of six adult male mice on simulated arboreal substrates of different sizes (2, 5, 10, and 25 mm) and inclinations (0(0) and 45(0) )...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329377/time-to-refocus-assessment-of-vision-in-older-adults-contrast-sensitivity-but-not-visual-acuity-is-associated-with-gait-in-older-adults
#2
Eoin Duggan, Orna Donoghue, Rose Anne Kenny, Hilary Cronin, James Loughman, Ciarán Finucane
Background: The relationship between measures of visual function and gait related risk factors for falls is unclear. In this study, we examine the relationship between visual function (visual acuity [VA] and contrast sensitivity [CS] at multiple spatial frequencies) and quantitative spatiotemporal gait, using a large, nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults. Methods: Participants aged 50 and over were recruited as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)...
February 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320491/the-effect-of-rider-weight-and-additional-weight-in-icelandic-horses-in-t%C3%A3-lt-part-ii-stride-parameters-responses
#3
V Gunnarsson, G J Stefánsdóttir, A Jansson, L Roepstorff
This study investigated the effects of rider weight in the BW ratio (BWR) range common for Icelandic horses (20% to 35%), on stride parameters in tölt in Icelandic horses. The kinematics of eight experienced Icelandic school horses were measured during an incremental exercise test using a high-speed camera (300 frames/s). Each horse performed five phases (642 m each) in tölt at a BWR between rider (including saddle) and horse starting at 20% (BWR20) and increasing to 25% (BWR25), 30% (BWR30), 35% (BWR35) and finally 20% (BWR20b) was repeated...
March 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316588/alterations-of-muscle-activation-pattern-in-stroke-survivors-during-obstacle-crossing
#4
Chenming Ma, Na Chen, Yurong Mao, Dongfeng Huang, Rong Song, Le Li
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates changes in the neuromuscular activation pattern of the lower limb muscles in stroke survivors when crossing obstacles of three different heights. METHODS: Eight stroke survivors and eight age-, height-, and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited and instructed to cross over obstacles with heights of 10, 20, and 30% leg length. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) of both limbs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274815/electroacupuncture-improves-gait-locomotion-h-reflex-and-ventral-root-potentials-of-spinal-compression-injured-rats
#5
Carlos Escobar-Corona, Sergio Torres-Castillo, Erika Elizabeth Rodríguez-Torres, Bertha Segura-Alegría, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada, Salvador Quiroz-González
This study explored the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation (EA) on alterations in the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) response and gait locomotion provoked by spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat. A compression lesion of the spinal cord was evoked by insufflating a Fogarty balloon located in the epidural space at the T8-9 spinal level of adult Wistar male rats (200-250 gr; n=60). In different groups of SCI rats, EA (frequencies: 2, 50 and 100Hz) was applied simultaneously to Huantiao (GB30), Yinmen (BL37), Jizhong (GV6) and Zhiyang (GV9) acupoints from the third post-injury day until the experimental session...
March 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264761/outdoor-gyms-and-older-adults-acceptability-enablers-and-barriers-a-survey-of-park-users
#6
Vicki Stride, Leonie Cranney, Ashleigh Scott, Myna Hua
Issue addressed: Increasing the proportion of older adults meeting current recommendations for physical activity is important. This study aimed to determine the acceptability of outdoor gym use among older adults by assessing their outdoor gym use, intention to use, motivators, frequency and preference for use, and barriers and enablers to use. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 438 consenting English speaking park users≥50 years after installation and promotion of an outdoor gym. Results: Forty-two percent of older adults interviewed had used the outdoor gym...
March 6, 2017: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249345/mechanical-alterations-during-800-m-self-paced-track-running
#7
Olivier Girard, Gregoire P Millet, Jean-Paul Micallef
We assessed the time course of running mechanical alterations during an 800-m. On a 200-m indoor track, 18 physical education students performed an 800-m self-paced run. Once per lap, ground reaction forces were measured by a 5-m-long force platform system, and used to determine running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics. Compared with 100 m (19.4±1.8 km.h(-1)) running velocity progressively decreased at 300, 500 m but levelled-off at 700 m marks (-5.7±4.6, -10.4±8.3, and -9.1±13...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247211/data-set-of-healthy-old-people-assessed-for-three-walking-conditions-using-accelerometric-and-opto-electronic-methods
#8
S Gillain, M Boutaayamou, N Dardenne, C Schwartz, M Demonceau, C Gerontitis, F Depierreux, E Salmon, G Garraux, O Bruyère, O Brüls, J-L Croisier, J Petermans
BACKGROUND: Gait patterns of healthy aging are needed to allow a comparison with pathological situations. However, little data is available. OBJECTIVE: To present gait pattern of healthy older specially selected to be "healthy walkers". METHOD: Fifty-seven older people benefited from a geriatric assessment including clinical and functional evaluations to include only those without gait disorders. Gait data were simultaneously recorded using a tri-axial accelerometer placed on the waist and four 3D position markers placed on the feet at the level of the heel and the toe...
February 28, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243533/gait-changes-in-a-line-of-mice-artificially-selected-for-longer-limbs
#9
Leah M Sparrow, Emily Pellatt, Sabrina S Yu, David A Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Campbell Rolian
In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well documented at the interspecific level, across a broad range of body sizes and travel speeds. However, such relationships are harder to evaluate within species (i.e., where natural selection operates), largely for practical reasons, including low population variance in limb length, and the presence of confounding factors such as body mass, or training...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240953/cardiorespiratory-function-in-thoroughbreds-during-locomotion-on-a-treadmill-at-an-incline-or-decline
#10
Hajime Ohmura, Kazutaka Mukai, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hiroko Aida, James H Jones
OBJECTIVE To determine cardiorespiratory responses of Thoroughbreds to uphill and downhill locomotion on a treadmill at identical gradients. ANIMALS 5 highly trained Thoroughbred geldings. PROCEDURES Thoroughbreds were exercised for 2-minute intervals on a treadmill at 1.7, 3.5, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 m/s at a 4% incline, 0% incline (horizontal plane), and 4% decline in random order on different days. Stride frequency, stride length, and cardiopulmonary and O2-transport variables were measured and analyzed by means of repeated-measures ANOVA and Holm-Šidák pairwise comparisons...
March 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236775/is-child-walking-conditioned-by-gender-surface-emg-patterns-in-female-and-male-children
#11
Francesco Di Nardo, Giulio Laureati, Annachiara Strazza, Alessandro Mengarelli, Laura Burattini, Valentina Agostini, Alberto Nascimbeni, Marco Knaflitz, Sandro Fioretti
EMG-based differences between females and males during walking are generally acknowledged in adults. Aim of the study was the quantification of possible gender differences in myoelectric activity of gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and tibialis anterior (TA) during walking in school-age children. Gender-related comparison with adults was also provided to get possible novel insight in maturation of gait. To this aim, Statistical gait analysis, a recent methodology performing a statistical characterization of gait by averaging spatial-temporal and surface-EMG-based parameters over hundreds of strides, was performed in100 healthy school-age children (C-group) and in 33 healthy young adults (YA-group)...
February 16, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203210/auditory-and-visual-electrophysiology-of-deaf-children-with-cochlear-implants-implications-for-cross-modal-plasticity
#12
David P Corina, Shane Blau, Todd LaMarr, Laurel A Lawyer, Sharon Coffey-Corina
Deaf children who receive a cochlear implant early in life and engage in intensive oral/aural therapy often make great strides in spoken language acquisition. However, despite clinicians' best efforts, there is a great deal of variability in language outcomes. One concern is that cortical regions which normally support auditory processing may become reorganized for visual function, leaving fewer available resources for auditory language acquisition. The conditions under which these changes occur are not well understood, but we may begin investigating this phenomenon by looking for interactions between auditory and visual evoked cortical potentials in deaf children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195673/ultrasound-enhanced-sirna-delivery-using-magnetic-nanoparticle-loaded-chitosan-deoxycholic-acid-nanodroplets
#13
Jeong Yu Lee, Calum Crake, Boon Teo, Dario Carugo, Marie de Saint Victor, Anjali Seth, Eleanor Stride
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has significant therapeutic potential but its clinical translation has been severely inhibited by a lack of effective delivery strategies. Previous work has demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanodroplets loaded with magnetic nanoparticles can facilitate the intracellular delivery of a conventional chemotherapeutic drug. The aim of this study is to determine whether a similar agent can provide a means of delivering siRNA, enabling efficient transfection without degradation of the molecule...
February 13, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188327/tactile-stimuli-affect-long-range-correlations-of-stride-interval-and-stride-length-differently-during-walking
#14
Jung Hung Chien, V N Pradeep Ambati, Chun-Kai Huang, Mukul Mukherjee
Sensory feedback below the sole of the foot using sub-threshold mechanical noise significantly reduced postural sway in patients with diabetes and stroke. However, the effects of tactile parameters on walking are still elusive. Specifically, the effects of such parameters on human gait variability need to be studied because of possible rehabilitation outcomes in terms of bringing improvement in temporal and spatial gait parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether different frequency and amplitude combinations of vibro-tactile stimulation of feet would affect stride-to-stride variability in healthy young adults...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184193/altered-functional-performance-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#15
Isis da Silva Costa, Antoni Gamundí, José G Vivas Miranda, Lucas G Souza França, Charles Novaes De Santana, Pedro Montoya
Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ± 8.5 years). Gait and balance parameters were extracted from video recordings of participants performing several motor tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149367/triathlon-wetsuit-removal-strategy-physiological-cost-of-running-with-a-wetsuit
#16
Mihaela Ciulei, Aaron Prado, James Navalta, John A Mercer
Triathletes exiting the swim portion of an event have to decide on how and when to take a wetsuit off (if worn). The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological cost of running while not using a wetsuit, carrying a wetsuit, wearing a wetsuit halfway down or wearing a wetsuit fully up. Participants (n = 20, 30.9 ± 8.7 yrs, 1.71 ± 0.08 m, 71.6 ± 9.5 kg) completed four 5 min running conditions: 1) not wearing the wetsuit, 2) wearing the wetsuit fully up, 3) wearing the wetsuit halfway down, and 4) carrying the wetsuit...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143497/gait-disorders-in-the-elderly-and-dual-task-gait-analysis-a-new-approach-for-identifying-motor-phenotypes
#17
Bernard Auvinet, Claude Touzard, François Montestruc, Arnaud Delafond, Vincent Goeb
BACKGROUND: Gait disorders and gait analysis under single and dual-task conditions are topics of great interest, but very few studies have looked for the relevance of gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly people on the basis of a clinical approach. METHODS: An observational study including 103 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 7.2, women 56%) suffering from gait disorders or memory impairment was conducted. Gait analysis under dual-task conditions was carried out for all patients...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113592/visuomotor-entrainment-and-the-frequency-dependent-response-of-walking-balance-to-perturbations
#18
Jason R Franz, Carrie Francis, Matt Allen, Darryl G Thelen
Visuomotor entrainment, or the synchronization of motor responses to visual stimuli, is a naturally emergent phenomenon in human standing. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence and resolution of visuomotor entrainment in walking and the frequency-dependent response of walking balance to perturbations. We used a virtual reality environment to manipulate optical flow in ten healthy young adults during treadmill walking. A motion capture system recorded trunk, sacrum, and heel marker trajectories during a series of 3-min conditions in which we perturbed a virtual hallway mediolaterally with systematic changes in the driving frequencies of perceived motion...
August 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104752/reduced-prosthetic-stiffness-lowers-the-metabolic-cost-of-running-for-athletes-with-bilateral-transtibial-amputations
#19
Owen N Beck, Paolo Taboga, Alena Marie Grabowski
Inspired by the spring-like action of biological legs, running-specific prostheses are designed to enable athletes with lower-limb amputations to run. Yet, manufacturer recommendations for prosthetic stiffness and height may not optimize running performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using different prosthetic configurations on the metabolic cost and biomechanics of running. Five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations each performed fifteen trials on a force-measuring treadmill at 2...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099517/walking-on-a-vertically-oscillating-treadmill-phase-synchronization-and-gait-kinematics
#20
Jeff A Nessler, Severne Heredia, Jacques Bélair, John Milton
Sensory motor synchronization can be used to alter gait behavior. This type of therapy may be useful in a rehabilitative setting, though several questions remain regarding the most effective way to promote and sustain synchronization. The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique for using synchronization to influence a person's gait and to compare walking behavior under this paradigm with that of side by side walking. Thirty one subjects walked on a motorized treadmill that was placed on a platform that oscillated vertically at various frequencies and amplitudes...
2017: PloS One
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