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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634110/pharmacological-rescue-of-ductal-cftr-rescue-pancreatic-and-salivary-glands-acinar-cells-and-tissue-function-in-mouse-models-of-autoimmune-diseases
#1
Mei Zeng, Mitchell Szymczak, Malini Ahuja, Changyu Zheng, Hongen Yin, William Swaim, John A Chiorini, Robert J Bridges, Shmuel Muallem
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. NOD/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of AIP. CFTR is a ductal Cl(-) channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO3(-) secretion. We used these models to ask: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function...
June 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632819/enzyme-development-for-human-islet-isolation-five-decades-of-progress-or-stagnation
#2
Daniel Brandhorst, Heide Brandhorst, Paul R V Johnson
In comparison to procedures used for the separation of individual cell types from other organs, the process of human pancreatic islet isolation aims to digest the pancreatic exocrine matrix completely without dispersing the individual cells within the endocrine cell cluster. This objective is unique within the field of tissue separation, and outlines the challenge of islet isolation to balance two opposing priorities. Although significant progress has been made in the characterization and production of enzyme blends for islet isolation, there are still numerous areas which require improvement...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628380/low-frequency-noise-effects-on-the-rat-parotid-gland-a-transmission-electron-microscopy-study
#3
Pedro Oliveira, Goncalo Martins Pereira, Margarida Seara Simões, Emanuel Monteiro, António Pedro Alves de Matos, Artur Águas, José Martins Dos Santos
INTRODUCTION: Low-frequency noise (LFN) is a ubiquitous physical stressor known to cause degenerative cellular changes and organ alterations with functional repercussions both in humans and animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After acceptance of the study protocol by a local ethics committee, 20 Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was kept in silence and the other continuously exposed to LFN during 13 weeks. The rats had unlimited access to water and were fed standard rat chow...
June 19, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623687/microcalcifications-in-stone-obstructed-human-submandibular-gland-are-associated-with-apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation
#4
Ivan Lau, Ajay Potluri, Cliff-Lawrence Ibeh, Robert S Redman, Edina Paal, Bidhan C Bandyopadhyay
OBJECTIVE: Human submandibular gland (SMG) stones are associated with inflammation, fibrosis and microcalcifications in the surrounding tissues. However, there is little information about the accompanying cell injury-repair process, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to investigate such an association and its clinical significance. DESIGN OF STUDY: Mid-gland paraffin sections of human SMGs ("stone glands") and normal SMGs ("non-stone glands") were subjected to stains for general histology (hematoxylin and eosin), fibrosis (Masson's trichrome), and calcification (alizarin red) and to immunohistochemistry for proliferative activity (Ki-67), and apoptosis (Caspase-3)...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623666/sox2-regulates-acinar-cell-development-in-the-salivary-gland
#5
Elaine Emmerson, Alison May, Sara Nathan, Noel Cruz Pacheco, Carlos O Lizama, Lenka Maliskova, Ann C Zovein, Yin Shen, Marcus O Muench, Sarah M Knox
Acinar cells play an essential role in the secretory function of exocrine organs. Despite this requirement, how acinar cells are generated during organogenesis is unclear. Using the acini-ductal network of the developing human and murine salivary gland, we demonstrate an unexpected role for SOX2 and parasympathetic nerves in generating the acinar lineage that has broad implications for epithelial morphogenesis. Despite SOX2 being expressed by progenitors that give rise to both acinar and duct cells, genetic ablation of SOX2 results in a failure to establish acini but not ducts...
June 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621319/foxa2-is-a-sensitive-and-specific-marker-for-small-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-prostate
#6
Jung Wook Park, John K Lee, Owen N Witte, Jiaoti Huang
The median survival of patients with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is significantly shorter than that of patients with classic acinar-type adenocarcinoma. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is traditionally diagnosed based on histologic features because expression of current immunohistochemical markers is inconsistent. This is a challenging diagnosis even for expert pathologists and particularly so for pathologists who do not specialize in prostate cancer. New biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma are therefore urgently needed...
June 16, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617859/co-localization-of-acinar-markers-and-insulin-in-pancreatic-cells-of-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Matilde Masini, Lorella Marselli, Eddy Himpe, Luisa Martino, Marco Bugliani, Mara Suleiman, Ugo Boggi, Franco Filipponi, Margherita Occhipinti, Luc Bouwens, Vincenzo De Tata, Piero Marchetti
To search for clues suggesting that beta cells may generate by transdifferentiation in humans, we assessed the presence of cells double positive for exocrine (amylase, carboxypeptidase A) and endocrine (insulin) markers in the pancreas of non-diabetic individuals (ND) and patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Samples from twelve ND and twelve matched T2D multiorgan donors were studied by electron microscopy, including amylase and insulin immunogold labeling; carboxypeptidase A immunofluorescence light microscopy assessment was also performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614209/newly-described-entities-in-salivary-gland-pathology
#8
Alena Skálová, Douglas R Gnepp, James S Lewis, Jennifer L Hunt, Justin A Bishop, Henrik Hellquist, Alessandra Rinaldo, Vincent Vander Poorten, Alfio Ferlito
Salivary glands may give rise to a wide spectrum of different tumors. This review concentrates on 4 salivary gland tumors that have been accepted in the recent literature as new neoplastic entities: mammary analog secretory carcinoma, cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands (CASG), sclerosing polycystic adenosis/adenoma (SPA), and the mucinous/secretory variant of myoepithelioma. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma is a distinctive low-grade malignant salivary cancer that harbors a characteristic chromosomal translocation, t(12;15) (p13;q25), resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599853/post-obstructive-cyst-formation-in-pancreas-and-cystic-acinar-transformation-are-they-same
#9
Xuchen Zhang, Hongfa Zhu, Xiu Yang, Volkan N Adsay, Dhanpat Jain
Pancreatic "acinar cell cystadenoma" (PACA) is a rare benign pancreatic cystic lesion showing acinar cell differentiation. The neoplastic nature of PACA has been questioned and its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. To investigate that acinar cell differentiation is a non-specific metaplastic phenomenon that can occur in pancreatic ductal system, especially when chronically inflamed and dilated, and doesn't necessarily imply an acinar cell neoplasm, we retrospectively analyzed cases diagnosed as PACA and cases with post-obstructive cystic dilatation of pancreatic ducts for acinar cell differentiation using immunohistochemistry for trypsin...
April 1, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597670/-identification-of-an-optimal-algorithm-for-effective-diagnostics-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-alk-gene-rearrangement-implementation-of-the-method-and-practical-experiences-with-routine-diagnostics
#10
Tomáš Rozkoš, Aleš Ryška, Markéta Nová, Helena Hornychová, Lukáš Krbal, Radoslav Matěj, Jan Laco
The aim of the retrospective part of the study was a) to select an optimal clone of immunohistochemical (IHC) antibody against the ALK protein with specificity and sensitivity high enough to use this antibody as a screening method for selecting non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing of ALK gene rearrangement and b) to determine the diagnostic yield of "small" biopsies i.e. endobronchial, transbronchial and transthoracic biopsies and cytoblocks for ALK gene rearrangement testing...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595319/distribution-and-developmental-changes-of-ghrelin-immunopositive-cells-in-the-pancreas-of-african-ostrich-chicks-struthio-camelus
#11
J X Wang, P Li, X T Zhang, L X Ye
Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by multiple cell types and affects feeding behavior, metabolic regulation, and energy balance. In the mammalian pancreas, the types of endocrine cells that are immunoreactive to ghrelin vary. However, little was known about its distribution and developmental changes in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus). In the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks were investigated using immunohistochemistry...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593186/origin-of-barrett-s-epithelium-esophageal-submucosal-glands
#12
Katherine S Garman
The origin of the progenitor cell for Barrett's esophagus remains a major unsolved mystery. Understanding the source of this progenitor may improve strategies to prevent the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs) and ducts may serve as a potential source of progenitor cells that respond to esophageal injury. Through the use of human histologic and molecular analysis, ESMGs and ducts have been described in physical continuity with areas of columnar esophagus, and shared mutations have been described between ESMG ducts and Barrett's esophagus...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592291/tightly-controlled-mrtf-a-activity-regulates-epithelial-differentiation-during-formation-of-mammary-acini
#13
Anja Seifert, Guido Posern
BACKGROUND: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF) A and B link actin dynamics and mechanotransduction to gene expression. In mice, MRTF-A is involved in mammary gland differentiation, but its role in human mammary epithelial cells remains unclear. METHODS: Three-dimensional cultures of human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells were used to model acinar morphogenesis. Stable MRTF-A knockdown, MRTF-A/B rescue and MRTF-A/B overexpression was established to characterize the functional role during morphogenesis using confocal microscopy and expression analysis...
June 7, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591650/long-term-culture-of-self-renewing-pancreatic-progenitors-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Jamie Trott, Ee Kim Tan, Sheena Ong, Drew M Titmarsh, Simon L I J Denil, Maybelline Giam, Cheng Kit Wong, Jiaxu Wang, Mohammad Shboul, Michelle Eio, Justin Cooper-White, Simon M Cool, Giulia Rancati, Lawrence W Stanton, Bruno Reversade, N Ray Dunn
Pluripotent stem cells have been proposed as an unlimited source of pancreatic β cells for studying and treating diabetes. However, the long, multi-step differentiation protocols used to generate functional β cells inevitably exhibit considerable variability, particularly when applied to pluripotent cells from diverse genetic backgrounds. We have developed culture conditions that support long-term self-renewal of human multipotent pancreatic progenitors, which are developmentally more proximal to the specialized cells of the adult pancreas...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588779/pancreatic-acinar-cell-carcinoma-presenting-with-panniculitis-successfully-treated-with-folfirinox-a-case-report
#15
Tomoyasu Yoshihiro, Kenta Nio, Kenji Tsuchihashi, Hiroshi Ariyama, Kenichi Kohashi, Nobuhiro Tsuruta, Fumiyasu Hanamura, Kyoko Inadomi, Mamoru Ito, Kosuke Sagara, Yuta Okumura, Michitaka Nakano, Shuji Arita, Hitoshi Kusaba, Yoshinao Oda, Koichi Akashi, Eishi Baba
Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (PACC) is a rare tumor of the exocrine pancreas, representing only 1% of all pancreatic malignancies. A 50-year-old man presented with edema of the thumb joints bilaterally, followed by an appearance of masses in the bilateral lower extremities and fever (38°C). The masses were diagnosed as panniculitis by skin biopsy, and multiple intraperitoneal masses were incidentally detected on pelvic magnetic resonance imaging performed to investigate the leg abnormalities. The patient was referred to the Kyushu University Hospital for further investigation, and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) revealed high-uptake tumors in the pancreatic tail, in the periphery of the liver, and in the pelvis...
June 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588500/temporal-expression-patterns-of-clock-genes-and-aquaporin-5-anoctamin-1-in-rat-submandibular-gland-cells
#16
Ryouichi Satou, Masaki Sato, Maki Kimura, Yoichi Ishizuka, Masakazu Tazaki, Naoki Sugihara, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
Circadian rhythms are essential for health and regulate various physiological functions. These rhythms are regulated by a negative-feedback loop involving clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral tissues. The rate of secretion of salivary substances, ions, and water follows a circadian rhythm, however, the relationship between the molecular mechanism of salivary secretion and peripheral circadian rhythm is not yet clear. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A) and Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) play an important role in the transport of ions and water in the submandibular glands (SGs)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588238/disruption-of-small-gtpase-rab7-exacerbates-the-severity-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-experimental-mouse-models
#17
Kenichi Takahashi, Hirosato Mashima, Kouichi Miura, Daichi Maeda, Akiteru Goto, Takashi Goto, Ge-Hong Sun-Wada, Yoh Wada, Hirohide Ohnishi
Although aberrations of intracellular vesicle transport systems towards lysosomes including autophagy and endocytosis are involved in the onset and progression of acute pancreatitis, the molecular mechanisms underlying such aberrations remain unclear. The pathways of autophagy and endocytosis are closely related, and Rab7 plays crucial roles in both. In this study, we analyzed the function of Rab7 in acute pancreatitis using pancreas-specific Rab7 knockout (Rab7(Δpan)) mice. In Rab7(Δpan) pancreatic acinar cells, the maturation steps of both endosomes and autophagosomes were deteriorated, and the lysosomal functions were affected...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588083/science-signaling-podcast-for-6-june-2017-calcium-signaling-and-dry-mouth
#18
Indu Ambudkar, Annalisa M VanHook
This Podcast features a conversation with Indu Ambudkar, senior author of a Research Resource that appears in the 6 June 2017 issue of Science Signaling, about how activation of the cation channel TRPM2 is involved in radiation-induced dry mouth. Patients who receive radiation therapy for head and neck cancers often develop dry mouth as a side effect, and this condition is frequently permanent. Radiation does not kill cells in the salivary gland, yet it causes the acinar cells of the gland to reduce the amount of saliva they secrete...
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588080/radiation-inhibits-salivary-gland-function-by-promoting-stim1-cleavage-by-caspase-3-and-loss-of-soce-through-a-trpm2-dependent-pathway
#19
Xibao Liu, Baijuan Gong, Lorena Brito de Souza, Hwei Ling Ong, Krishna P Subedi, Kwong Tai Cheng, William Swaim, Changyu Zheng, Yasuo Mori, Indu S Ambudkar
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is critical for salivary gland fluid secretion. We report that radiation treatment caused persistent salivary gland dysfunction by activating a TRPM2-dependent mitochondrial pathway, leading to caspase-3-mediated cleavage of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and loss of SOCE. After irradiation, acinar cells from the submandibular glands of TRPM2(+/+) , but not those from TRPM2(-/-) mice, displayed an increase in the concentrations of mitochondrial Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspase-3, which was associated with a sustained decrease in STIM1 abundance and attenuation of SOCE...
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586010/resveratrol-protects-against-l-arginine-induced-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-in-mice-by-enhancing-sirt1-mediated-deacetylation-of-p53-and-heat-shock-factor-1
#20
Nian Wang, Fen Zhang, Liu Yang, Jiang Zou, Hao Wang, Ke Liu, Meidong Liu, Huali Zhang, Xianzhong Xiao, Kangkai Wang
Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common severe critical illness with a high mortality rate. Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound derived from various plants such as grape skin, peanut, berry and veratrum, exhibits multiple biological activities, especially potent anti‑inflammatory activity, but its effect on ANP has not yet been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on L-arginine-induced ANP and the possible mechanisms. A mouse model of ANP was established by 2 hourly intraperitoneal injections of 8% L-arginine (4 g/kg)...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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