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Calcium release

Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Shengye Liu, Long Zhou, Liyu Yang, Shuai Mu, Tao Fang, Qin Fu
Background: Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis in vitro , and also extensively examined in a rat model in vivo ...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Yuan-Jun Xia, Hong Xia, Ling Chen, Qing-Shui Ying, Xiang Yu, Li-Hua Li, Jian-Hua Wang, Ying Zhang
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) serves an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. However, administration of BMP-2 protein alone by intravenous delivery is not very effective. Sustained delivery of stabilized BMP-2 by carriers has been proven necessary to improve the osteogenesis effect of BMP-2. The present study constructed a novel drug delivery system using dextran sulfate (DS)-chitosan (CS) microspheres and investigated the efficiency of the delivery system on recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Guang-Zhe Huang, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Ye-Bo Zhou, Jing-Ji Zhang, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
The formation of mate recognition memory in mice is associated with neural changes at the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses between glutamatergic mitral cell (MC) projection neurons and GABAergic granule cell (GC) interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Although noradrenaline (NA) plays a critical role in the formation of the memory, the mechanism by which it exerts this effect remains unclear. Here we used extracellular field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to assess the actions of bath-applied NA (10 µM) on the glutamatergic transmission and its plasticity at the MC-to-GC synapse in the AOB...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Phu Hai Nguyen, Erika I Lutter, Ted Hackstadt
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion. At the end of their intracellular developmental cycle, chlamydiae are released either by lysis of the host cell or extrusion of the intact inclusion. The inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted inclusion membrane proteins, Incs, which contribute to inclusion membrane structure and facilitate host-pathogen interactions. An interaction was identified between the inclusion membrane protein, MrcA, and the Ca2+ channel inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 (ITPR3)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
A Augusto Peluso, Jesper Bork Bertelsen, Kenneth Andersen, Tenna Pavia Mortensen, Pernille B Hansen, Colin Sumners, Michael Bader, Robson A Santos, U Muscha Steckelings
The angiotensin AT2 receptor (AT2 R) promotes vasodilation by nitric oxide (NO) release from endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the AT2 R-induced stimulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is still not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated whether in addition to the known AT2 R-mediated phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, activation of phosphatases and dephosphorylation of eNOS at Tyr657 and Thr495 are also involved. Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAEC) were stimulated with the AT2 R-agonist C21 (1µM) in the presence or absence of either PD123319 (10µM; AT2 R-antagonist), L-NAME (10µM; eNOS inhibitor), MK-2206 (100nM; Akt-inhibitor) sodium fluoride (1nM; serine/threonine-phosphatase inhibitor) or sodium orthovanadate (10nM; tyrosine-phosphatase inhibitor)...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Uma Mahesh R Avula, Jonathan J Hernandez, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Carmen R Valdivia, Antony Chu, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Kuljeet Kaur, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Justus M Anumonwo, Stanley Nattel, Héctor H Valdivia, Jérôme Kalifa
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with atrial ischemia/infarction are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous AF in an ovine model of left atrial myocardial infarction (LAMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: LAMI was created by ligating the atrial branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. ECG loop recorders were implanted to monitor AF episodes. In 7 sheep, dantrolene-a ryanodine receptor blocker-was administered in vivo during the 8-day observation period (LAMI-D, 2...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Victor Matveev
Fundamental cell processes such as synaptic neurotransmitter release, endocrine hormone secretion, and myocyte contraction are controlled by highly localized calcium (Ca2+ ) signals resulting from brief openings of trans-membrane Ca2+ channels. On short temporal and spatial scales, the corresponding local Ca2+ nanodomains formed in the vicinity of a single or several open Ca2+ channels can be effectively approximated by quasi-stationary solutions. The rapid buffering approximation (RBA) is one of the most powerful of such approximations, and is based on the assumption of instantaneous equilibration of the bimolecular Ca2+ buffering reaction, combined with the conservation condition for the total Ca2+ and buffer molecule numbers...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Camille D Dago, Paul Le Maux, Thierry Roisnel, Christophe Brigaudeau, Yves-Alain Bekro, Olivier Mignen, Jean-Pierre Bazureau
From a series of (1 R , 1 S )-1[β-(phenylalkoxy)-(phenetyl)]-1 H -pyrazolium hydrochloride as new analogues of SKF-96365, one has an interesting effect for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) (IC50 25 μM) on the PLP-B lymphocyte cell line. A successful resolution of (±) 1-phenyl-2-(1 H -pyrazol-1-yl)ethan-1-ol has been developed by using the method of "half-concentration" in the presence of (+)-(1 S )- or (-)-(1 R )-CSA.
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lie Wang, Giri Kumar Chandaka, Robert C Foehring, Joseph C Callaway, William E Armstrong
Oxytocin (OT) neurons exhibit larger afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) following spike trains during pregnancy and lactation, when these neurons burst and release more OT. Calcium-dependent AHPs mediated by SK channels show this plasticity, and are reduced when the channel is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and increased when dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), by altering Ca2+ sensitivity. We compared AHP currents in supraoptic OT neurons after CK2 inhibition with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), or PP1-PP2A inhibition with okadaic acid (OA) focusing on the peak current at 100 ms representing the SK-mediated, medium AHP (ImAHP )...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Benshui Shu, Jingjing Zhang, Gaofeng Cui, Ranran Sun, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
Azadirachtin, the environmentally friendly botanical pesticide, has been used as an antifeedant and pest growth regulator in integrated pest management for decades. It has shown strong biological activity against Spodoptera litura , but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. The present study showed that azadirachtin inhibited the growth of S. litura larvae, which was resulted by structure destroy and size inhibition of the midgut. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of midgut suggested that azadirachtin regulated the transcriptional level of multiple unigenes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium apoptotic signaling pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Emmet A Francis, Volkmar Heinrich
Global bursts in free intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) are among the most conspicuous signaling events in immune cells. To test the common view that Ca2+ bursts mediate rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in response to the activation of G protein-coupled receptors, we combined single-cell manipulation with fluorescence imaging and monitored the Ca2+ concentration in individual human neutrophils during complement-mediated chemotaxis. By decoupling purely chemotactic pseudopod formation from cell-substrate adhesion, we showed that physiological concentrations of anaphylatoxins, such as C5a, induced nonadherent human neutrophils to form chemotactic pseudopods but did not elicit Ca2+ bursts...
March 13, 2018: Science Signaling
Yan Liu, Ling Zhang, Li-Na Niu, Tao Yu, Hockin H K Xu, Michael D Weir, Thomas W Oates, Franklin R Tay, Ji-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the bonding performance, antibacterial activity, and remineralization effect on enamel of the orthodontic adhesive containing MAE-DB and NACP. METHODS: Eighty non-carious human premolars were divided into 3 groups: Transbond XT (TB), PEHB + 5% MAE-DB (PD), and PEHB + 40% NACP + 5% MAE-DB (PND). Premolars were bonded with orthodontic brackets, the first subgroup (n = 10) and the second subgroup (n = 10) were subjected to shear bond strength testing after immersed in water for 1 day and in demineralization solution for 28 days respectively and then tested surface roughness, while the third subgroup (n = 6) was used for microhardness evaluation after aged in demineralization solution for 28 days...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Akiyuki Taruno
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stefano D'Errico, Nicola Borbone, Bruno Catalanotti, Agnese Secondo, Tiziana Petrozziello, Ilaria Piccialli, Anna Pannaccione, Valeria Costantino, Luciano Mayol, Gennaro Piccialli, Giorgia Oliviero
Herein, we reported on the synthesis of cpIPP, which is a new structurally-reduced analogue of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a potent Ca2+ -releasing secondary messenger that was firstly isolated from sea urchin eggs extracts. To obtain cpIPP the "northern" ribose of cADPR was replaced by a pentyl chain and the pyrophosphate moiety by a phophono-phosphate anhydride. The effect of the presence of the new phosphono-phosphate bridge on the intracellular Ca2+ release induced by cpIPP was assessed in PC12 neuronal cells in comparison with the effect of the pyrophosphate bridge of the structurally related cyclic N1-butylinosine diphosphate analogue (cbIDP), which was previously synthesized in our laboratories, and with that of the linear precursor of cpIPP, which, unexpectedly, revealed to be the only one provided with Ca2+ release properties...
March 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jenny A Wood, Hwei-Ting Tan, Helen M Collins, Kuok Yap, Shi Khor, Wai Li Lim, Xiaohui Xing, Vincent Bulone, Rachel A Burton, Geoffrey B Fincher, Matthew R Tucker
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important nutritionally-rich legume crop that is consumed worldwide. Prior to cooking, desi chickpea seeds are most often cleaved to release the split cotyledons, referred to as dhal. Compositional variation between desi genotypes has a significant impact on nutritional quality and downstream processing, and this has been investigated mainly in terms of starch and protein content. Studies in pulses such as bean and lupin have also implicated cell wall polysaccharides in cooking time variation, but the underlying relationship between desi chickpea cotyledon composition and cooking performance remains unclear...
March 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Yun-Mi Kang, Kyung-Sook Chung, In-Hoon Kook, Yoon-Bum Kook, Hyunsu Bae, Minho Lee, Hyo-Jin An
Although bee venom (BV) is a toxin that causes bee stings to be painful, it has been widely used clinically for the treatment of certain immune‑associated diseases. BV has been used traditionally for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this regard, the present study analyzed the effect of BV on the regulation of inflammatory mediator production by mast cells and their allergic inflammatory responses in an animal model. HMC‑1 cells were treated with BV prior to stimulation with phorbol‑12‑myristate 13‑acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Peter Hertelendy, Jozsef Toldi, Ferenc Fulop, Laszlo Vecsei
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability in developed countries. Stroke induces massive glutamate release, which in turn causes N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor over-excitation and thus calcium overload in neurons leading to cell death via apoptotic cascades. The kynurenine pathway is a complex enzymatic cascade of tryptophan catabolism, generating various neuroactive metabolites. One metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a potent endogenous NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, making it a possible therapeutic tool to decrease excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Debika Datta, Preeti Khatri, Ambika Singh, Dhira Rani Saha, Gaurav Verma, Rajagopal Raman, Shibnath Mazumder
Mycobacterium fortuitum is a natural fish pathogen. It induces apoptosis in headkidney macrophages (HKM) of catfish, Clarias sp though the mechanism remains largely unknown. We observed M. fortuitum triggers calcium (Ca2+ ) insult in the sub-cellular compartments which elicits pro-apototic ER-stress factor CHOP. Alleviating ER-stress inhibited CHOP and attenuated HKM apoptosis implicating ER-stress in the pathogenesis of M. fortuitum . ER-stress promoted calpain activation and silencing the protease inhibited caspase-12 activation...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Miusi Shi, Ruiwen Yang, Qin Li, Kangle Lv, Richard J Miron, Jie Sun, Mei Li, Yufeng Zhang
Since the discovery of osteoinduction in the early 20th century, innovative biomaterials with osteoinductive potential have emerged as candidates for bone repair. Recently, artificial protocell models have demonstrated great potential for tissue regeneration. Herein, we developed artificial bioactive proto-osteocells by self-assembly of biodegradable biphasic-phosphate particles in the form of aqueous-bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-containing pickering emulsions in corn oil to fulfill the release of BMP2 with controlled and local efficacy...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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