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Calcium release

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938789/impacts-of-dietary-calcium-phytate-and-phytase-on-inositol-hexakisphosphate-degradation-and-inositol-phosphate-release-in-different-segments-of-digestive-tract-of-broilers
#1
W Li, R Angel, S-W Kim, K Brady, S Yu, P W Plumstead
A total of 720 straight-run Heritage 56 M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler chickens was fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of dietary calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), and phytase concentrations on inositol phosphate (IP3-6) profile in different digestive tract (GI) segments. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%) and 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%) concentrations and 3 doses of Buttiauxella sp. phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg). The experiment was replicated in time (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938466/optogenetic-analysis-of-depolarization-dependent-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release
#2
Catalin Chimerel, Cristian Riccio, Keir Murison, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Incretin hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose homeostasis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreting cells have been demonstrated to be electrically excitable and to fire action potentials (APs) with increased frequency in response to nutrient exposure. However, nutrients can also be metabolised or activate G-protein-coupled receptors, thus potentially stimulate GLP-1 secretion independent of their effects on the plasma membrane potential. Here we used channelrhodopsins to manipulate the membrane potential of GLUTag cells, a well established model of GLP-1 secreting enteroendocrine L-cells...
July 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937414/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-citrullination
#3
Erika Darrah, Felipe Andrade
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated citrullination is a key element that drives the production and maintenance of antibodies to citrullinated proteins, a hallmark in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This article reviews recent literature on the origin of citrullinated antigens in RA. RECENT FINDINGS: The study of synovial fluid from patients with RA has provided important insights into the identity of citrullinated proteins that accumulate in the RA joint (the RA citrullinome) and mechanisms that control their generation...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935606/calcimycin-mediates-mycobacterial-killing-by-inducing-intracellular-calcium-regulated-autophagy-in-a-p2rx7-dependent-manner
#4
Shradha Mawatwal, Assirbad Behura, Abhirupa Ghosh, Saqib Kidwai, Abtar Mishra, Amar Deep, Sakshi Agarwal, Sudipto Saha, Ramandeep Singh, Rohan Dhiman
Phenotypic screening led to the identification of calcimycin as a potent inhibitor of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (M. bovis BCG) growth in vitro and in THP-1 cells. In the present study, we aim to decipher the mechanism of antimycobacterial activity of calcimycin. We noticed that treatment with calcimycin led to up-regulation of different autophagy markers like Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 7, Atg 3 and enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II conversion in macrophages...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933232/reactive-oxygen-species-inhibit-catalytic-activity-of-peptidylarginine-deiminase
#5
Dres Damgaard, Mads Emil Bjørn, Peter Østrup Jensen, Claus Henrik Nielsen
Protein citrullination catalysed by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) may play an important pathogenic role in several chronic inflammatory diseases and malignancies. PAD2, PAD4, and citrullinated proteins are found in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis patients. PAD activity is dependent on calcium and reducing conditions. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to induce citrullination of histones in granulocytes. Here we examine the ability of H2O2 and leukocyte-derived ROS to regulate PAD activity using citrullination of fibrinogen as read-out...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930666/effects-of-copyrolysis-of-sludge-with-calcium-carbonate-and-calcium-hydrogen-phosphate-on-chemical-stability-of-carbon-and-release-of-toxic-elements-in-the-resultant-biochars
#6
Xuebin Xu, Xin Hu, Zhuhong Ding, Yijun Chen
The potential release of toxic elements and the stability of carbon in sludge-based biochars are important on their application in soil remediation and wastewater treatment. In this study, municipal sludge was co-pyrolyzed with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate [Ca(H2PO4)2] under 300 and 600 °C, respectively. The basic physicochemical properties of the resultant biochars were characterized and laboratory chemical oxidation and leaching experiments of toxic elements were conducted to evaluate the chemical stability of carbon in biochars and the potential release of toxic elements from biochars...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930342/yolk-shell-nanocomposite-particles-as-bioactive-bone-fillers-and-growth-factor-carriers
#7
Pujiang Shi, Sunny A Abbah, Yon Jin Chuah, Jun Li, Yong Zhang, Pengfei He, Hee Kit Wong, James C H Goh
The efficient delivery of bioactive molecules via rationally designed nanoparticles is an important focus in regenerative medicine. The yolk shell nanocomposite particles described herein are composed of silk fibroin movable cores formed within voided calcium carbonate shells to load and control the release of labile cytokines. These particles are excellent carrier vehicles of potent molecules as they sustained the release of bioactive Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) for more than 28 days in vitro. Implantation into bone defects in rabbits corroborates the in vitro results and also reveals that upon contact with phosphate containing body fluids, implanted yolk shell particles agglomerate and transform into a filler that adapts to defect contour to further act as an absorbable hemostatic agent...
September 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927994/current-bone-substitutes-for-implant-dentistry
#8
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamada, Hiroshi Egusa
PURPOSE: Alveolar ridge augmentation is essential for success in implant therapy and depends on the biological performance of bone graft materials. This literature review aims to comprehensively explain the clinically relevant capabilities and limitations of currently available bone substitutes for bone augmentation in light of biomaterial science. STUDY SELECTION: The biological performance of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes was categorized according to space-making capability, biocompatibility, bioabsorption, and volume maintenance over time...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926192/testing-of-a-bioactive-moldable-bone-graft-substitute-in-an-infected-critically-sized-segmental-defect-model
#9
Matt E Brown, Yuan Zou, Rebecca Peyyala, Sarandeep S Huja, Larry L Cunningham, Todd A Milbrandt, Thomas D Dziubla, David A Puleo
Large infected bone defects, often resulting from high energy traumas, are difficult to treat due to their variability in complexity and location. Standard treatment for infected bone defects begins with a protocol that includes a series of debridements in conjunction with an extended course of systemic antibiotics. Only after the infection has been eliminated will repair of the defect commence, typically with implantation of autologous bone. To address some of the shortcomings of the standard treatment methods, such as serial procedures, limited grafting material, and the need for a second surgical site for autologous bone, a sequential, dual drug-releasing, moldable, calcium sulfate-based bone graft substitute was developed previously...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925491/corrosion-behavior-of-dental-implants-immersed-into-human-saliva-preliminary-results-of-an-in-vitro-study
#10
M Barbieri, F Mencio, P Papi, D Rosella, S Di Carlo, T Valente, G Pompa
OBJECTIVE: Over the years, different implant surfaces have been used to try to maximize bone to implant contact. The aim of this study was to compare levels of metallic ions and particles dissolution collected from two different dental implants surfaces immersed into human saliva. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 60 dental implants were tested. Group A: sanded with aluminium oxide medium grade particles and acid-etched; Group B: micro-sanded with calcium phosphate powders and acid-etched...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924617/dynamics-of-sodium-current-mediated-early-afterdepolarizations
#11
Daisuke Sato, Colleen E Clancy, Donald M Bers
Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) have been attributed to two primary mechanisms: 1) recovery from inactivation of the L-type calcium (Ca) channel and/or 2) spontaneous Ca release, which depolarizes the membrane potential through the electrogenic sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX). The sodium (Na) current (INa), especially the late component of the Na current, has been recognized as an important player to set up the conditions for EADs by reducing repolarization reserve and increasing intracellular Na concentration, which leads to Ca overload...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923769/reconstitutable-spray-dried-ultra-fine-dispersion-as-a-robust-platform-for-effective-oral-delivery-of-an-antihyperlipidemic-drug
#12
Mona Basha, Alaa H Salama, Sally El Awdan
The current article highlights the application of spray drying technique to produce an ultra-fine powder encapsulating the antihyperlipidemic drug, atorvastatin calcium (ATV). First, ATV was dissolved in an emulsion formulation, and different carriers (pectin, alginate, chitosan HCl and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) in two concentrations (1.5 and 3%) were added. Then, these carrier-containing formulations were subjected to spray drying, whereby ultra-fine ATV-loaded spray dried emulsions were produced (ATV-SDE)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921983/the-first-state-in-the-catalytic-cycle-of-the-water-oxidizing-enzyme-identification-of-a-water-derived-%C3%AE-hydroxo-bridge
#13
Thomas Lohmiller, Vera Krewald, Arezki Sedoud, A William Rutherford, Frank Neese, Wolfgang Lubitz, Dimitrios A Pantazis, Nicholas Cox
Nature's water splitting catalyst, an oxygen-bridged tetra-manganese calcium (Mn4O5Ca) complex, sequentially activates two substrate water molecules generating molecular O2. Its reaction cycle is composed of five intermediate (Si) states, where the index i indicates the number of oxidizing equivalents stored by the cofactor. After formation of the S4 state, the product dioxygen is released and the cofactor returns to its lowest oxidation state, S0. Membrane-inlet mass spectrometry measurements suggest that at least one substrate is bound throughout the catalytic cycle, as the rate of (18)O-labeled water incorporation into the product O2 is slow, on a millisecond to second timescale depending on the S state...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921719/inflammation-alters-ampa-stimulated-calcium-responses-in-dorsal-striatal-d2-but-not-d1-spiny-projection-neurons
#14
Carissa D Winland, Nora Welsh, Alberto Sepulveda-Rodriguez, Stefano Vicini, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss
Neuroinflammation precedes neuronal loss in striatal neurodegenerative diseases and can be exacerbated by the release of proinflammatory molecules by microglia. These molecules can affect trafficking of AMPARs. The preferential trafficking of calcium-permeable versus impermeable AMPARs can result in disruptions of [Ca(2+) ]i and alter cellular functions. In striatal neurodegenerative diseases, changes in [Ca(2+) ]i and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) have been reported. Therefore, the present study sought to determine whether a proinflammatory environment alters AMPA-stimulated [Ca(2+) ]i through calcium-permeable AMPARs and/or L-type VGCCs in dopamine-2 and dopamine-1 expressing striatal spiny projection neurons (D2 and D1 SPNs) in the dorsal striatum...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918606/kinetic-coupling-of-phosphate-release-force-generation-and-rate-limiting-steps-in-the-cross-bridge-cycle
#15
Robert Stehle, Chiara Tesi
A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between Pi release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [Pi]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-Pi discovered that rapid increases in [Pi] induce fast force decays dependent on final [Pi] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to Pi release...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918503/coq0-induced-mitochondrial-ptp-opening-triggers-apoptosis-via-ros-mediated-vdac1-upregulation-in-hl-60-leukemia-cells-and-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-athymic-nude-mice-xenografted-nude-mice
#16
You-Cheng Hseu, Varadharajan Thiyagarajan, Ting-Tsz Ou, Hsin-Ling Yang
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogs with variable numbers of isoprenoid units have been demonstrated as anticancer and antioxidant/pro-oxidant molecules. This study examined the in vitro and in vivo antitumor and apoptosis activities of CoQ0 (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, zero isoprenoid side-chains) through upregulation of the Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) signaling pathway on human promyelocytic leukemia. CoQ0 (0-40 μg/mL) treatment significantly reduced HL-60 cell viability, and up-regulated mitochondrial VDAC1 expression...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917183/visualisation-of-an-nspef-induced-calcium-wave-using-the-genetically-encoded-calcium-indicator-gcamp-in-u87-human-glioblastoma-cells
#17
Lynn Carr, Sylvia M Bardet, Delia Arnaud-Cormos, Philippe Leveque, Rodney P O'Connor
Cytosolic, synthetic chemical calcium indicators are typically used to visualise the rapid increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration that follows nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) application. This study looks at the application of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) to investigate the spatiotemporal nature of nsPEF-induced calcium signals using fluorescent live cell imaging. Calcium responses to 44kV/cm, 10ns pulses were observed in U87-MG cells expressing either a plasma membrane targeted GECI (GCaMP5-G), or one cytosolically expressed (GCaMP6-S), and compared to the response of cells loaded with cytosolic or plasma membrane targeted chemical calcium indicators...
September 8, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916966/evaluation-of-in-vitro-efficacy-of-docetaxel-loaded-calcium-carbonate-aragonite-nanoparticles-dtx-caco3np-on-4t1-mouse-breast-cancer-cell-line
#18
Nahidah Ibrahim Hammadi, Yusuf Abba, Mohd Noor Mohd Hezmee, Intan Shameha Abdul Razak, Aminu Umar Kura, Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria
Cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticles have shown promising potentials as slow drug-releasing compounds in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of docetaxel (DTX)-loaded CaCO3NP on 4T1 cell line. This was achieved by evaluating the following: cytotoxicity using MTT assay, fluorescence imaging, apoptosis with Annexin V assay, cell cycle analysis, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scratch assay. Based on the results, DTX-CaCO3NP with a DTX concentration of 0...
September 15, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916471/the-pyk2-mcu-pathway-in-the-rat-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#19
Kun Zhang, Jiajia Yan, Liang Wang, Xinying Tian, Tong Zhang, Li Guo, Bin Li, Wang Wang, Xiaoyun Liu
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Ca(2+) overload plays an important role in ischemia-induced brain damage. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), located on the mitochondrial inner membrane, is the major channel responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Activated proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) can directly phosphorylate MCU, which enhances mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in cardiomyocytes. It has been suggested that the Pyk2/MCU pathway may be a novel therapeutic target in stress-induced cellular apoptosis...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916382/influence-of-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-and-calcium-chloride-on-the-molecular-structure-and-interactions-of-casein-micelles
#20
Yu Zhuang, Ikuko Ueda, Ulrich Kulozik, Ronald Gebhardt
Targeted processing of casein micelles (CM) requires a basic understanding of their molecular structure as well as their interactions with each other and with other components. In this study, angle- and concentration-dependent static and dynamic light scattering is applied to investigate changes in the molecular weight, size, and intermolecular interactions of CM after the addition of β-lactoglobulin (ß-Lg) and calcium chloride. Addition of a surplus of ß-Lg impairs the colloidal stability of CM. In the presence of 0...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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