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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330867/preferential-cholinergic-excitation-of-corticopontine-neurons
#1
Arielle L Baker, Ryan J O'Toole, Allan T Gulledge
Pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of the neocortex comprise two broad classes of projection neurons: corticofugal neurons, including corticopontine (CPn) neurons, and intratelencephalic neurons, including commissural/callosal (COM) neurons. These non-overlapping neuron subpopulations represent discrete cortical output channels contributing to perception, decision making, and behaviour. CPn and COM neurons have distinct morphological and physiological characteristics, and divergent responses to modulatory transmitters such as serotonin and acetylcholine (ACh)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329729/elevated-neuron-specific-enolase-and-s100-calcium-binding-protein-b-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#2
Baozhu Liu, Zuoshan Xie, Guanghui Liu, Yong Gu, Suyue Pan, Honghao Wang
BACKGROUND: Anti‑N‑methyl‑d‑aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune neurological disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) are structural proteins of the central nervous system (CNS). In patients with CNS injury accompanied by nervous tissue and cellular damage, these structural proteins are released from cells; their extracellular concentrations, including those in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, subsequently increase...
January 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329716/gelatin-hydroxyapatite-calcium-sulphate-based-biomaterial-for-long-term-sustained-delivery-of-bone-morphogenic-protein-2-and-zoledronic-acid-for-increased-bone-formation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-carrier-properties
#3
Deepak Bushan Raina, David Larsson, Filip Mrkonjic, Hanna Isaksson, Ashok Kumar, Lars Lidgren, Magnus Tägil
In this study, a novel macroporous composite biomaterial consisting of gelatin-hydroxyapatite-calcium sulphate for delivery of bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and zoledronic acid (ZA) has been developed. The biomaterial scaffold has a porous structure and functionalization of the scaffold with rhBMP-2 induces osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-e1 cells seen by a significant increase in biochemical and genetic markers of osteoblastic differentiation. In-vivo muscle pouch experiments showed higher mineralization using scaffold+rhBMP-2 when compared to an approved absorbable collagen sponge (ACS)+rhBMP-2 as verified by micro-CT...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325603/culture-conditions-affect-ca2-release-in-artificially-activated-mouse-and-human-oocytes
#4
Yuechao Lu, Davina Bonte, Minerva Ferrer-Buitrago, Mina Popovic, Jitesh Neupane, Margot Van der Jeught, Luc Leybaert, Petra De Sutter, Björn Heindryckx
Inconsistent fertilisation and pregnancy rates have been reported by different laboratories after application of ionomycin as a clinical method of assisted oocyte activation (AOA) to overcome fertilisation failure. Using both mouse and human oocytes, in the present study we investigated the effects of ionomycin and Ca2+ concentrations on the pattern of Ca2+ release and embryonic developmental potential. In the mouse, application of 5μM ionomycin in potassium simplex optimisation medium (KSOM) or 10µM ionomycin in Ca2+-free KSOM significantly reduced the Ca2+ flux and resulted in failure of blastocyst formation compared with 10μM ionomycin in KSOM...
January 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325118/interactive-effects-of-phosphorus-calcium-and-phytase-supplements-on-products-of-phytate-degradation-in-the-digestive-tract-of-broiler-chickens
#5
V Sommerfeld, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
This study aimed to distinguish between the single and interactive effects of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and phytase on products of phytate degradation, including the disappearance of myo-inositol (MI), P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) in different segments of the digestive tract in broiler chickens. Additionally, all dephosphorylation steps from myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) to MI were investigated in the digesta of the terminal ileum. Unsexed Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to 56 pens with 19 birds per pen, and assigned to one of 8 dietary treatments...
January 6, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323763/calcium-responsive-liposomes-via-a-synthetic-lipid-switch
#6
Jinchao Lou, Adam Carr, Alexa Watson, Samuel Mattern-Schain, Michael D Best
Liposomal drug delivery would benefit from enhanced control over content release. Here, we report a novel avenue for triggering release driven by chemical composition using liposomes sensitized to calcium, a target chosen due to its key roles in biology and disease. To demonstrate this principle, we synthesized calcium responsive lipid switch 1, designed to undergo conformational changes upon calcium binding that perturb membrane integrity, thereby promoting release. This was shown through fluorescence-based release assays via dose-dependent response depending on the percentage of 1 in liposomes, with minimal background leakage in controls...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323715/alleviation-of-palmitic-acid-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-through-ip3r-controlled-ca2-release
#7
Wei-Chun Xiao, Zhang Jing, Si-Li Chen, Yi-Jun Shi, Fan Xiao, Wei An
The aberrant release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributes to the onset of ER stress, which is closely related to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We previously reported that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) alleviates ER stress and protects hepatocytes from lipotoxicity. However, the link between ALR protection and the suppression of ER stress remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the protection against liver steatosis afforded by ALR is related to its inhibition of calcium overflow from the ER to the mitochondria...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323659/production-deformation-and-mechanical-investigation-of-magnetic-alginate-capsules
#8
Elena Zwar, Andre Kemna, Lena Richter, Patrick Degen, Heinz Rehage
In this article we investigated the deformation of alginate capsules in magnetic fields. The sensitivity to magnetic forces was realised by encapsulating an oil in water emulsion, where the oil droplets contained dispersed magnetic nanoparticles. We solved calcium ions in the aqueous emulsion phase, which act as crosslinking compounds for forming thin layers of alginate membranes. This encapsulating technique allows the production of flexible capsules with an emulsion as the capsule core. It is important to mention that the magnetic nanoparticles were stable and dispersed throughout the complete process, which is an important difference to most magnetic alginate-based materials...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323467/interactions-between-clinically-used-bisphosphonates-and-bone-mineral-from-coordination-chemistry-to-biomedical-applications-and-beyond
#9
Joanna Gałęzowska
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are well established, widely used first-choice drugs for bone-related diseases and are one of the few classes of molecules for selective bone-targeting. Their binding to calcium cations within hydroxyapatite (HA) is a key physico-chemical event taking place on the bone surface. It is the starting point for a cascade of biochemical reactions and cellular effects that lead to the pharmacological activity of BPs. The phenomenon is known for years, yet still its physicochemical nature is not fully understood...
January 11, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321326/the-amino-terminus-of-hsv-1-glycoprotein-k-gk-is-required-for-gb-binding-to-akt-release-of-intracellular-calcium-and-fusion-of-the-viral-envelope-with-plasma-membranes
#10
Farhana Musarrat, Nithya Jambunathan, Paul J F Rider, V N Chouljenko, K G Kousoulas
Previously, we have shown that the amino terminus of glycoprotein K (gK) binds to the amino terminus of gB and that deletion of the amino terminal 38 amino acids of gK prevents virus infection of mouse trigeminal ganglia after ocular infection and virus entry into neuronal axons. Recently, it has been shown that gB binds to Akt during virus entry and induces Akt phosphorylation and intracellular calcium release. Proximity ligation and two-way immunoprecipitation assays using monoclonal antibodies against gB and Akt-1 (phospho S473) confirmed that HSV-1(McKrae) gB interacted with Akt-1 (phospo S473) during virus entry into human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cells and induced release of intracellular calcium...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320748/true-molecular-scale-visualization-of-variable-clustering-properties-of-ryanodine-receptors
#11
Isuru Jayasinghe, Alexander H Clowsley, Ruisheng Lin, Tobias Lutz, Carl Harrison, Ellen Green, David Baddeley, Lorenzo Di Michele, Christian Soeller
Signaling nanodomains rely on spatial organization of proteins to allow controlled intracellular signaling. Examples include calcium release sites of cardiomyocytes where ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are clustered with their molecular partners. Localization microscopy has been crucial to visualizing these nanodomains but has been limited by brightness of markers, restricting the resolution and quantification of individual proteins clustered within. Harnessing the remarkable localization precision of DNA-PAINT (<10 nm), we visualized punctate labeling within these nanodomains, confirmed as single RyRs...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319803/down-regulation-of-glutamate-release-from-hippocampal-neurons-by-sialidase
#12
Minami Akira, Ami Ishii, Sumika Shimba, Takahiro Kano, Eri Fujioka, Saki Sai, Nagisa Oshio, Sayaka Ishibashi, Tadanobu Takahashi, Yuuki Kurebayashi, Hiroaki Kanazawa, Nobuhiro Yuki, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Takashi Suzuki
Sialidase, which removes sialic acid residues in sialylglycoconjugates, is essential for hippocampal memory and synaptic plasticity. Enzyme activity of sialidase is rapidly increased in response to neural excitation. Because sialic acid bound to gangliosides such as the tetra-sialoganglioside GQ1b is crucial for calcium signaling and neurotransmitter release, neural activity-dependent removal of sialic acid may affect hippocampal neurotransmission. In the present study, we found that 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), a sialidase inhibitor, increased expression of ganglioside GQ1b/GT1a in hippocampal acute slices...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318454/gl261-glioma-tumor-cells-respond-to-atp-with-an-intracellular-calcium-rise-and-glutamate-release
#13
Averey D Strong, M Caitlin Indart, Nolan R Hill, Richard L Daniels
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with an average survival rate of 15 months. The composition of the GBM tumor microenvironment-its pH, the presence of growth and immune factors, neurotransmitters, and gliotransmitters-plays an important role in GBM pathophysiology and facilitates tumor survival and growth. In particular, GBM tumor cells produce glutamate, which is toxic to healthy tissue and is associated with increased tumor invasion into adjacent brain regions. The conditions that lead to this excitotoxic release of glutamate are not completely understood...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317753/influences-of-mesoporous-magnesium-calcium-silicate-on-mineralization-degradability-cell-responses-curcumin-release-from-macro-mesoporous-scaffolds-of-gliadin-based-biocomposites
#14
Sicheng Wang, Zhengrong Gu, Zhiwei Wang, Xiao Chen, Liehu Cao, Liang Cai, Quan Li, Jie Wei, Jung-Woog Shin, Jiacan Su
Macro-mesoporous scaffolds based on wheat gliadin (WG)/mesoporous magnesium calcium silicate (m-MCS) biocomposites (WMC) were developed for bone tissue regeneration. The increasing amount of m-MCS significantly improved the mesoporosity and water absorption of WMC scaffolds while slightly decreased their compressive strength. With the increase of m-MCS content, the degradability of WMC scaffolds was obviously enhanced, and the decrease of pH value could be slow down after soaking in Tris-HCl solution for different time...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317705/pneumolysin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leads-to-release-of-mitochondrial-dna
#15
Andreas Nerlich, Maren Mieth, Eleftheria Letsiou, Diana Fatykhova, Katja Zscheppang, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Thomas F Meyer, Lisa Paasch, Timothy J Mitchell, Mario Tönnies, Torsten T Bauer, Paul Schneider, Jens Neudecker, Jens C Rückert, Stephan Eggeling, Maria Schimek, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel, Andreas C Hocke
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pn.) is the most common bacterial pathogen causing community acquired pneumonia. The pore-forming toxin pneumolysin (PLY) is the major virulence factor of S.pn. and supposed to affect alveolar epithelial cells thereby activating the immune system by liberation of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP). To test this hypothesis, we established a novel live-cell imaging based assay to analyse mitochondrial function and associated release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as DAMP in real-time...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317396/pregabalin-as-adjunctive-therapy-in-benzodiazepine-discontinuation
#16
Kaylee Caniff, Emily Telega, Jolene R Bostwick, Kristen N Gardner
PURPOSE: The available evidence for the use of pregabalin as adjunctive therapy in the discontinuation of benzodiazepines is reviewed. SUMMARY: Pregabalin has been studied as an adjunctive pharmacologic treatment for the discontinuation of long-term benzodiazepine use. Unlike carbamazepine, pregabalin has little potential for drug interactions, and its adverse effects are mostly mild and transient. Pregabalin reduces the release of excitatory neurotransmitters by binding to regulatory subunits of voltage-activated calcium channels...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317246/presynaptic-calcium-channels
#17
REVIEW
Sumiko Mochida
At the presynaptic terminal, neuronal firing activity induces membrane depolarization and subsequent Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels triggers neurotransmitter release from the active zone. Presynaptic Ca2+ channels form a large signaling complex, which targets synaptic vesicles to Ca2+ channels for efficient release and mediates Ca2+ channel regulation. The presynaptic CaV2 channel family (comprising CaV2.1, CaV2.2 and CaV2.3 isoforms) encode the pore-forming α1 subunit. The cytoplasmic regions are the target of regulatory proteins for channel modulation...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316208/effect-of-bone-sialoprotein-coated-three-dimensional-printed-calcium-phosphate-scaffolds-on-primary-human-osteoblasts
#18
Anja Klein, Andreas Baranowski, Ulrike Ritz, Hermann Götz, Sascha Heinemann, Stefan Mattyasovszky, Pol M Rommens, Alexander Hofmann
The combination of the two techniques of rapid prototyping 3D-plotting and bioactive surface functionalization is presented, with emphasis on the in vitro effect of Bone Sialoprotein (BSP) on primary human osteoblasts (hOBs). Our primary objective was to demonstrate the BSP influence on the expression of distinctive osteoblast markers in hOBs. Secondary objectives included examinations of the scaffolds' surface and the stability of BSP-coating as well as investigations of cell viability and proliferation. 3D-plotted calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were coated with BSP via physisorption...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313334/design-of-phase-changeable-and-injectable-alginate-hydrogel-for-imaging-guided-tumor-hyperthermia-and-chemotherapy
#19
Jiulong Zhao, Jialing Li, Chunping Zhu, Fei Hu, Hongyu Wu, Xiaohua Man, Zhaoshen Li, Changqing Ye, Duowu Zou, Shige Wang
The objective of the present study was to construct an alginate (AG) phase-changeable and injectable hydrogel for imaging-guided tumor hyperthermia and chemotherapy. Based on the binding between the α-L-guluronic blocks of AG and calcium ions, the AG/MoS2/Bi2S3-PEG (MBP)/doxorubicin (DOX) solution formed a cross-linked hydrogel to simultaneously encapsulate MBP nanosheets and DOX within the hydrogel matrix. The in situ-formed hydrogel can act as a reservoir to control the release of entrapped drug molecules, and the doped MBP nanosheets and DOX can realize computed tomography/photoacoustic dual-modal imaging-guided in vivo tumor PTT and chemotherapy, respectively...
January 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311524/effects-of-water-addition-to-prevent-deterioration-of-soybean-oil-by-calcium-silicate-adsorbent
#20
Fumihiko Ogata, Mikako Obayashi, Eri Nagahashi, Takehiro Nakamura, Naohito Kawasaki
In this study, we prepared calcium silicate at different molar ratios (Ca:Si=1:3, 1:6, and 1:9 refer to CAS-30S, CAS-60S, and CAS-90S, respectively) with water addition. The adsorbent characteristics (specific surface area, pore volume, mean pore diameter, and elemental analysis) were measured and the effect of water addition on the adsorbent surface for the prevention of deterioration was evaluated. In addition, the deterioration of soybean oil (SO) subjected to heating and aeration was investigated based on the acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV)...
2018: Journal of Oleo Science
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