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Ashlee J Howarth, Cassandra T Buru, Yangyang Liu, Ann M Ploskonka, Karel J Hartlieb, Monica McEntee, John J Mahle, James H Buchanan, Erin M Durke, Salih S Al-Juaid, J Fraser Stoddart, Jared B Decoste, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
A fullerene-based photosensitizer is incorporated postsynthetically into a Zr6-based MOF, NU-1000, for enhanced singlet oxygen production. The structural organic linkers in the MOF platform also act as photosensitizers which contribute to the overall generation of singlet oxygen from the material under UV irradiation. The singlet oxygen generated by the MOF/fullerene material is shown to oxidize sulfur mustard selectively to the less toxic bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfoxide with a half-life of only 11 min.
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yunes Panahi, Danial Roshandel, Mohammad Mehdi Sadoughi, Mostafa Ghanei, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM; mustard gas) is a classic chemical warfare agent that has been used in several wars and is still a potential threat especially in the Middle-East region. Victims experience acute symptoms in air-exposed organs including skin, respiratory tract and the eyes. Survivors of the acute stage might develop chronic or delayed-onset complications in the exposed organs. The exact mechanism(s) of SM-induced tissue damage is still unknown, however DNA alkylation and oxidative damage are the most relevant mechanisms...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xiuli Chen, Hao Chen, Chunyan Lu, Chao Yang, Xiaoqi Yu, Kun Li, Yongmei Xie
In this report, the design of two novel nitrogen mustard-based DNA cross-linking agents with fluorophores incorporated into the structure (TN-A and TN-B) is disclosed. The results indicate that TN-A and TN-B can serve directly as both reporting and imaging agents for flow cytometry and gel electrophoresis without the necessity of another fluorescent tagging agents. TN-A and TN-B both selectively locate in the mitochondria and exhibit good antitumor activity. Notably, TN-A is the first DNA crosslinking agent with near infrared fluorescence emission properties...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Stefano Papazian, Eliezer Khaling, Christelle Bonnet, Steve Lassueur, Philippe Reymond, Thomas Moritz, James Blande, Benedicte Riber Albrectsen
Plants have evolved adaptive mechanisms that allow them to tolerate a continuous range of abiotic and biotic stressors. Tropospheric ozone (O3), a global anthropogenic pollutant, directly affects living organisms and ecosystems, including plant-herbivore interactions. In this study, we investigate the stress responses of wild black mustard (Brassica nigra) exposed consecutively to O3 and the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae. Transcriptomics and metabolomics data were evaluated using multivariate, correlation, and network analyses for the O3 and herbivory responses...
October 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
Mohammad Uzzal Hossain, Arafat Rahman Oany, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq Ahmad, Md Anayet Hasan, Md Arif Khan, Md Al Ahad Siddikey
Chagas is a parasitic disease with major threat to public health due to its resistance against commonly available drugs. Trypanothione reductase (TryR) is the key enzyme to develop this disease. Though this enzyme is well thought-out as potential drug target, the accurate structure of enzyme-inhibitor complex is required to design a potential inhibitor which is less available for TryR. In this research, we aimed to investigate the advanced drug over the available existing drugs by designing inhibitors as well as to identify a new enzyme-inhibitor complex that may act as a template for drug design...
October 7, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
C Vijayakumar, M Ramesh, A Murugesan, N Panneerselvam, D Subramaniam, M Bharathiraja
The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bernhard Stenger, Tanja Popp, Harald John, Markus Siegert, Amelie Tsoutsoulopoulos, Annette Schmidt, Harald Mückter, Thomas Gudermann, Horst Thiermann, Dirk Steinritz
Transient receptor potential family channels (TRPs) have been identified as relevant targets in many pharmacological as well as toxicological studies. TRP channels are ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and act among others as sensors for different external stimuli, such as mechanical stress or noxious impacts. Recent studies suggest that one member of this family, the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 cation channel (TRPA1), is involved in pain, itch, and various diseases, suggesting TRPA1 as a potential therapeutic target...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Marion K Gordon, Andrea DeSantis-Rodrigues, Rita Hahn, Peihong Zhou, Yokechen Chang, Kathy K H Svoboda, Donald R Gerecke
Mustard exposures result in epithelial-stromal separations in the cornea and epidermal-dermal separations in the skin. Large blisters often manifest in skin, while the cornea develops microblisters, and, when enough form, the epithelium sloughs. If the exposure is severe, healing can be imperfect and can result in long-term adverse consequences. For the cornea, this could manifest as recurrent corneal erosions. Since the corneal epithelial-stromal separations are in the region identified by electron microscopy as the lamina lucida, the same region affected by the blistering disease junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), we postulated that the molecules that are defective in JEB would be the same ones cleaved by mustard compounds...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Yasumitsu Ogra, Yurie Ogihara, Yasumi Anan
The metabolism of selenomethionine (SeMet) in two major selenium (Se) accumulator plants, garlic and Indian mustard, was compared to that of stable isotope labeled selenate. Indian mustard more efficiently transported Se from roots to leaves than garlic. In addition, Indian mustard accumulated larger amounts of Se than garlic. γ-Glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine (γ-GluMeSeCys) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) were the common metabolites of selenate and SeMet in garlic and Indian mustard. Indian mustard had a specific metabolic pathway to selenohomolanthionine (SeHLan) from both inorganic and organic Se species...
September 23, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Luke Bell, Lisa Methven, Angelo Signore, Maria Jose Oruna-Concha, Carol Wagstaff
Sensory and chemical analyses were performed on accessions of rocket (Eruca sativa) to determine phytochemical influences on sensory attributes. A trained panel was used to evaluate leaves, and chemical data were obtained for polyatomic ions, amino acids, sugars and organic acids. These chemical data (and data of glucosinolates, flavonols and headspace volatiles previously reported) were used in Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine variables statistically important to sensory traits. Significant differences were observed between samples for polyatomic ion and amino acid concentrations...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Hyeon-Jeong Son, Kyung Bin Song
This study examined the antimicrobial activity of flaxseed meal extract (FME) against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on red mustard. With the treatment of 0.7% FME for 3 min, the reduction levels of S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7 populations were 1.23 and 1.83 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, the combined treatment of 0.7% FME at 50°C for 3 min reduced the populations of the pathogenic bacteria by 2.28 and 2.41 log CFU/g, respectively. Color and vitamin C content were not significantly different between treatments...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
S N Emadi, M Shiri, Z Shiri, S E Emadi, H Mortazavi, A Nikoo, J Akhavan-Moghaddam
BACKGROUND: sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating chemical warfare which causes acute and chronic injuries to the eyes, skin, lung, and respiratory tract. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relationship between SM poisoning and Mycosis Fungoides (MF) as a late consequence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the medical files of 1100 Iranian veterans confirmed to have exposure to SM agent during the Iraq-Iran war of the 1980s were reviewed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Wen-Juan Huang, Wei-Wei Chen, Xia Zhang
Central nervous system-based cancers have a much higher mortality rate with the 2016 estimates at 6.4 for incidence and 4.3 for deaths per 100,000 individuals. Grade IV astrocytomas, known as glioblastomas are highly aggressive and show a high proliferation index, diffused infiltration, angiogenesis, microvascular proliferation and pleomorphic vessels, resistance to apoptosis, and pseudopalisading necrosis. Extensive hypoxic regions in glioblastomas contribute to the highly malignant phenotype of these tumors...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
P C Moharana, D R Biswas
This study aimed to asses maturity indices of rock phosphate enriched composts using crop residues having variable C/N ratios. There were distinct differences in concentration of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K for composts generated from different crop residues, the highest being in rice straw. Water soluble P varied from 3.47-4.45% of total P, while citrate soluble P varied from 32.7-54.0% of total P. Rice straw composts showed lower C/N, WSC/Org-N and E4/E6 ratio and higher germination index indicating that they are well-matured and stabilized compost...
September 28, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Hyunsook Jung, Dongha Kah, Kyoung Chan Lim, Jin Young Lee
After application of sulfur mustard to the soil surface, its possible fate via evaporation, degradation following absorption, and vapor emission after decontamination was studied. We used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorber, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) for systematic analysis. When a drop of neat HD was deposited on the soil surface, it evaporated slowly while being absorbed immediately into the matrix. The initial evaporation or drying rates of the HD drop were found to be power-dependent on temperature and initial drop volume...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Arif Jetha, Cynthia Chen, Cameron Mustard, Selahadin Ibrahim, Amber Bielecky, Dorcas Beaton, Peter Smith
OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between incidence of diagnosed chronic disease and work status and hours worked. METHODS: A dynamic cohort approach was taken to construct our study sample using the Canadian National Population Health Survey. Participant inclusion criteria included being employed and without a chronic health condition in the survey cycle prior to diagnosis, and participation in consecutive surveys following diagnosis. Each respondent was matched with up to 5 respondents without a diagnosed health condition...
September 30, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Eva Ortner, Michael Granvogl, Peter Schieberle
Heat-processing of Brassica seeds led to the formation of a characteristic pleasant popcorn-like and coffee-like aroma impression compared to the mainly pea-like aroma of the corresponding raw seeds. To analyze this phenomenon on a molecular basis, raw and roasted white mustard seeds and rapeseeds were analyzed using the Sensomics approach. Application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) and identification experiments to raw and roasted (140 °C, 30 min) mustard seeds revealed 36 odorants (all identified for the first time) and 47 odorants (41 newly identified), respectively...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nejla Hechmi, Luciano Bosso, Leila El-Bassi, Rosalia Scelza, Antonino Testa, Naceur Jedidi, Maria A Rao
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a toxic compound which is widely used as a wood preservative product and general biocide. It is persistent in the environment and has been classified as a persistent organic pollutant to be reclaimed in many countries. Fungal bioremediation is an emerging approach to rehabilitating areas fouled by recalcitrant xenobiotics. In the present study, we isolated two fungal strains from an artificially PCP-contaminated soil during a long-term bioremediation study and evaluated their potential as bioremediation agents in depletion and detoxification of PCP in soil microcosms...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Renata Matraszek, Barbara Hawrylak-Nowak, Stanisław Chwil, Mirosława Chwil
This study evaluated the possibility of improving the macronutrient status of Cd-stressed white mustard 'Rota' using intensive S nutrition. Three S-SO4 (2, 6, 9 mM S) and four CdCl2 doses (0, 0.0002, 0.02, 0.04 mM Cd) in the Hoagland's nutrient solution were conducted for 14 days. High S supply (6 or 9 mM) appears, to some extent, to affect positively the macronutrient status of Cd-stressed mustard. It increased roots and shoots contents of K and S, without significant changes in P content. Simultaneously, Mg content in shoots and roots remained stable, but Mg bioaccumulation was elevated...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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