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Hoang A Hoang, Nguyen T C Quy, Nguyen V T Chi
AIM: To construct a simple method to detect E. coli in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables using broad-host-range recombinant phages. METHODS AND RESULTS: Firstly, a gene encoding Cytochrome c Peroxidase (CCP) chromogenic enzyme was inserted into genomes of wild-type phages IP008 and IP052 to produce recombinant phages IP008BK and IP052BK. They were then used in the production of the chromogenic enzyme (CCP) through infection into E. coli. The method was then examined in the colorimetric detection of E...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Charlotte E Ariyan, Mary Sue Brady, Robert H Siegelbaum, Jian Hu, Danielle M Bello, Jamie Green, Charles Fisher, Robert A Lefkowitz, Katherine S Panageas, Melissa Pulitzer, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Christopher Tipton, Harlan Robins, Taha Merghoub, Jianda Yuan, Achim Jungbluth, Jorge Blando, Padmanee Sharma, Alexander Y Rudensky, Jedd D Wolchok, James P Allison
Clinical responses to immunotherapy have been associated with augmentation of preexisting immune responses, manifested by heightened inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. However, many tumors have a non-inflamed microenvironment, and response rates to immunotherapy in melanoma have been <50%. We approached this problem by utilizing immunotherapy (CTLA-4 blockade) combined with chemotherapy to induce local inflammation. In murine models of melanoma and prostate cancer, the combination of chemotherapy and CTLA-4 blockade induced a shift in the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment, with infiltrating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells increasing the CD8/Foxp3 T-cell ratio...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Hue Thi Dang, Jenna Moira Malone, Peter Boutsalis, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: An oriental mustard population (P3) collected near Quambatook, Victoria was identified resistant to diflufenican by screening with the field rate (200 g a.i. ha-1 ) of the herbicide. The mechanism (s) of diflufenican resistance and its inheritance in this population was therefore investigated. RESULTS: Dose-response experiment confirmed population P3 was 140-fold more resistant to diflufenican as determined by the comparison of LD50 values with the susceptible populations...
January 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Alessia Faccini, Angelo Micheletti, Diana G Negura, Luca Giugno, Gianfranco Butera, Mario Carminati, Alessandro Giamberti, Massimo Chessa
The increasing survival in the adulthood of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) has changed the epidemiology of adult CHD (ACHD) patients and has led to an increment in hospitalization rates due to heart failure (HF). ACHD patients hospitalized for HF have a five-fold higher risk of death HF than those compensated. HF occurs predominantly in patients with tetralogy of Fallot, single ventricles, and after the Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries. Diagnostic strategies applied in acquired HF patients are usually used to evaluate ACHD patients, but sometimes this can postpone the identification of HF that can become manifest with unusual and peculiar signs or symptoms...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
E Darchini-Maragheh, M Balali-Mood, M Malaknezhad, S R Mousavi
The most common delayed complication of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning has been observed in the respiratory tracts. It was thus aimed to investigate the delayed respiratory complications in SM-exposed patients around 25 years before the study. Forty-three veterans with more than 25% disability of due to SM poisoning were investigated. Clinical examinations as well as pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs was done as clinically indicated. Triad of chronic cough, dyspnea, and expectoration were the most common symptoms that were recorded in 88...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Matthew D McGraw, Marilyn M Dysart, Tara B Hendry-Hofer, Paul R Houin, Jacqueline S Rioux, Rhonda B Garlick, Joan E Loader, Russell Smith, Danielle C Paradiso, Wesley W Holmes, Dana R Anderson, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
RATIONALE: Inhalation of powerful chemical agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM), can have debilitating pulmonary consequences, such as bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and parenchymal fibrosis (PF). The underlying pathogenesis of disorders after SM inhalation is not clearly understood, resulting in a paucity of effective therapies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of pro-fibrotic pathways involving TGF-β and PDGF in the development of BO and PF after inhalation injury sustained by SM, using a rat model...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Vinod Kumar, Hemlata Rana, G Raviraju, Arvind K Gupta
Since the first use of chemical warfare agents (CWA) (1915) to the recent attacks in Syria (2017) on mankind, there have been many incidents where CWA have claimed thousands of lives and left many more contaminated. In order to provide the appropriate and immediate medical counter measure to the victims, the exact classification of these chemical agents within few minutes on the field itself using a rapid and simple detection technique is extremely important to save the lives of the effected people. This has motivated all of us to explore the novel strategies/detection systems that can be field deployable with better selectivity and greater sensitivity...
January 4, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Maja Radziemska, Eugeniusz Koda, Ayla Bilgin, Mgdalena D Vaverková
The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of trace element immobilizing soil amendments, i.e., chalcedonite, dolomite, halloysite, and diatomite on the chemical characteristics of soil contaminated with Cr and the uptake of metals by plants. The study utilized analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA). The content of trace elements in plants, pseudo-total and extracted by 0.01 M CaCl₂, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yuebo Liu, Xinyu Du, Jiaona Wang, Yingying Yin, Bin Wang, Shuyu Zhao, Nianwu Li, Congju Li
In recent years, people pay more attention to the protection against chemical warfare agents, due to the increase in the probability of usage of these chemical warfare agents in wars or terrorist attacks. In this work, MgO nanoparticles were in-situ growth on the surface of poly(m-phenylene Isophthalamide) (PMIA) forming a flexible and breathable fabric for the detoxification of mustard gas surrogate. The as-prepared nanofibrous membrane possesses a "flower-like" structure of which endows not only increase the specific surface area of the composite but also prevent the agglomeration of the MgO nanoparticles...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hue Thi Dang, Jenna M Malone, Peter Boutsalis, Mahima Krishnan, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: Two oriental mustard populations (P2 and P13) collected from Port Broughton, South Australia were identified as resistant to 2,4-D. The level of resistance, mechanism and the mode of inheritance for 2,4-D resistance in these populations were investigated. RESULTS: Populations P2 and P13 were confirmed to be resistant to 2,4-D at the field rate (600 g a.e. ha-1 ). The P2 and P13 were 81 and 67-fold more resistant compared to the susceptible populations (S1 and S2) at the LD50 level, respectively...
December 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jaspreet Kalra, Madhu Cholenahalli Lingaraju, Karikalan Mathesh, Dhirendra Kumar, Subhashree Parida, Thakur Uttam Singh, Anil Kumar Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Surendra Kumar Tandan
Betulinic acid (BA) exhibits many biological effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Free radicals and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated pain. We, therefore, examined the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-nociceptive potential of BA in colitis. Colitis was induced with 3% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water in mice for 1to7 days. BA (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was given orally for 0 to 7 days...
December 26, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Tabea Zubel, Alexander Bürkle, Aswin Mangerich
The bi-functional chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), whose release in asymmetric conflicts or terrorist attacks represents a realistic threat, induces several kinds of biomolecular adducts, including highly toxic DNA adducts. Isotope dilution liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) is considered the gold standard for highly accurate, precise, specific and sensitive quantification of DNA adducts in general. Recently, a number of LC-MS/MS approaches have been established to analyze SM-induced protein and DNA adducts in cell culture and rodent animal models...
December 22, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Markus Siegert, Andreas Kranawetvogl, Horst Thiermann, Harald John
The banned chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) still represents a serious threat to civilians and military personnel. Therefore, identification of antidotes and scavengers is of high concern. One promising substance is glutathione (GSH). GSH is known to mitigate symptoms of SM poisoning in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear with respect to physiological impact as well as chemical scavenging by reaction between GSH and SM. Therefore, a novel in vitro method was used to characterize the scavenging potential of GSH...
December 22, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Wenting Zhang, Wei Fan, Zhengyuan Zhou, Jered Garrison
Tumor hypoxia has been widely explored over the years as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker. Herein, we synthesized an alkyne functionalized version of evofosfamide, a hypoxia-selective prodrug. The purpose of this effort was to investigate if this novel 2-nitroimidazole phosphoramide nitrogen mustard (2-NIPAM) retained hypoxia selectivity and could be utilized in radiopharmaceutical development to significantly increase retention of conjugated agents in hypoxic cells. 2-NIPAM demonstrated good hypoxia selectivity with a 62- and 225-fold increase in cytotoxicity toward PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cell lines, respectively, under hypoxic conditions...
December 14, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Tabitha G Moe, Victor A Abrich, Edward K Rhee
Advances in surgical techniques have led to the survival of most patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) up to their adulthood. During their lifetime, many of them develop atrial tachyarrhythmias due to atrial dilatation and scarring from surgical procedures. More complex defects and palliative repairs are linked to a higher incidence and earlier occurrence of arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients who have atrial septal defects repaired after age 55 and in patients with tetralogy of Fallot repaired after age 45...
June 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Rosy Raman, Yu Qiu, Neil Coombes, Jie Song, Andrzej Kilian, Harsh Raman
Seed lost due to easy pod dehiscence at maturity (pod shatter) is a major problem in several members of Brassicaceae family. We investigated the level of pod shatter resistance in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for targeted introgression of this trait in Ethiopian mustard and its close relatives of the genus Brassica. A set of 83 accessions of B. carinata, collected from the Australian Grains Genebank, was evaluated for pod shatter resistance based on pod rupture energy (RE)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tai-Lin Chen, Yi-Wen Lin, Yan-Bo Chen, Jing-Jer Lin, Tsann-Long Su, Chia-Ning Shen, Te-Chang Lee
Efficacy and safety are fundamental prerequisites for anticancer drug development. In the present study, we explored the anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity of SL-1, a DNA-directed N-mustard-quinoline conjugate. The N-mustard moiety in SL-1 induced DNA strand breaks, interstrand cross-links (ICLs), G2/M arrest, and apoptosis, whereas its quinoline moiety preferentially directed SL-1 to target the selective guanine sequence 5'-G-G/C-N-G-C/T-3'. Notably, SL-1 was highly cytotoxic to various CRC cell lines. Experiments using xenograft models revealed that SL-1 was more potent than 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin for suppressing the growth of RKO and RKO-E6 (oxaliplatin-resistant subline) cells as well as metastatic SW620 cells...
December 13, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Tatjana I Kichko, Winfried Neuhuber, Gerd Kobal, Peter W Reeh
Spices in food and beverages and compounds in tobacco smoke interact with sensory irritant receptors of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family. TRPV1 (vanilloid type 1), TRPA1 (ankyrin 1) and TRPM8 (melastatin 8) not only elicit action potential signaling through trigeminal nerves, eventually evoking pungent or cooling sensations, but by their calcium conductance they also stimulate the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This is measured as an index of neuronal activation to elucidate the chemo- and thermosensory transduction in the isolated mouse buccal mucosa of wildtypes and pertinent knockouts...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Israr Ahmed, Deepanker Yadav, Pawan Shukla, T V Vineeth, P C Sharma, P B Kirti
Annexins belong to a plasma membrane binding (in a calcium dependent manner), multi-gene family of proteins, which play ameliorating roles in biotic and abiotic stresses. The expression of annexin AnnBj2 of Indian mustard is tissue specific with higher expression in roots and under treatments with sodium chloride and abscisic acid (ABA) at seedling stage. The effect of constitutive expression of AnnBj2 in mustard was analyzed in detail. AnnBj2 OE (over expression) plants exhibited insensitivity to ABA, glucose and sodium chloride...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Margarita G Skalnaya, Sumit K Jaiswal, Ranjana Prakash, N Tejo Prakash, Andrei R Grabeklis, Irina V Zhegalova, Feng Zhang, Xiong Guo, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny
The primary objective of the present study was to assess the level of selenium and toxic trace elements in wheat, rice, maize, and mustard from seleniferous areas of Punjab, India. The content of selenium (Se) and toxic trace elements, including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and tin (Sn), in crop samples was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry after microwave digestion of the samples. The obtained data demonstrate that cultivation of crops on seleniferous soils significantly increased Se level in wheat, mustard, rice, and maize by a factor of more than 590, 111, 85, and 64, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
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