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Khosrow Jadidi, Saman Mohazzab-Torabi, Shiva Pirhadi, Mostafa Naderi, Abbasali Yekta, Sara Sardari, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: This study compares the corneal biomechanical properties, as measured with Corvis ST, in three groups of cases with delayed-onset mustard gas keratopathy (DMGK), chronic corneal scarring (CCS), and those with normal corneas. METHODS: Forty-five eyes were enrolled in the DMGK, CCS, and normal groups (15 eyes each). All patients were examined with the slitlamp and Corvis ST. Extracted corneal biomechanical parameters included first and second applanation time (AT1, AT2), first and second applanation length (AL1, AL2), first and second applanation velocity (AV1, AV2), deformation amplitude (DA), highest concavity time, peak distance, highest concavity radius (HCR), central corneal thickness, corrected intraocular pressure (IOP), and noncorrected IOP...
July 12, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Gil Fridkin, Ishay Columbus, Lea Yehezkel, Yossi Zafrani
Solvent effects on the ability of KF/Al2O3 supports to degrade the warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD) were explored. RP-KF/Al2O3 possessing hydroxide ions and ECUF/KF/Al2O3 holding fluoride ions, were examined. Reactions on RP-KF/Al2O3 containing 10 wt % of organic solvents were faster than those on ECUF/KF/Al2O3. Additionally, RP-KF/Al2O3 led to elimination products while ECUF/KF/Al2O3 mainly to substitution derivatives. Enlarging the solvent amounts to 90 wt % resulted in decreased reaction rates. The significance of solvent identity/amount and active species are discussed...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mahée Gilbert-Ouimet, Huiting Ma, Rick Glazier, Chantal Brisson, Cameron Mustard, Peter M Smith
Objective: According to the International Diabetes Federation, the most important challenge for prevention is now to identify social and environmental modifiable risk factors of diabetes. In this regard, long work hours have recently been linked with diabetes, but more high-quality prospective studies are needed. We evaluated the relationship between long work hours and the incidence of diabetes among 7065 workers over a 12-year period in Ontario, Canada. Research design and methods: Data from Ontario respondents (35-74 years of age) to the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey were prospectively linked to the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database for physician services and the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database for hospital admissions...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Alistair J D Wright, Matthew A Back, Mark Stevens, Debbie L Sparkes
BACKGROUND: The beet cyst nematode (BCN), Heterodera schachtii Schmidt, is a plant parasitic nematode which causes severe losses to yields of sugar beet. Resistant brassicas (radish and mustard) have been bred to be planted after the harvest of a main crop, such as a cereal, and encourage hatch of BCN juveniles. The resistant plants stimulate hatch of the juveniles but are not suitable hosts. Juveniles are unable to complete their lifecycle and thus populations are lowered. This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a range of these brassicas in terms of BCN control when grown in infested fields in Eastern England...
July 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jiaying Liu, Nour Wattar, Catherine J Field, Irina Dinu, Deborah Dewey, Jonathan W Martin
Diet is regarded as the main source of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure, but comparatively little is known about dietary sources of BPA-alternatives. Here we measured exposure of BPA and BPA-alternatives among pregnant women in Canada, estimated their 24-h intakes and examined the importance of various dietary sources. Free and total BPA, bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) were measured in 467 second trimester maternal urine samples, and in 455 paired samples collected at three months postpartum. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between urinary concentrations of bisphenols and 24-h dietary recall data...
July 7, 2018: Environment International
Yanqin Li, Qi Gao, Yunshan Zhou, Lijuan Zhang, Yuxu Zhong, Ying Ying, Mingcai Zhang, Yanqin Liu, Yong'an Wang
The Ag NPs@HKUST-1 composites have been successfully prepared with different loading amounts of silver nanoparticles in HKUST-1 featuring a three-dimensional system of channels constructed by benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate and dimeric cupric units by a simple one-pot hydrothermal method, and characterized by various microscopy and spectroscopy analysis techniques. The average particle size of Ag NPs increased with the increase of the loading amount of Ag NPs. The experimental results showed that the degradation of sulfur mustard (HD) under ambient conditions followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qing Shen, Mengting Wang, Jinhu Tian, Lyulin Hu, Sijie Ren, Jianchu Chen, Xingqian Ye, Donghong Liu
Steamed pork with pickled and dried mustard (PDM) is a famous Chinese dish. Here, we examined the effects of PDM on nutritional quality, sensory quality, and shelf life of steamed pork belly. Proximate composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profiles, protein hydrolysis and oxidation, sensory evaluation, and induction period (IP) of steamed pork belly were determined after addition of different levels (0-100%, W PDM / W pork belly ) of PDM. The results demonstrated that PDM could significantly ( p  <   ...
June 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Cassandra T Buru, Marek B Majewski, Ashlee J Howarth, Robert H Lavroff, Chung-Wei Kung, Aaron W Peters, Subhadip Goswami, Omar K Farha
The photocatalytically driven partial oxidation of a mustard gas simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), was studied using the perylene-based metal-organic framework (MOF) UMCM-313 and compared to the activities of the Zr-based MOFs: PCN-222/MOF-545 and NU-1000. The rates of CEES oxidation positively correlated with the singlet oxygen quantum yield of the MOF linkers, porphyrin (PCN-222/MOF-545) < pyrene (NU-1000) < perylene (UMCM-313). Subsequently, thin films of UMCM-313 and NU-1000 were solvothermally grown on a conductive glass substrate to minimize catalyst loading and prevent light scattering by suspended MOF particles...
July 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jubayer Al Mahmud, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, M H M Borhannuddin Bhuyan, Masayuki Fujita
Cadmium (Cd) is a serious environmental threat because it accumulates in plants from soil and is subsequently transported into the food cycle. Increased Cd uptake in plants disrupts plant metabolism and hampers crop growth and development. Therefore, remediation of Cd from soil and enhancing plant tolerance to metal toxicity is vital. In the present study, we investigated the function of different doses of citric acid (CA) on Cd toxicity in terms of metal accumulation and stress tolerance in mustard (Brassica juncea L...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Juan M Quiles, Raquel Torrijos, Fernando B Luciano, Jordi Mañes, Giuseppe Meca
In this study, the antifungal activity of yellow mustard (YMF) and oriental mustard (OMF) meal extracts against 14 strains of fungi was tested on a solid medium. The results obtained with the YMF were next confirmed in liquid medium determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicide concentration (MFC). Finally, the use of YMF as a natural preservative to extend the useful life of bread was evaluated. Breads with different concentrations of YMF (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/kg) were prepared and contaminated with Aspergillus flavus ISPA 8111 and Penicillium nordicum CECT 2320...
July 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
E G Fidelis, E S Farias, R S Silva, M C Lopes, N R Silva, M C Picanço
Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important pests of brassica crops, mainly causing losses due to sap sucking, toxin injection and viral transmission. Knowledge about the main natural factors that regulate populations of this pest, as well as its critical mortality stage, is crucial for the development of integrated pest management of L. erysimi. Here, we determined the critical stage and key mortality factors for L. erysimi in cabbage using an ecological life table...
July 5, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Sheo M Prasad
In the present study, the role of sulfur (K2 SO4 : S; 60 mg S kg-1 sand) and/or calcium (CaCl2 : Ca; 250 mg Ca kg-1 sand) applied alone as well as in combination on growth, photosynthetic performance, indices of chlorophyll a fluorescence, nitrogen metabolism, and protein and carbohydrate contents of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) seedlings in the absence and presence of arsenic (Na2 HAsO4 .7H2 O: As1 ; 15 mg As kg-1 sand and As2 ; 30 mg As kg-1 sand) stress was analyzed. Arsenic with its rising concentration negatively affected the fresh weight, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, photosynthetic pigments content, photosynthetic oxygen yield, and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters: the O-J, J-I and I-P rise, QA - kinetic parameters, i...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Iris Weyer-Menkhoff, Jörn Lötsch
The discovery of novel analgesic drug targets is an active research topic owing to insufficient treatment options for persisting pain. Modulators of temperature-sensing transient receptor potential ion channels (thermoTRPs), in particular TRPV2, TRPV1, TRPM8 and TRPA1, have reached clinical development. This requires access for TRP channels and the effects of specific modulators in humans. This is currently possible via (i) the study of TRP channel function in human-derived cell lines, (ii) immunohistochemical visualization of TRP channel expression in human tissues, (iii) human experimental pain models employing sensitization by means of topical application of TRP channel activators including capsaicin (TRPV1), menthol (TRPM8), mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1), and (iv) the study of phenotypic consequences of human TRP gene variants...
June 30, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Asghar Beigi Harchegani, Abolfazl Khor, Eisa Tahmasbpour, Mahdi Ghatresamani, Hamid Bakhtiari Kaboutaraki, Alireza Shahriary
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical compound that preferentially targets ocular, cutaneous and pulmonary tissues. Although pathologic effect of SM has been extensively considered, molecular and cellular mechanism of its toxicity, especially at the chronic phase of injury is not well-understood. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) appear to be involved in SM-induced injuries. SM may trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation that can subsequently result in cell death and apoptosis...
July 3, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Hongliang Chen, Ihsan A Al-Shehbaz, Jipei Yue, Hang Sun
As currently delimitated, the species-rich mustard tribe Euclidieae DC. (Brassicaceae) comprises 28 genera and 152 species distributed primarily in Asia. To date, no tribe-wide comprehensive phylogenetic analysis has been conducted. In this study, sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) region of 82 species in all 28 genera of Euclidieae were used to test its monophyly and infer inter- and intra-generic relationships within. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Rhammatophyllum and Sisymbriopsis are embedded within Solms-laubachia s...
2018: PhytoKeys
Jared Kirzner, Altaf Pirmohamed, Jonathan Ginns, Harsimran S Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review paper describes the management of patients with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) with a focus on the complications seen and the appropriate care required to identify and prevent adverse events. RECENT FINDINGS: D-TGA is a form of cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) representing ~ 3% of all CHD and almost 20% of all cyanotic CHD. Since the late 1980s, standard of care is to repair these patients with an arterial switch operation (ASO) as opposed to a Mustard/Senning operation...
June 26, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
M Lutsyk, R Ben-Yosef, R Bergman, A Kuten, G Bar-Sela
AIMS: To determine the role of total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) as a cause of second malignancies in mycosis fungoides patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mycosis fungoides patients referred to TSEI were followed in a longitudinal study. Other diagnosed malignancies were obtained after cross-matching with the Israel National Cancer Registry database. RESULTS: Between 1974 and 2010, 197 patients were treated: 134 (68%) men, 63 (32%) women; mean age 58 ± 17years...
June 23, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Shikha Tyagi, Tanu Sri, Anupama Singh, Pratiksha Mayee, S M Shivaraj, Prateek Sharma, Anandita Singh
SOC1, a MADS-box type II transcription factor, integrates environmental and endogenous cues to promote flowering in angiosperms. Recent reports implicating SOC1 in roles beyond floral transition prompted functional characterization of SOC1 in polyploid rapeseed mustard genomes. Gene characterization in Brassicas necessitates analysis of composite homeolog function. While insertional mutagenesis is untenable in Brassicas owing to gene redundancy, gain-of-function approach entails serial characterization of individual homeologs...
June 25, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Fazlullah Khan, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
This is with reference to the note of the Editor-in-Chief of the Archives of Toxicology.
July 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Muhammad Imtiaz, Muhammad Adnan Mushtaq, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Sajid Mehmood, Omar Aziz, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Safiullah Virk, Qaiser Shakeel, Raina Ijaz, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Michael D Coleman
The present study aimed to elucidate the photosynthetic performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, anthocyanin contents, anthocyanin biosynthetic gene expression, and vanadium uptake in mustard genotypes (purple and green) that differ in photosynthetic capacity under vanadium stress. The results indicated that vanadium significantly reduced photosynthetic activity in both genotypes. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly in response to vanadium in both genotypes, although the purple exhibited higher...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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