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Tyler Carlson, Alice Cohen
This paper examines the relationships between Community-Based Water Monitoring (CBM) and government-led water initiatives. Drawing on a cross-Canada survey of over one hundred organizations, we explore the reasons why communities undertake CBM, the monitoring protocols they follow, and the extent to which CBM program members feel their findings are incorporated into formal (i.e., government-led) decision-making processes. Our results indicate that despite following standardized and credible monitoring protocols, fewer than half of CBM organizations report that their data is being used to inform water policy at any level of government...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Vlad Diaconita, Ana-Ramona Bologa, Razvan Bologa
A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
Katie M Clow, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Curtis B Russell, Pascal Michel, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
The emergence of the vector Ixodes scapularis in Ontario, Canada poses a significant public health risk. Both passive and active surveillance approaches have been employed by public health professionals (i.e., government employees) to monitor for the range expansion of this tick. Field surveillance using drag sampling for questing ticks is a recognized and effective method to identify reproducing tick populations. The degree of effort (i.e., number of visits per site) can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, but increased effort conflicts with the cost to public health for field surveillance...
2018: PloS One
Abigail K Rose, Kyle Brown, James MacKillop, Matt Field, Lee Hogarth
RATIONALE: Substance-related behaviour is often viewed as an appetitive behaviour, motivated by the reinforcing effects of the drug. However, there are various indices of substance motivation (e.g. attentional bias, behavioural economic demand, craving) and it is unclear how these are related or whether they play an important role in all types of substance-related behaviour. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the effect of alcohol devaluation on several indices of alcohol motivation and goal-directed and cue-elicited alcohol behaviour...
April 2018: Psychopharmacology
G Gallego, A Dew, M Lincoln, A Bundy, K Bulkeley, J Brentnall, C Veitch
BACKGROUND: The implementation of the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme is expected to generate a responsive, person-centred system that will empower people with disability to choose the services and support they receive. However, little attention has been paid to examine how users of the National Disability Insurance Scheme will choose and spend their individual budgets. This study aimed to determine quantitatively the relative importance that carers of people with a disability living in rural Australia place on different therapy service delivery characteristics...
May 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Jelte Elsinga, Henry T van der Veen, Izzy Gerstenbluth, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Arie Dijkstra, Martin P Grobusch, Adriana Tami, Ajay Bailey
BACKGROUND: As the arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya and Zika emerge in the Americas, so does the need for sustainable vector control policies. To successfully achieve mosquito control, joint efforts of both communities and governments are essential. This study investigates this important, but by-and-large neglected topic. METHODS: In June and July 2015, a cross-sectional mixed methods study applying a survey questionnaire (response rate of 82.5%; n = 339), in-depth interviews (n = 20) and focus group discussions (n = 7; 50 participants) was performed in Curaçao...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Kerry Scott, Asha S George, Steven A Harvey, Shinjini Mondal, Gupteswar Patel, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Mikel Emaldi, Unai Aguilera, Diego López-de-Ipiña, Jorge Pérez-Velasco
WeLive project's main objective is about transforming the current e-government approach by providing a new paradigm based on a new open model oriented towards the design, production and deployment of public services and mobile apps based on the collaboration of different stakeholders. These stakeholders form the quadruple helix, i.e., citizens, private companies, research institutes and public administrations. Through the application of open innovation, open data and open services paradigms, the framework developed within the WeLive project enables the co-creation of urban apps...
June 2, 2017: Sensors
Basia Belza, Mary Altpeter, Matthew Lee Smith, Marcia G Ory
As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships...
March 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Arif Sari
In recent years, many Small Island Developing State (SIDS) governments have worked to increase openness and transparency of their transactions as a means to enhance efficiency and reduce corruption in their economies. In order to achieve a cost-effective and efficient strategy to implement a transparent government, Information Communication Technologies offer an opportunity of virtualization by deploying e-government services to promote transparency, accountability and consistency in the public sector and to minimize corruption...
December 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
Matti Hellström, Jörg Behler
Proton transfer processes play an important role in many fields of chemistry. In dilute basic aqueous solutions, proton transfer from water molecules to hydroxide ions is aided by "presolvation", i.e., thermal fluctuations that modify the hydrogen-bonding environment around the proton-receiving OH(-) ion to become more similar to that of a neutral H2O molecule. In particular at high concentrations, however, the underlying mechanisms and especially the role of the counterions are little understood...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Anthony J Plotner, Karrie A Shogren, Leslie A Shaw, Chelsea VanHorn Stinnett, Hyojeong Seo
INTRODUCTION: Research involving secondary transition practices indicates a growing implementation of interagency collaboration to maximize service delivery to support students transitioning from school to adult life. Centers for Independent Living (CILs) are often excluded from collaborative partnerships and denied the opportunity to contribute as a valued stakeholder in the transition process. METHOD: A total of 189 CIL professionals representing represented 38 states completed the online survey to (a) identify to what degree does the factor structure of Thompson's Collaboration Survey holds for CIL professionals and (b) explore what specific CIL professional and agency characteristics predict greater collaboration between CILs and local education agencies (LEAs)...
June 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Massimo Franco, Aizhan Tursunbayeva, Claudia Pagliari
BACKGROUND: Public sector organizations worldwide are engaging with social media as part of a growing e-government agenda. These include government departments of health, public health agencies, and state-funded health care and research organizations. Although examples of social media in health have been described in the literature, little is known about their overall scope or how they are achieving the objectives of e-government. A systematic literature review is underway to capture and synthesize existing evidence on the adoption, use, and impacts of social media in the public health sector...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Jon Sussex, Yan Feng, Jorge Mestre-Ferrandiz, Michele Pistollato, Marco Hafner, Peter Burridge, Jonathan Grant
BACKGROUND: Government- and charity-funded medical research and private sector research and development (R&D) are widely held to be complements. The only attempts to measure this complementarity so far have used data from the United States of America and are inevitably increasingly out of date. This study estimates the magnitude of the effect of government and charity biomedical and health research expenditure in the United Kingdom (UK), separately and in total, on subsequent private pharmaceutical sector R&D expenditure in the UK...
February 24, 2016: BMC Medicine
H M B P Ranaweera
In this article, the author focuses on understanding the antecedent conditions of trustworthiness of the users towards the use of e-government services and attempt to propose a model to assess the influences of the trustworthiness for the use of e-government services in Sri Lanka. Trustworthiness was considered as an additional construct along with the technology acceptance model (TAM) constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test the proposed model by utilizing the responses of 898 citizens...
2016: SpringerPlus
Haitao Li, Dongfu Qian, Sian Griffiths, Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Xiaolin Wei
BACKGROUND: There are three major models of primary care providers (Community Health Centers, CHCs) in China, i.e., government managed, hospital managed and privately owned CHCs. We performed a systematic review of structures and health care delivery patterns of the three models of CHCs. METHODS: Studies from relevant English and Chinese databases for the period of 1997-2011 were searched. Two independent researchers extracted data from the eligible studies using a standardized abstraction form...
2015: BMC Health Services Research
Jorge Abin, Horacio Nemeth, Ignacio Friedmann
From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture...
2015: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Yann Joly, Gratien Dalpé, Derek So, Stanislav Birko
CONTEXT: Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants' information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public's opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public...
2015: PloS One
Yan Wang, Chengyu Xi, Shuai Zhang, Wenyu Zhang, Dejian Yu
As E-government continues to develop with ever-increasing speed, the requirement to enhance traditional government systems and affairs with electronic methods that are more effective and efficient is becoming critical. As a new product of information technology, E-tendering is becoming an inevitable reality owing to its efficiency, fairness, transparency, and accountability. Thus, developing and promoting government E-tendering (GeT) is imperative. This paper presents a hybrid approach combining genetic algorithm (GA) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to enable GeT to search for the optimal tenderer efficiently and fairly under circumstances where the attributes of the tenderers are expressed as fuzzy number intuitionistic fuzzy sets (FNIFSs)...
2015: PloS One
Kathleen M Fisher, Justin D Peterson, Jon D Albert
This descriptive cross-sectional study identified resources and programs that are available nationwide on the Internet to support individuals and families with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD), with a focus on intellectual disability. This evaluation included easily identifiable information on specific resources and highlighted unique programs found in individual states that were linked from e-government websites. Researchers documented the ease of access and available information for all 50 states and the District of Columbia...
2015: Nursing Research and Practice
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