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Yi Dong, Kun Fang, Xin Wang, Shengdi Chen, Xueyuan Liu, Yuwu Zhao, Yangtai Guan, Dingfang Cai, Gang Li, Jianmin Liu, Jianren Liu, Jianhua Zhuang, Panshi Wang, Xin Chen, Haipeng Shen, David Z Wang, Ying Xian, Wuwei Feng, Bruce Cv Campbell, Mark Parsons, Qiang Dong
Background Several stroke outcome and quality control projects have demonstrated the success in stroke care quality improvement through structured process. However, Chinese health-care systems are challenged with its overwhelming numbers of patients, limited resources, and large regional disparities. Aim To improve quality of stroke care to address regional disparities through process improvement. Method and design The Shanghai Stroke Service System (4S) is established as a regional network for stroke care quality improvement in the Shanghai metropolitan area...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Claire Joachim, Laurène Mazeau
Modern law is composed dominantly of new fields of complex legislations such as biotechnologies laws, environmental laws or intellectual property. But a particular legal area stigmatizes more than the others this increasing complexity: the water protection laws.Due to its origins deeply established in the European culture, but also due to ethical, political, economical and social issues, water protection laws appear to be the typical representation of links between risk and complexity. The European water protection law is deeply complex on two scales...
October 13, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Pol Specenier
The prognosis of recurrent/metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) after failure of first line chemotherapy is dismal. Until the publication of the results of CheckMate 141, not a single agent provided any survival benefit as a second line treatment for R/M HNSCC. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted on the role of nivolumab in HNSCC. Expert commentary: Nivolumab is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients based on the results of CheckMate 141 showing an overall survival benefit as compared to standard care (single agent docetaxel, methotrexate, or cetuximab)...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C have been major disease-causing agents among humans since they were discovered in the 1960s. Both cause jaundice-like symptoms initially but their prognosis and treatment are somehow different and depend upon many demographic details, such as the age and susceptibility of the patients and any other comorbid conditions. They clinically present primarily with hepatitis and can have many adverse effects or even be life-threatening at times, if not treated properly. However, their epidemiological background and findings in terms of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rates are different...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Mostafa Shanbehzadeh, Maryam Ahmadi
Background: The main focus of the surveillance system of AIDS in Iran is on direct clinical care for HIV, and other supportive facilities and secondary programmes have been somewhat neglected. Creating templates for reporting AIDS in Iran that can fulfil the needs of all information stakeholders, is a necessity for the Public Health Information Exchange (PHIE) system. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive reporting template of the PHIE system for HIV/AIDS in Iran...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Raghad Mubarak Aljuhaysh, Nagah Mohamed Abo El-Fetoh, Malak Ibrahim Alanazi, Afaf Shuaib Albaqawi, Wafa Mohammed Alanazi, Najah Salah Alanazi, Reham Muqbil Alanazi, Atheer Mutab Alanazi, Eiman Mohammad Alnemer, Rahma Abdulhadi Alenezi, Tasleem Khoudier Alabdullatif, Rehab Abdallah Alanazi, Samiyah Sarhan Alanazi, Kawthar Saeed Alsultan, Ibtisam Matan Alanazi, Duaa Sami Alsunayni
Background and aim: Rh isoimmunization still contributes to the neonatal morbidity and mortality due to non-immunization, under-immunization, and in rare cases, false Rh typing. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rh incompatibility, mothers' knowledge about Rh incompatibility, mothers' knowledge about anti-D immunoglobulin and to show the pregnancy outcome of Rh negative mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Maternity and Children Hospital in Arar city from November 2016 to May 2017...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
H Resano, A M Olaizola, M Dominguez-Torreiro
In Europe, in the last decades, public administration has encouraged extensive livestock farming systems, usually related to high quality meat and the preservation of endangered local breeds. Nevertheless, its continuity in the near future should be based on adapting it to the market requirements. This paper investigates consumers' preferences heterogeneity towards veal attributes, as well as the linkage between a wide range of consumer traits and attributes that motivate purchasing of veal with unique characteristics...
March 5, 2018: Meat Science
Grace Chai, Jing Xu, James Osterhout, Mark A Liberatore, Kathleen L Miller, Carolyn Wolff, Marisa Cruz, Peter Lurie, Gerald Dal Pan
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic, driven in part by increased prescribing, is a public health emergency. This study examines dispensed prescription patterns and approvals of new opioid analgesic products to investigate whether the introduction of these new drugs increases prescribing. METHODS: Prescribing patterns based on dispensed prescription claims from the U.S. retail setting were assessed with new brand and generic opioid analgesic products approved in the United States from 1997 through 2015...
March 20, 2018: Anesthesiology
Miguel A Marín Gabriel, Ana M Malalana Martínez, Ibone Olza Fernández
Lithium therapy is currently a cornerstone of treatment for mothers who suffer bipolar disorders. Those who wish to breastfeed their children are often told they have to decide whether modifying the treatment for their disorder or even avoiding lactation. Lithium administration during breastfeeding has been described to produce certain side effects such as thyroid disorders, hypothermia and hypotonia. To our knowledge, there are few publications where infants have no laboratory abnormalities. Here we present the case of an infant without renal or thyroid alteration while he was breastfed...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Xiabin Chen, Jing Deng, Wenpeng Cui, Shurong Hou, Jinling Zhang, Xirong Zheng, Xin Ding, Huimei Wei, Ziyuan Zhou, Kyungbo Kim, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
Cocaine abuse is a worldwide public health and social problem without a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication. Accelerating cocaine metabolism that produces biologically inactive metabolites by administration of an efficient cocaine hydrolase (CocH) has been recognized as a promising strategy for cocaine abuse treatment. However, the therapeutic effects of CocH are limited by its short biological half-life (e.g., 8 h or shorter in rats). In this study, we designed and prepared a set of Fc-fusion proteins constructed by fusing Fc(M3) with CocH3 at the N-terminus of CocH3...
March 19, 2018: AAPS Journal
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Vincenza Gianfredi, Milena Villarini, Roberto Rosselli, Ahmed Nasr, Amr Hussein, Mariano Martini, Masoud Behzadifar
Vaccines are public health interventions aimed at preventing infections-related mortality, morbidity, and disability. While vaccines have been successfully designed for those infectious diseases preventable by preexisting neutralizing specific antibodies, for other communicable diseases, additional immunological mechanisms should be elicited to achieve a full protection. "New vaccines" are particularly urgent in the nowadays society, in which economic growth, globalization, and immigration are leading to the emergence/reemergence of old and new infectious agents at the animal-human interface...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Tatsuhiro Ayabe, Rena Ohya, Keiji Kondo, Yasuhisa Ano
Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD)...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Todd M Olszewski
This article examines the history and effect of the Consensus Development Program (CDP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Introduced at a time when the relationship between the U.S. public and the medical profession was at a nadir, the CDP frequently placed the NIH in the middle of broader debates in medical practice and health policy during the last quarter of the 20th century. Drawing on published and archival sources, this paper sheds light on the challenges associated with collecting, assessing, and communicating evidence to medical professionals and convincing them to act on it in the name of improved health care...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Malin Bogren, Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy, Kerstin Erlandsson, Halima Akhter, Dalia Akter, Momtaz Begum, Merry Chowdhury, Lucky Das, Rehana Akter, Sufia Begum, Renoara Akter, Syeada Yesmin, Yamin Ara Khatun
OBJECTIVE: using the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) Global Standards for Midwifery Education as a conceptual framework, the aim of this study was to explore and describe important 'must haves' for inclusion in a context-specific accreditation assessment tool in Bangladesh. DESIGN: A questionnaire study was conducted using a Likert rating scale and 111 closed-response single items on adherence to accreditation-related statements, ending with an open-ended question...
February 21, 2018: Midwifery
Gary D Novack
Because of the epidemic of myopia with both its short-term and long-term effects, we desperately need ways to slow myopic progression. In this study which was part of a myopia prevention symposium, the author answers the following question: Assuming that researchers did come up with a pharmacological treatment to slow myopic progression-what would it take to obtain regulatory approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)? Previous publicly available information (a 2003 FDA advisory committee on this topic, International Conference on Harmonisation guidances on drug development, and published articles) as well as the author's experience is used...
March 16, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Ron J Smith
BACKGROUND: Siege, a process of political domination aimed at isolating an entire population, is a unique threat to health-care provision. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the effects of the Israeli siege on the practices and systems that underlie health in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: Data were from participant observation between 2009 and 2017, including 20 interviews with doctors and health administrators in non-governmental organisations (NGO), government, and UN sectors...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Berit Misund Dahl
AIMS: Government programs and the Norwegian Directorate of Health give public health nurses in Norway an explicit role in population-based health promotion and disease-prevention work. The aim of this paper is to explore Norwegian public health nurses' experiences with population-based work. METHODS: A phenomenological hermeneutic approach was adopted, involving face-to-face interviews with a purposeful sample of 23 public health nurses from urban and rural districts in two counties in Norway...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Xuzhi He, Jazmina L Cruz, Shannon Joseph, Nicola Pett, Hui Yi Chew, Zewen K Tuong, Satomi Okano, Gabrielle Kelly, Margaret Veitch, Fiona Simpson, James W Wells
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is selectively expressed on the surface of numerous tumours, such as non-small cell lung, ovarian, colorectal and head and neck carcinomas. EGFR has therefore become a target for cancer therapy. Cetuximab is a chimeric human/mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to EGFR, where it both inhibits signaling and induces cell death by antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Cetuximab has been approved for clinical use in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and colorectal cancer...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Pilar García-Gómez, Toni Mora, Jaume Puig-Junoy
BACKGROUND: Increasing patient contributions and reducing the population exempt from pharmaceutical co-payment and co-insurance rates were one of the most common measures in the reforms adopted in Europe during 2010-2015. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the association between the introduction of a capped co-payment of €1 per prescription and drug consumption of the publicly insured population of Catalonia (Spain). METHODS: We used administrative data on monthly pharmaceutical consumption (defined daily doses [DDDs]) from January 2012 to December 2014, for a representative sample of 85,000 people...
March 16, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Catherine Bourgeois, Tania Lecomte, Isabelle Daigneault
Child sexual abuse has been identified as a potential risk factor for developing a psychotic disorder. However, little is known about the prevalence of psychotic disorders in youth who were sexually abused during adolescence and young adulthood. Gender differences also remain unclear. This study used administrative databases from a Child Protection Agency and a public health care system. It aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic disorders in sexually abused youth between the first substantiated report of sexual abuse and the beginning of adulthood...
March 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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