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Heart failure, diastolic failure, systolic failure

Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Swati Agrawal, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions...
October 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Peter Kruzliak, Alexander Berezin, Alexander Kremzer, Tatyana Samura, Roman Benacka, Ioana Mozos, Emmanuel Egom, Luis Rodrigo
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical stress and inflammatory biomarkers relate to global contractility dysfunction; however, adding these biomarkers into a risk model constructed on clinical data does not improve its prediction value in chronic heart failure (CHF). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers predict declining of left ventricular global contractility function in diabetic patients with ischemia-induced CHF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study retrospectively evolved 54 diabetic patients who had systolic or diastolic ischemia-induced CHF that was defined as left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% or 46-55% respectively assessed by quantitative echocardiography and other conventional criteria according to current clinical guidelines...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Rosita Zakeri, Gilles Moulay, Qiang Chai, Ozgur Ogut, Saad Hussain, Hiroyuki Takahama, Tong Lu, Xiao-Li Wang, Wolfgang A Linke, Hon-Chi Lee, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) compliance and contractility influence left ventricular stroke volume. We hypothesized that diminished LA compliance and contractile function occur early during the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and impair overall cardiac performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, left ventricular and LA pressure-volume studies, and tissue analyses were performed in a model of early HFpEF (elderly dogs, renal wrap-induced hypertension, exogenous aldosterone; n=9) and young control dogs (sham surgery; n=13)...
October 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Louise Burrell
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, a major risk factor for stroke, coronary events, heart failure and kidney disease. Within the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin (Ang) I into the vasoconstrictor Ang II, which mediates its effects via the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). An "alternate" arm of the RAS is now known to exist in which the monocarboxypeptidase ACE2 counterbalances the effects of the classic RAS through degradation of the vasoconstrictor peptide, Ang II, and generation of the vasodilatory peptide, Ang 1-7...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Manan Pareek, Mette Lundgren Nielsen, Margrét Leósdóttir, Peter M Nilsson, Michael Hecht Olsen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the independent prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the prediction of incident cardiac events in a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHOD: 415 women and 999 men aged 56-79 years, included between 2002-2006, underwent echocardiography based on groups defined by FPG, i.e. normal (NFG): FPG ≤ 6.0 mmol/L; impaired (IFG): FPG 6.1-6.9 mmol/L; and diabetes mellitus (DM): FPG ≥ 7...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hyun Ju Yoon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of diastolic functional recovery on pre-discharge echocardiography on future adverse events in the patients with hypertensive heart failure (HHF). DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 136 hospitalized patients with HHF were divided into 2 groups according to the change of diastolic function on pre-discharge echocardiography; the improving group (n = 65, 47.9 ± 14.4years, 49 males) vs non-improving group (n = 71, 52...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joo Hoon Lee, Jae Suk Baek, Jeong Jin Yu, Young-Hwue Kim, Jae-Kon Ko, Young Seo Park
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cardiac parameters on echocardiography. DESIGN AND METHOD: Echocardiography was checked at 6 months ∼ 1 year interval in children with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis, which was more frequently done in patients with hypertension or any heart problems. We reviewed blood pressure (BP) and echocardiographic findings of those children (since February 2005). Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (median, minimum ∼ maximum)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Krasimira Hristova, Rumen Marinov, Georgi Stamenov, Kristina Chacheva, Marina Michova, Sabina Persenska, Ani Racheva
OBJECTIVE: Normal pregnancy is associated with reversible changes in both systolic and diastolic mechanics, consistent with an increase in preload and decrease in afterload and systemic vascular resistance. The aim is to evaluate left ventricular (LV) twist and untwist mechanics in a population of pregnant women during differing stages of a healthy pregnancy. DESIGN AND METHOD: We included 22 pregnant patients, 10 with multiple pregnancy (mean age 36.5 ± 3 years) and 20 healthy non pregnant women (mean age 33 ± 4years)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Dong-Seok Yim
In the early phase of clinical development of antihypertensive drugs, quantitative modeling to predict their dose-concentration-response relationship is important to plan future clinical development and finding optimal dosage regimen at marketing approval. Two cases of concentration-response models of antihypertensive are presented here.Case 1: Carvedilol is a α1- and nonselective β- adrenergic receptor antagonist currently used for the management of mild-to-moderate essential hypertension and congestive heart failure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Guido Grassi
The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in the USA, allocated 9361 hypertensive patients (mean age 68 years) to two systolic blood pressure treatment targets (either < 120mmHg or < 140mmHg). Although SPRINT intended to enrol hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, it specifically excluded patients with diabetes mellitus or prior stroke. SPRINT was stopped earlier than planned, after a mean follow-up of 3.26 years, on the recommendation of its data and safety monitoring board, and data were published on 9 November 2015...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
ByungSu Yoo
Hypertension is the most common risk factor for systolic and diastolic heart failure. Based on population-attributable risks, hypertension has the greatest impact on the development of heart failure, accounting for 39% of HF events in men and 59% in women. Higher blood pressure, longer duration of hypertension and older age are associated with higher incidence of heart failure however, long term control of hypertension reduces the risk of heart failure. Thus current guideline pointed the hypertension as the single most important modifiable risk factor for heart failure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Erick Chan, Francesco Giallauria, Carlo Vigorito, Neil A Smart
Exercise training induces physical adaptations for heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction but less is known about those patients with preserved ejection fraction. This study's aims were to establish if exercise training produces changes in peak VO2 and related measures, quality of life, general health and diastolic function in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We conducted a MEDLINE search (1985 to September 1, 2015), for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms 'exercise training, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with  normal ejection fraction, peak VO2 and diastolic heart dysfunction'...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Martin A Alpert, Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick
Obesity produces a variety of hemodynamic alterations that may cause changes in cardiac morphology which predispose to left and right ventricular dysfunction. Various neurohormonal and metabolic alterations commonly associated with obesity may contribute to these abnormalities of cardiac structure and function. These changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and ventricular function may, in severely obese patients, predispose to heart failure, even in the absence of other forms of heart disease (obesity cardiomyopathy)...
October 15, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Satoshi Masutani, Seiko Kuwata, Clara Kurishima, Yoichi Iwamoto, Hirofumi Saiki, Masaya Sugimoto, Hirotaka Ishido, Hideaki Senzaki
OBJECTIVE: The details of the ventricular-vascular dynamics of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in children remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that pediatric HFpEF patients have ventricular systolic, diastolic, and arterial stiffening at rest as well as impaired reserve function associated with coronary supply/demand imbalance. METHODS: We studied the ventricular pressure-area relationship in 22 pediatric HFpEF patients and 22 control subjects before and after dobutamine infusion and during abdominal compression...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Parul U Gandhi, Hanna K Gaggin, Margaret M Redfield, Horng H Chen, Susanna R Stevens, Kevin J Anstrom, Marc J Semigran, Peter Liu, James L Januzzi
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate relationships between insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and parameters of diastolic function or functional capacity in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) who were randomized to receive sildenafil or placebo. BACKGROUND: IGFBP7 was previously found to be associated with diastolic function in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but it is unclear whether these associations are present in HFpEF...
September 29, 2016: JACC. Heart Failure
Ramesh R Dargad, Jai D Parekh, Rohit R Dargad
Acromegaly is a rare condition with an approximate incidence of 3-4 new cases per million per year and occurs as a result of excess secretion of growth hormone (GH). It is associated with several cardiovascular manifestations of which dilated cardiomyopathy with systolic and diastolic dysfunction is relatively rare but associated with increased mortality. There are very few documented cases of acromegaly with dilated cardiomyopathy in Indian female patients in literature, thus justifying the uniqueness of our case...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
S A Buckingham, R S Taylor, K Jolly, A Zawada, S G Dean, A Cowie, R J Norton, H M Dalal
OBJECTIVE: To update the Cochrane review comparing the effects of home-based and supervised centre-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on mortality and morbidity, quality of life, and modifiable cardiac risk factors in patients with heart disease. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched up to October 2014, without language restriction. Randomised trials comparing home-based and centre-based CR programmes in adults with myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure or who had undergone coronary revascularisation were included...
2016: Open Heart
James Wever-Pinzon, Craig H Selzman, Greg Stoddard, Omar Wever-Pinzon, Anna Catino, Abdallah G Kfoury, Nikolaos A Diakos, Bruce B Reid, Stephen McKellar, Michael Bonios, Antigone Koliopoulou, Deborah Budge, Aaron Kelkhoff, Josef Stehlik, James C Fang, Stavros G Drakos
BACKGROUND: Small-scale studies focused mainly on nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) have shown that a subset of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients can achieve significant improvement of their native heart function, but the impact of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) has not been specifically investigated. Many patients with acute myocardial infarction are discharged from their index hospitalization without heart failure (HF), only to return much later with overt HF syndrome, mainly caused by chronic remodeling of the noninfarcted region of the myocardium...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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