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Heart failure, diastolic failure, systolic failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040269/elevated-blood-pressure-and-risk-of-mitral-regurgitation-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-5-5-million-united-kingdom-adults
#1
Kazem Rahimi, Hamid Mohseni, Catherine M Otto, Nathalie Conrad, Jenny Tran, Milad Nazarzadeh, Mark Woodward, Terence Dwyer, Stephen MacMahon
BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation in people without prior cardiac disease is considered a degenerative disease with no established risk factors for its prevention. We aimed to test the hypothesis that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) across its usual spectrum is associated with higher risk of mitral regurgitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used linked electronic health records from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2015...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040268/benefit-and-harm-of-intensive-blood-pressure-treatment-derivation-and-validation-of-risk-models-using-data-from-the-sprint-and-accord-trials
#2
Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B Sussman, Joseph Rigdon, Lauren Steimle, Brian T Denton, Rodney A Hayward
BACKGROUND: Intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment can avert cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but can cause some serious adverse events. We sought to develop and validate risk models for predicting absolute risk difference (increased risk or decreased risk) for CVD events and serious adverse events from intensive BP therapy. A secondary aim was to test if the statistical method of elastic net regularization would improve the estimation of risk models for predicting absolute risk difference, as compared to a traditional backwards variable selection approach...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036504/echocardiographic-left-ventricular-reverse-remodeling%C3%A2-after-18-months-of-antihypertensive-treatment-in-stage-i-hypertension-results-from-the-prever-treatment-study
#3
C Bertoluci, M Foppa, A B S Santos, T V Branchi, S C Fuchs, F D Fuchs
Background: Antihypertensive treatment improves echocardiographic parameters of hypertensive target organ damage in stage II hypertension, but less is known about the effects in stage I hypertension. Methods: In a cohort study nested in the randomized double-blind trial PREVER-treatment, two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed in 110 individuals, aged 54.8 ± 7.9 years-old, with stage I hypertension at baseline and after 18 months of treatment with chlorthalidone/amiloride or losartan...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032139/effects-of-vildagliptin-on-ventricular-function-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes%C3%A2-mellitus-and-heart-failure-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
John J V McMurray, Piotr Ponikowski, Geremia B Bolli, Valentina Lukashevich, Plamen Kozlovski, Wolfgang Kothny, James D Lewsey, Henry Krum
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. BACKGROUND: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have heart failure and it is important to know about the safety of new treatments for diabetes in these individuals. METHODS: Patients 18 to 85 years of age with type 2 diabetes and heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class I to III and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <0...
October 11, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030372/dose-dependent-effects-of-the-myosin-activator-omecamtiv-mecarbil-on-cross-bridge-behavior-and-force-generation-in-failing-human-myocardium
#5
Ranganath Mamidi, Jiayang Li, Kenneth S Gresham, Sujeet Verma, Chang Yoon Doh, Amy Li, Sean Lal, Cristobal G Dos Remedios, Julian E Stelzer
BACKGROUND: Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) enhances systolic function in vivo by directly binding the myosin cross-bridges (XBs) in the sarcomere. However, the mechanistic details governing OM-induced modulation of XB behavior in failing human myocardium are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of OM on steady state and dynamic XB behavior were measured in chemically skinned myocardial preparations isolated from human donor and heart failure (HF) left ventricle. HF myocardium exhibited impaired contractile function as evidenced by reduced maximal force, magnitude of XB recruitment (Pdf), and a slowed rate of XB detachment (krel) at submaximal Ca(2+) activations...
October 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029007/presence-of-micro-and-macroalbuminuria-and-the-association-with-cardiac-mechanics-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Peter Godsk Jørgensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Rasmus Mogelvang, Thomas Fritz-Hansen, Tina Vilsbøll, Peter Rossing, Jan Skov Jensen
Aims: Albuminuria-a marker of generalized vascular dysfunction-is a strong predictor of heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes which may be caused by concomitant myocardial dysfunction reflecting the same underlying pathogenesis. Methods and results: We included 915 patients with type 2 diabetes from two secondary care centres and stratified according to albuminuria status in normo-, micro-, and macroalbuminuria. We performed comprehensive echocardiography including conventional imaging, tissue Doppler imaging, and 2D speckle tracking...
October 3, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028694/individualized-biventricular-epicardial-augmentation-technology-in-a-drug-induced-porcine-failing-heart-model
#7
Lasse Jagschies, Marc Hirschvogel, Jose Matallo, Andreas Maier, Karin Mild, Horst Brunner, Rabea Hinkel, Michael W Gee, Peter Radermacher, Stephen M Wildhirt, Sebastian Hafner
For treatment of advanced heart failure, current strategies include cardiac transplantation or blood-contacting pump technology associated with complications, including stroke and bleeding. This study investigated an individualized biventricular epicardial augmentation technology in a drug-induced porcine failing heart model. A total of 11 pigs were used, for the assessment of hemodynamics and cardiac function under various conditions of support pressures and support durations (n = 4), to assess device positioning and function by in vivo computer tomographic imaging (n = 3) and to investigate a minimally invasive implantation on the beating heart (n = 4)...
October 12, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025554/cardiac-mr-with-late-gadolinium-enhancement-in-acute-myocarditis-with%C3%A2-preserved-systolic-function-itamy-study
#8
Giovanni Donato Aquaro, Matteo Perfetti, Giovanni Camastra, Lorenzo Monti, Santo Dellegrottaglie, Claudio Moro, Alessia Pepe, Giancarlo Todiere, Chiara Lanzillo, Alessandra Scatteia, Mauro Di Roma, Gianluca Pontone, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Andrea Barison, Gianluca Di Bella
BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has not been clarified in acute myocarditis (AM) with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the role of CMR and LGE in the prognosis of AM with preserved LVEF. METHODS: This study analyzed data from ITAMY (ITalian multicenter study on Acute MYocarditis) and evaluated CMR results from 386 patients (299 male; mean age 35 ± 15 years) with AM and preserved LVEF...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022265/exercise-amaliorates-metabolic-disturbances-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-possible-underlying-mechanisms
#9
Ayman M Mahmoud
Cardiomyopathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and occurs independently of coronary artery disease or hypertension. It manifests as systolic/diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy of the left ventricle and can lead to heart failure. Hyperglycemia can trigger a series of maladaptive stimuli and result in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and reduced performance and contractility. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is a multifactorial process that includes metabolic derangements such as increased oxidative stress, and altered non-oxidative glucose pathways and lipid metabolism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021382/sustained-activation-of-guanylate-cyclase-a-with-tdt-a-natriuretic-peptide-derivative-exhibits-cardiorenal-protection-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-hypertensive-rats
#10
Shohei Oishi, Naoko Suzuki, Yuri Hasui, Tsuyoshi Homma, Masanori Obana, Takahiro Nagayama, Yasushi Fujio
Heart failure often presents with prognosis-relevant impaired renal function. To investigate whether the chronic activation of guanylate cyclase-A (GC-A) protects both heart and kidney, we examined the effects of TDT, a neprilysin (NEP)-resistant natriuretic peptide (NP) derivative, on cardiac and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats (DS rats). Pretreatment with NEP or NEP inhibitor did not influence GC-A activation by TDT both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in a long-acting profile of TDT compared to native human atrial NP (hANP)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020435/blood-pressure-targets-for-the-treatment-of-people-with-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Luis Carlos Saiz, Javier Gorricho, Javier Garjón, Mª Concepción Celaya, Lourdes Muruzábal, Mª Del Mar Malón, Rodolfo Montoya, Antonio López
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a prominent preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. People with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease are at particularly high risk, so reducing blood pressure below standard targets may be beneficial. This strategy could reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity but could also increase adverse events. The optimal blood pressure target in people with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if 'lower' blood pressure targets (≤ 135/85 mmHg) are associated with reduction in mortality and morbidity as compared with 'standard' blood pressure targets (≤ 140 to 160/ 90 to 100 mmHg) in the treatment of people with hypertension and a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, peripheral vascular occlusive disease)...
October 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018006/%C3%AE-galactosidase-a-genotype-n215s-induces-a-specific-cardiac-variant-of-fabry-disease
#12
Daniel Oder, Dan Liu, Kai Hu, Nurcan Üçeyler, Tim Salinger, Jonas Müntze, Kristina Lorenz, Reinhard Kandolf, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Claudia Sommer, Georg Ertl, Christoph Wanner, Peter Nordbeck
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type of cardiomyopathy, but many patients lack sarcomeric/myofilament mutations. We studied whether cardio-specific α-galactosidase A gene variants are misinterpreted as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy because of the lack of extracardiac organ involvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: All subjects who tested positive for the N215S genotype (n=26, 13 females, mean age 49±17 [range, 14-74] years) were characterized in this prospective monocentric longitudinal cohort study to determine genotype-specific clinical characteristics of the N215S (c...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994760/assessment-of-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-reserve-and-intracellular-diastolic-calcium-removal-in-isolated-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#13
Jing Gao, Xiaolu Shi, Hong He, Juhong Zhang, Ding Lin, Guosheng Fu, Dongwu Lai
Intracellular calcium recycling plays a critical role in regulation of systolic and diastolic function in cardiomyocytes. Cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) serves as a Ca(2+) reservoir for contraction, which reuptakes intracellular Ca(2+) during relaxation. The SR Ca(2+) reserve available for beats is determinate for cardiac contractibility, and the removal of intracellular Ca(2+) is critical for cardiac diastolic function. Under some pathophysiological conditions, such as diabetes and heart failure, impaired calcium clearance and SR Ca(2+) store in cardiomyocytes may be involved in the progress of cardiac dysfunction...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993390/thermal-clothing-to-reduce-heart-failure-morbidity-during-winter-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Adrian Gerard Barnett, Ian Stewart, Andrea Beevers, John F Fraser, David Platts
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether providing thermal clothing improved the health of patients with heart failure during winter. DESIGN: Parallel group randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Large public hospital in Brisbane during winter 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 91 patients with systolic or diastolic heart failure who were over 50 years old. INTERVENTION: 47 patients were randomised to receive thermal clothes (socks, top and hat) and 44 received usual care...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990524/statins-and-inflammation-in-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Georgia Vogiatzi, Evangelos Oikonomou, Gerasimos Siasos, Sotiris Tsalamandris, Alexandros Briasoulis, Emmanuel Androulakis, George Latsios, Spyridon Papaioannou, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and immune system activation underlie a variety of seemingly unrelated cardiac conditions including not only atherosclerosis and the subsequent coronary artery disease but also peripheral artery disease, hypertension with target organ damage and heart failure. The beneficial effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins are mainly attributed to their ability to inhibit hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. Beyond their lipid lowering activity, ample evidence exists in support of their potent anti-inflammatory properties which initiate from the inhibition of GTPase isoprenylation, activating a cataract of secondary pathways and extend to the inhibition and blocking of immune cell activation and interaction...
October 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987235/effects-of-l-arginine-supplementation-associated-with-continuous-or-interval-aerobic-training-on-chronic-heart-failure-rats
#16
Giovanna Tedesco Barcelos, Douglas Dalcin Rossato, Júlia Luiza Perini, Lucas Pereira Pinheiro, Carol Carvalho, Rodrigo Boemo Jaenisch, Cláudia Ramos Rhoden, Pedro Dal Lago, Ramiro Barcos Nunes
OBJECTIVE: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is related with exercise intolerance and impaired nitric oxide (NO) production, which can lead to several functional capacity alterations. Considering the possible superiority of aerobic interval training compared to continuous training and the capacity of l-arginine to restore the NO pathway, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these treatments are beneficial to exercise capacity, muscle mass preservation and hemodynamic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in CHF rats...
November 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985347/systemic-angiotensinogen-concentrations-are-independently-associated-with-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-in-a-community-sample
#17
Aletta M E Millen, Angela J Woodiwiss, Monica Gomes, Frederic Michel, Gavin R Norton
Background: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction characterizes heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction. Although it is recognized that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) decreases LV diastolic function, whether systemic angiotensinogen contributes to these effects is uncertain. Hence the aim was to determine the relationship between systemic angiotensinogen concentrations and LV diastolic function. Methods: Left ventricular diastolic function was determined from the mean of the lateral and septal wall myocardial tissue lengthening at the mitral annulus (average e') and from the ratio of early transmitral blood flow velocity (E) to average e' (E/e') in 445 black African participants from a community sample...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985328/blood-pressure-variability-predicts-adverse-events-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-sprint-trial
#18
Kenechukwu Mezue, Abhinav Goyal, Gregg S Pressman, Jay C Horrow, Janani Rangaswami
BACKGROUND: Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Using the SPRINT trial data set, we explored the relationship between blood pressure variability, cardiovascular outcomes, and hypoperfusion-related adverse events of antihypertensive therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) enrolled in the study. METHODS: The analyses included patients with CKD randomized in SPRINT who reached the target systolic blood pressure for their respective groups (intensive <120 mm Hg; standard <140 mm Hg)...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983169/left-atrium-in-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-active-participant-or-innocent-bystander
#19
Haitham A Badran, M A Abdelhamid, Mazen T Ibrahim, Ayman M Abdelmoteleb, John K Zarif
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for patients with advanced heart failure that results in improvement of left ventricle (LV) systolic function and LV reverse remodeling. This may have a positive effect on the size and the function of the left atrium (LA). We assessed the LA function, dimensions, and volumes before and after CRT implantation. METHODS: A total of 37 patients with mean age of 55.3 ± 9.64 years including 11 (29...
October 2017: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977012/concomitant-diastolic-dysfunction-further-interferes-with-cognitive-performance-in-moderate-to-severe-systolic-heart-failure
#20
Mi-Seung Shin, Minjeong An, Sunhwa Kim, Jae Lan Shim, Jin-Kyu Park, JinShil Kim
BACKGROUND: Studies of the relevance of cardiac functional markers to cognitive performance in heart failure (HF) have primarily focused on systolic markers. In this study, we examine whether concomitant diastolic dysfunction further interferes with cognitive performance in memory, attention, and executive function in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this cross-sectional correlational study, 82 patients completed face-to-face interviews for neuropsychological testing for cognitive evaluation...
2017: PloS One
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