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HIV net

G Kigozi, C Heunis, P Chikobvu, S Botha, D van Rensburg
OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective record review of pulmonary TB cases-older than 15 years, with a recorded pre-treatment smear result-captured in the electronic TB register ( between 2003 and 2012. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multiple logistic regression technique were used to determine the factors associated with treatment default...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jo Gibbs, Voula Gkatzidou, Laura Tickle, Sarah R Manning, Tilna Tilakkumar, Kate Hone, Richard E Ashcroft, Pam Sonnenberg, S Tariq Sadiq, Claudia S Estcourt
OBJECTIVE: Seeking sexual health information online is common, and provision of mobile medical applications (apps) for STIs is increasing. Young people, inherently at higher risk of STIs, are avid users of technology, and apps could be appealing sources of information. We undertook a comprehensive review of content and accuracy of apps for people seeking information about STIs. METHODS: Search of Google Play and iTunes stores using general and specific search terms for apps regarding STIs and genital infections (except HIV), testing, diagnosis and management, 10 September 2014 to 16 September 2014...
November 24, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Katerina Christopoulos, Wendy Hartogensis, David V Glidden, Christopher D Pilcher, Monica Gandhi, Elvin H Geng
Existing HIV care cascade metrics fail to capture whether viremia is equally distributed in a population or concentrated within groups. We applied the Lorenz cure, which has been used to describe disparities in the distribution of income and other resources, to the distribution of viremia in a safety-net HIV clinic in 2012. Among 1,855 established clinic patients, 1% of the population held 50% of the virus and 10% of the population held 94% of virus.
November 7, 2016: AIDS
Jaran Eriksen, Jan Albert, Anders Blaxhult, Christina Carlander, Leo Flamholc, Magnus Gisslén, Filip Josephson, Olof Karlström, Lars Navér, Veronica Svedhem, Aylin Yilmaz, Anders Sönnerborg
The Swedish Medical Products Agency and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) have jointly published recommendations for the treatment of HIV infection on seven previous occasions (2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2014). In February 2016, an expert group under the guidance of RAV once more revised the guidelines. The most important updates in the present guidelines are as follows: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has recently been registered. TAF has several advantages over tenofovir disoproxilfumarate (TDF) and is recommended instead of TDF in most cases...
November 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Ellen F Eaton, Kathryn Hudak, Christina A Muzny
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines recommend annual screening of all persons living with HIV (PLWH) for N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and syphilis; annual T. vaginalis screening is recommended for HIV-infected women. The study objective is to evaluate the budgetary impact of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening. We hypothesized that recommended STI screening is costly and would not be covered in full by insurers...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
An Li, Jiawen Li, Kenneth A Johnson
HIV Reverse Transcriptase (RT) plays a central role in viral replication and requires coordination of both polymerase and RNase H activities. Although this coordination is crucial in viral replication, whether a DNA/RNA hybrid can simultaneously engage both active sites has yet to be determined since structural and kinetic analyses have provided contradictory results. Single nucleotide incorporation and RNase H cleavage were examined using pre-steady-state kinetics with global data analysis. The results revealed three interconverting RT-DNA/RNA species: 43% were active for both sites, 27% showed only polymerase activity, and the remaining 30% were nonproductive...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Till Bärnighausen, David E Bloom, Salal Humair
Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART's prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it...
2016: PloS One
L Steenkamp, A Goosen, D Venter, M Beeforth
The HIV prevalence in South Africa among students at higher education institutions (HEIs) in 2008 was reported to be 3.4%, with the highest HIV prevalence found in the Eastern Cape Province. Students at these facilities are also increasingly affected by socio-economic constraints that may impact on food security. Little is known about the impact of food insecurity on HIV-infected students in HEIs in South Africa. The purpose of this paper is to describe food insecurity and the nutritional status among HIV-infected students on the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University campuses in South Africa, as well as current initiatives to strengthen the safety nets for food-insecure students...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Xing-Ming Li, Xiao-Qing Yuan, Jun-Jie Wang, Wan-Ying Zhang, Yang Zhou, Gu-Ning Liu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Our study was conducted to further investigate the model of social support and care for People Living with HIV/AIDS(PLHA), to explore their role in People Living with AIDS's quality of life (QOL) as reference for improving nursing policies for AIDS. BACKGROUND: Social support and care are the most important factors impacting the QOL of People Living with HIV/AIDS, but most studies conducted upon the influence of social support and QOL of People Living with HIV/AIDS are mainly based on cross-sectional design...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Lauren O'Neil, Kathryn Andenoro, Isabella Pagano, Laura Carroll, Leah Langer, Zachary Dell, Davina Perera, Bradley W Treece, Frank Heinrich, Mathias Lösche, John F Nagle, Stephanie Tristram-Nagle
Efficient assembly of HIV-1 at the plasma membrane (PM) of the T-cell specifically requires PI(4,5)P2. It was previously shown that a highly basic region (HBR) of the matrix protein (MA) on the Gag precursor polyprotein Pr55(Gag) is required for membrane association. MA is N-terminally myristoylated, which enhances its affinity to membranes. In this work we used X-ray scattering and neutron reflectivity to determine how the physical properties and structure of lipid bilayers respond to the addition of binding domain peptides, either in the myristoylated form (MA31myr) or without the myristoyl group (MA31)...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anna Longdoh Njunda, Charles Njumkeng, Shey Dickson Nsagha, Jules Clement Nguedia Assob, Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
BACKGROUND: Coinfection with malaria and HIV is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the advent of a decline in the global incidence of malaria, it is important to generate updated data on the burden of malaria in people living with HIV (PLWHIV). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria in PLWHIV in Yaounde, Cameroon, as well determine the association between CD4 (+) T cell count and malaria in the study population. METHODS: In a cross sectional study performed between April 2015 and June 2016, 355 PLWHIV were enrolled and blood samples were collected for analysis...
2016: BMC Public Health
R R Lilian, B Mutasa, J Railton, W Mongwe, J A McINTYRE, H E Struthers, R P H Peters
South Africa's paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme is managed using a monitoring and evaluation tool known as TIER.Net. This electronic system has several advantages over paper-based systems, allowing profiling of the paediatric ART programme over time. We analysed anonymized TIER.Net data for HIV-infected children aged <15 years who had initiated ART in a rural district of South Africa between 2005 and 2014. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to assess outcomes over time. Records of 5461 children were available for analysis; 3593 (66%) children were retained in care...
January 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Janet Lin, Cammeo Mauntel-Medici, Sara Heinert, Sara Baghikar
Emergency Departments (EDs) are important settings for routine HIV screening because they are safety nets for populations with limited access to primary care and high risk for HIV infection. However, EDs rarely perform routine HIV screening due to logistical barriers. An electronic medical record (EMR)-driven routine opt-out HIV screening program was implemented in an urban academic ED and led to rapid scale-up of screening volume and detection of unknown HIV infection. The streamlined tool, requiring 4 mouse clicks, automates screening for eligibility, facilitates documentation of consent and orders the HIV test...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Paolo Raggi, Davide De Francesco, Marcella Manicardi, Stefano Zona, Antonio Bellasi, Chiara Stentarelli, Federica Carli, Barbara Beghetto, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Malagoli, Giovanni Guaraldi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of risk prediction algorithms used in the general population and an HIV-specific algorithm to predict hard cardiovascular events. METHODS: We compared the pooled equation algorithm (PE) proposed by the American Heart Association with the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the HIV-specific DAD (Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs) algorithm in a cohort of 2550 HIV+ patients followed for 17 337 patient-years. RESULTS: During follow-up we recorded 67 myocardial infarctions and 2 cardiovascular deaths...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Robert A Bonacci, David R Holtgrave
INTRODUCTION: HIV testing is key to achieving the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals. A new diagnosis metric evaluated whether testing services are reaching the remaining undiagnosed people living with HIV (PLWH), by subpopulation. METHODS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance data from 2008 to 2013 were obtained for: (1) new HIV diagnoses; (2) HIV prevalence; and (3) percentage of PLWH aware of serostatus. The number of new HIV diagnoses in a given year divided by the number of undiagnosed PLWH in the previous year was determined...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Andrew Nunn, Zacchaeus Anywaine, Janet Seeley, Paula Munderi, Jonathan Levin, Ronnie Kasirye, Anatoli Kamali, Andrew Abaasa, Heiner Grosskurth
INTRODUCTION: COSTOP was a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the risks and benefits to HIV-infected participants stabilised on anti-retroviral treatment of stopping cotrimoxazole (CTX). In order to assess the extent to which patients may have had access to and used CTX other than that supplied as study drug it was decided to conduct an exit interview. METHODS: A structured interview was administered by interviewers who were not associated with the COSTOP trial team in order to make it easier for participants to respond truthfully to sensitive questions about adherence to the study protocol...
2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Chelsea B Polis, Kathryn M Curtis, Philip C Hannaford, Sharon J Phillips, Tsungai Chipato, James N Kiarie, Daniel J Westreich, Petrus S Steyn
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Some studies suggest that specific hormonal contraceptive methods [particularly depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)] may increase women's HIV acquisition risk. We updated a systematic review to incorporate recent epidemiological data. METHODS: We searched for articles published between 15 January 2014 and 15 January 2016 and hand-searched reference lists. We identified longitudinal studies comparing users of a specific hormonal contraceptive method against either nonusers of hormonal contraception or users of another specific hormonal contraceptive method...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
Abid Qureshi, Gazaldeep Kaur, Manoj Kumar
Viral infections constantly jeopardize the global public health due to lack of effective antiviral therapeutics. Therefore, there is an imperative need to speed up the drug discovery process to identify novel and efficient drug candidates. In the present study, we have developed Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) based models for predicting Antiviral compounds (AVCs) against deadly viruses like Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Human herpesvirus (HHV) and 26 others using publicly available experimental data from the ChEMBL bioactivity database...
August 4, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Adeboye Azeez, Davies Obaromi, Akinwumi Odeyemi, James Ndege, Ruffin Muntabayi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease caused by Mycobacteria tuberculosis. Tuberculosis as a chronic and highly infectious disease is prevalent in almost every part of the globe. More than 95% of TB mortality occurs in low/middle income countries. In 2014, approximately 10 million people were diagnosed with active TB and two million died from the disease. In this study, our aim is to compare the predictive powers of the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and neural network auto-regression (SARIMA-NNAR) models of TB incidence and analyse its seasonality in South Africa...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ngum Helen Ntonifor, Serophine Veyufambom
BACKGROUND: In Cameroon, malaria continues to be endemic and the first major cause of morbidity and mortality among the most vulnerable groups-children under 5 years of age, pregnant women, people living with HIV/AIDS and the poor. The use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) is one of the recommended measures to prevent malaria. The present study was aimed at accessing the acceptability and effective use of LLINs on the prevalence of malaria in PMI Nkwen, Bambui and its environs...
2016: Malaria Journal
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