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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505240/incidence-of-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-following-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-modeling-study
#1
Samuel M Jenness, Kevin M Weiss, Steven M Goodreau, Thomas Gift, Harrell Chesson, Karen W Hoover, Dawn K Smith, Albert Y Liu, Patrick S Sullivan, Eli S Rosenberg
Background: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing HIV, but risk compensation (RC) in men who have sex with men (MSM) raises concerns about increased sexually transmitted infections (STIs). CDC's PrEP guidelines recommend biannual STI screening, which may reduce incidence by treating STIs that would otherwise remain undiagnosed. We investigated the impact of these two potentially counteracting phenomena. Methods: With a stochastic network-based mathematical model of HIV and rectal/urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated PrEP uptake following the prescription indications and HIV/STI screening recommendations in the CDC guidelines...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492125/influence-of-hiv-and-other-risk-factors-on-tuberculosis
#2
Sana Mahtab, David Coetzee
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) notification in South Africa has increased six-fold over the past two decades, mainly because of the HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVES: To describe the sociodemographic and outcome characteristics of TB patients, and to identify risk factors associated with TB treatment outcomes stratified by HIV status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was used to analyse data from the Cape Town Metro East geographical service area (GSA) electronic TB register (ETR...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482959/tuberculosis-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-epidemiology-and-treatment-outcomes-in-the-western-cape
#3
K Snow, A C Hesseling, P Naidoo, S M Graham, J Denholm, K du Preez
SETTING: Western Cape Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To characterise tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology, disease presentation and treatment outcomes among adolescents (age 10-19 years) and young adults (age 20-24 years) in the Western Cape. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional review of routine patient-level data from the Electronic TB Register (ETR.Net) for 2013. Site of TB disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and TB treatment outcomes were analysed by 5-year age groups (<5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24 and 25 years of age)...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468605/universal-test-treat-and-keep-improving-art-retention-is-key-in-cost-effective-hiv-control-in-uganda
#4
Nicky McCreesh, Ioannis Andrianakis, Rebecca N Nsubuga, Mark Strong, Ian Vernon, Trevelyan J McKinley, Jeremy E Oakley, Michael Goldstein, Richard Hayes, Richard G White
BACKGROUND: With ambitious new UNAIDS targets to end AIDS by 2030, and new WHO treatment guidelines, there is increased interest in the best way to scale-up ART coverage. We investigate the cost-effectiveness of various ART scale-up options in Uganda. METHODS: Individual-based HIV/ART model of Uganda, calibrated using history matching. 22 ART scale-up strategies were simulated from 2016 to 2030, comprising different combinations of six single interventions (1. increased HIV testing rates, 2...
May 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467457/a-prognostic-model-for-development-of-significant-liver-fibrosis-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-co-infection
#5
Nasheed Moqueet, Cynthia Kanagaratham, M John Gill, Mark Hull, Sharon Walmsley, Danuta Radzioch, Sahar Saeed, Robert W Platt, Marina B Klein
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis progresses rapidly in HIV-Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected individuals partially due to heightened inflammation. Immune markers targeting stages of fibrogenesis could aid in prognosis of fibrosis. METHODS: A case-cohort study was nested in the prospective Canadian Co-infection Cohort (n = 1119). HCV RNA positive individuals without fibrosis, end-stage liver disease or chronic Hepatitis B at baseline (n = 679) were eligible. A random subcohort (n = 236) was selected from those eligible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437277/the-fragile-balance-of-community-based-health-care-one-community-s-united-response-when-the-hiv-aids-primary-care-safety-net-failed
#6
Matthew Fifolt, D Scott Batey, James L Raper, Jane E Mobley, Lisa C McCormick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414261/-support-your-client-at-the-space-that-they-re-in-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-prescribers-perspectives-on-prep-related-risk-compensation
#7
Sarah K Calabrese, Manya Magnus, Kenneth H Mayer, Douglas S Krakower, Adam I Eldahan, Lauren A Gaston Hawkins, Kristen Underhill, Nathan B Hansen, Trace S Kershaw, Joseph R Betancourt, John F Dovidio
Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and evidence that most PrEP users do not engage in risk compensation (i.e., increased risk behavior due to a perceived decrease in HIV susceptibility), some healthcare providers report patient risk compensation to be a deterrent to prescribing PrEP. Overcoming this barrier is essential to supporting PrEP access and uptake among people at risk for HIV. To inform such efforts, this qualitative study explored PrEP-related risk compensation attitudes among providers with firsthand experience prescribing PrEP...
April 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401776/molecular-characteristics-of-the-envelope-of-vertically-transmitted-hiv-1-strains-from-infants-with-hiv-infection
#8
Manickam Ashokkumar, Manohar Nesakumar, Cheedarla Narayanaiah, Vidya Vijayan Kk, Babu Hemalatha, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV offers a good opportunity to study the dynamics of early viral evolution in the host environment to which the virus has partially adapted. Such studies would throw light on the unique features of the infecting viruses, which will subsequently help to design preventive or therapeutic measures against the newly infecting and evolving strains of HIV. Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the genetic divergence of proviral envelope sequences from the HIV infected infants (< 2 years)...
April 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369066/socioeconomic-factors-explain-suboptimal-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-australian-adults-with-viral-suppression
#9
Krista J Siefried, Limin Mao, Stephen Kerr, Lucette A Cysique, Thomas M Gates, John McAllister, Anthony Maynard, John de Wit, Andrew Carr
BACKGROUND: Missing more than one tablet of contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) per month increases the risk of virological failure. Recent studies evaluating a comprehensive range of potential risk factors for suboptimal adherence are not available for high-income settings. METHODS: Adults on ART with undetectable viral load (UDVL) were recruited into a national, multi-centre cohort, completing a comprehensive survey assessing demographics, socio-economic indicators, physical health, well-being, life stressors, social supports, HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma and discrimination, healthcare access, ART regimen, adherence, side effects, costs and treatment beliefs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346490/effect-of-hiv-and-malaria-parasites-co-infection-on-immune-hematological-profiles-among-patients-attending-anti-retroviral-treatment-art-clinic-in-infectious-disease-hospital-kano-nigeria
#10
Feyisayo Ebenezer Jegede, Tinuade Ibijoke Oyeyi, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Henry Akwen Mbah, Titilope Badru, Chinedu Agbakwuru, Oluwasanmi Adedokun
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343331/economic-and-public-health-consequences-of-delayed-access-to-medical-care-for-migrants-living-with-hiv-in-france
#11
Marlène Guillon, Michel Celse, Pierre-Yves Geoffard
In 2013, migrants accounted for 46% of newly diagnosed cases of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection in France. These populations meet with specific obstacles leading to late diagnosis and access to medical care. Delayed access to care (ATC) for HIV-infected migrants reduces their life expectancy and quality of life. Given the reduction of infectivity under antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, delayed ATC for HIV-infected migrants may also hinder the control of the HIV epidemic. The objective of this study is to measure the public health and economic consequences of delayed ATC for migrants living with HIV in France...
March 25, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329368/intermittent-preventive-treatment-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-the-prevention-of-malaria-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women
#12
Paul Natureeba, Abel Kakuru, Mary Muhindo, Eric Littmann, Teddy Ochieng, John Ategeka, Catherine A Koss, Albert Plenty, Edwin D Charlebois, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Miriam Nakalembe, Deborah Cohan, Gabrielle Rizzuto, Atis Muehlenbachs, Theodore Ruel, Prasanna Jagannathan, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey
Background.: Daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and insecticide treated nets (ITNs) remain the main interventions for prevention of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women in Africa. However, antifolate and pyrethroid resistance threaten the effectiveness of these intervention and new ones are needed. Methods.: We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial comparing daily TMP-SMX plus monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) to daily TMP-SMX alone in HIV-infected pregnant women in an area of Uganda where indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) had recently been implemented...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209553/intraspecific-genetic-variability-in-a-population-of-moroccan-leishmania-infantum-revealed-by-pcr-rflp-of-kdna-minicircles
#13
Adil El Hamouchi, Rajaa Ejghal, Moustapha Hida, Meryem Lemrani
In Morocco, Leishmania infantum is the main etiologic agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This species has been proven to be an opportunistic agent in HIV+ patients and is also responsible of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).This work aims to evaluate the genetic variability of Moroccan L. infantum strains based on PCR-RFLP analysis of the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. A total of 75 DNA samples extracted from positive Giemsa-stained smears (n=32) and from L. infantum cultures (n=43) was studied...
May 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178208/effector-mechanisms-of-neutrophils-within-the-innate-immune-system-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#14
REVIEW
Eric Warren, Garrett Teskey, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Neutrophils have a significant yet controversial role in the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection, which is not yet fully understood. In addition to neutrophils' well-known effector mechanisms, they may also help control infection of M. tb through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are thought to further promote the killing of M. tb by resident alveolar macrophages. Cytokines such as IFN-γ have now been shown to serve an immunomodulatory role in neutrophil functioning in conjunction to its pro-inflammatory function...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143541/immunological-outcomes-of-tenofovir-versus-zidovudine-based-regimens-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-two-years-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Teshale Ayele, Habtemu Jarso, Girma Mamo
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir (TDF) based regimen was reported to have better immunological outcomes. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the immunologic outcome associated with this regimen in Ethiopia, as its routine utilization in this setting begun since 2013. METHODS: A 2 years retrospective cohort study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, 346 km Southwest of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 280 patients' data from September 2012 to July 2014 was extracted from records from February 10, 2015 to March 10, 2015...
February 1, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119046/concurrent-plasmodium-infection-anemia-and-their-correlates-among-newly-diagnosed-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-northern-ethiopia
#16
Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Mulualem Tadesse, Haimanot Disassa, Melkamu B Beyene
The magnitude of concurrent malaria infection and the impact it has on hematological abnormalities, such as anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS, is not well studied in Ethiopian set up. In this cross sectional study, therefore, we assessed the prevalence of concurrent malaria infection and anemia among highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) naive people living with HIV/AIDS between October, 2012 to May, 2013 in Northern Ethiopia. After obtaining consent, socio demographic, clinical, immunological and behavioural data was obtained...
May 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108879/patterns-of-social-affiliations-and-healthcare-engagement-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#17
Rachel L Behler, Benjamin T Cornwell, John A Schneider
Little work has examined how individuals' social affiliations-the venues in which they meet friends and engage in informal social interaction-influence their engagement with public health services. We investigate how links to these local places shape access to information and exposure to health-seeking behavior. Using longitudinal data from a respondent-driven sample of 618 young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in Chicago, we identify different sets of social venues that connect YBMSM. We then examine how YBMSM's connections within this network influence their receipt of HIV prevention and treatment services and knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
January 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061839/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-tb-patients-a-10-year-electronic-record-review-in-a-south-african-province
#18
J Christo Heunis, N Gladys Kigozi, Perpetual Chikobvu, Sonja Botha, Hcj Dingie van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: Since 1990, reduction of tuberculosis (TB) mortality has been lower in South Africa than in other high-burden countries in Africa. This research investigated the influence of routinely captured demographic and clinical or programme variables on death in TB patients in the Free State Province. METHODS: A retrospective review of case information captured in the Electronic TB register (ETR.net) over the years 2003 to 2012 was conducted. Extracted data were subjected to descriptive and logistic regression analyses...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053097/subcellular-localization-of-hiv-1-gag-pol-mrnas-regulates-sites-of-virion-assembly
#19
Jordan T Becker, Nathan M Sherer
Full-length unspliced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNAs serve dual roles in the cytoplasm as mRNAs encoding the Gag and Gag-Pol capsid proteins as well as genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged by Gag into virions undergoing assembly at the plasma membrane (PM). Because Gag is sufficient to drive the assembly of virus-like particles even in the absence of gRNA binding, whether viral RNA trafficking plays an active role in the native assembly pathway is unknown. In this study, we tested the effects of modulating the cytoplasmic abundance or distribution of full-length viral RNAs on Gag trafficking and assembly in the context of single cells...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034359/hiv-1-drug-susceptibility-to-potential-second-and-third-line-antiretroviral-regimens-among-cameroonian-patients-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-design
#20
Aubin J Nanfack, Desire Takou, Joseph Fokam, Romina Salpini, Maria M Santoro, Giulia Cappelli, Martin Baane, Suzie M Tetang, Josef Eberle, Lutz Gürtler, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Judith N Torimiro, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno, Alexis Ndjolo
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the growing number of long-term treated patients may favor multi-HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in resource-limited settings. Understanding the burden of HIVDR with ART-exposure may provide new insights for an effective long-term management of infected patients. METHODS: Sixty-six HIV-infected individuals (18 ART-naïve, 24 failing first-line, 24 failing second-line ART) living in Yaoundé-Cameroon were evaluated by sequencing protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT, n=62), envelope-V3 loop (V3, n=58) and integrase (IN, n=30) regions...
December 29, 2016: Current HIV Research
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