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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061839/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-tb-patients-a-10-year-electronic-record-review-in-a-south-african-province
#1
J Christo Heunis, N Gladys Kigozi, Perpetual Chikobvu, Sonja Botha, Hcj Dingie van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: Since 1990, reduction of tuberculosis (TB) mortality has been lower in South Africa than in other high-burden countries in Africa. This research investigated the influence of routinely captured demographic and clinical or programme variables on death in TB patients in the Free State Province. METHODS: A retrospective review of case information captured in the Electronic TB register (ETR.net) over the years 2003 to 2012 was conducted. Extracted data were subjected to descriptive and logistic regression analyses...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053097/subcellular-localization-of-hiv-1-gag-pol-mrnas-regulates-sites-of-virion-assembly
#2
Jordan T Becker, Nathan M Sherer
: HIV-1 full-length, unspliced RNAs serve dual roles in the cytoplasm as mRNAs encoding the Gag and Gag-Pol capsid proteins as well as genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged by Gag into virions undergoing assembly at the plasma membrane (PM). Because Gag is sufficient to drive assembly of virus-like particles even in the absence of gRNA binding, whether viral RNA trafficking plays an active role in the native assembly pathway is unknown. In this study we tested the effects of modulating the cytoplasmic abundance or distribution of full-length viral RNAs on Gag trafficking and assembly in the context of single cells...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034359/hiv-1-drug-susceptibility-to-potential-second-and-third-line-antiretroviral-regimens-among-cameroonian-patients-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-design
#3
Aubin J Nanfack, Desire Takou, Joseph Fokam, Romina Salpini, Maria M Santoro, Giulia Cappelli, Martin Baane, Suzie M Tetang, Josef Eberle, Lutz Gürtler, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Judith N Torimiro, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno, Alexis Ndjolo
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the growing number of long-term treated patients may favor multi-HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in resource-limited settings. Understanding the burden of HIVDR with ART-exposure may provide new insights for an effective long-term management of infected patients. METHODS: Sixty-six HIV-infected individuals (18 ART-naïve, 24 failing first-line, 24 failing second-line ART) living in Yaoundé-Cameroon were evaluated by sequencing protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT, n=62), envelope-V3 loop (V3, n=58) and integrase (IN, n=30) regions...
December 29, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973923/prevention-and-control-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-new-threats-new-opportunities
#4
Stephen J Rogerson, Holger W Unger
Over 100 million women and their babies are at risk of malaria in pregnancy each year. Malaria prevention in pregnancy relies on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), and, in Africa, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Increasing resistance of malaria parasites to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the only drug endorsed for IPTp, and increasing mosquito resistance to pyrethroids used in LLINs, threaten the efficacy of these proven strategies, while operational challenges restrict their implementation in areas of great need...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958243/prevalence-and-predictors-of-placental-malaria-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-women-in-nigeria
#5
E O Izuka, E O Ugwu, S N Obi, B C Ozumba, T U Nwagha, C E Obiora-Izuka
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection. AIM: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV-positive women in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women receiving antenatal care at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Peripheral blood sample for packed cell volume estimation and placental blood sample for malaria parasite estimation were collected from each participant at a presentation in labor and upon delivery, respectively...
January 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920564/prioritizing-health-system-and-disease-burden-factors-an-evaluation-of-the-net-benefit-of-transferring-health-technology-interventions-to-different-districts-in-zimbabwe
#6
Shepherd Shamu, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Charles Hongoro
INTRODUCTION: Health-care technologies (HCTs) play an important role in any country's health-care system. Zimbabwe's health-care system uses a lot of HCTs developed in other countries. However, a number of local factors have affected the absorption and use of these technologies. We therefore set out to test the hypothesis that the net benefit regression framework (NBRF) could be a helpful benefit testing model that enables assessment of intra-national variables in HCT transfer. METHOD: We used an NBRF model to assess the benefits of transferring cost-effective technologies to different jurisdictions...
2016: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894985/factors-influencing-treatment-default-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-high-burden-province-of-south-africa
#7
G Kigozi, C Heunis, P Chikobvu, S Botha, D van Rensburg
OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective records review of pulmonary TB cases captured in the ETR.Net electronic TB register between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Subjects were >15 years of age and had a recorded pre-treatment smear result. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with treatment default...
January 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884965/-can-you-recommend-any-good-sti-apps-a-review-of-content-accuracy-and-comprehensiveness-of-current-mobile-medical-applications-for-stis-and-related-genital-infections
#8
Jo Gibbs, Voula Gkatzidou, Laura Tickle, Sarah R Manning, Tilna Tilakkumar, Kate Hone, Richard E Ashcroft, Pam Sonnenberg, S Tariq Sadiq, Claudia S Estcourt
OBJECTIVE: Seeking sexual health information online is common, and provision of mobile medical applications (apps) for STIs is increasing. Young people, inherently at higher risk of STIs, are avid users of technology, and apps could be appealing sources of information. We undertook a comprehensive review of content and accuracy of apps for people seeking information about STIs. METHODS: Search of Google Play and iTunes stores using general and specific search terms for apps regarding STIs and genital infections (except HIV), testing, diagnosis and management, 10 September 2014 to 16 September 2014...
November 24, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831945/the-lorenz-curve-a-novel-method-for-understanding-viral-load-distribution-at-the-population-level
#9
Katerina A Christopoulos, Wendy Hartogensis, David V Glidden, Christopher D Pilcher, Monica Gandhi, Elvin H Geng
Existing HIV care cascade metrics fail to capture whether viremia is equally distributed in a population or concentrated within groups. We applied the Lorenz curve, which has been used to describe disparities in the distribution of income and other resources, to the distribution of viremia in a safety-net HIV clinic in 2012. Among 1855 established clinic patients, 1% of the population held 50% of the virus and 10% of the population held 94% of virus.
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804313/antiretroviral-treatment-for-hiv-infection-swedish-recommendations-2016
#10
Jaran Eriksen, Jan Albert, Anders Blaxhult, Christina Carlander, Leo Flamholc, Magnus Gisslén, Filip Josephson, Olof Karlström, Lars Navér, Veronica Svedhem, Aylin Yilmaz, Anders Sönnerborg
The Swedish Medical Products Agency and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) have jointly published recommendations for the treatment of HIV infection on seven previous occasions (2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2014). In February 2016, an expert group under the guidance of RAV once more revised the guidelines. The most important updates in the present guidelines are as follows: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has recently been registered. TAF has several advantages over tenofovir disoproxilfumarate (TDF) and is recommended instead of TDF in most cases...
January 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787348/budgetary-impact-of-compliance-with-sti-screening-guidelines-in-persons-living-with-hiv
#11
Ellen F Eaton, Kathryn Hudak, Christina A Muzny
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines recommend annual screening of all persons living with HIV (PLWH) for N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and syphilis; annual T. vaginalis screening is recommended for HIV-infected women. The study objective is to evaluate the budgetary impact of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening. We hypothesized that recommended STI screening is costly and would not be covered in full by insurers...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777303/hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-and-rnase-h-ribonuclease-h-active-sites-work-simultaneously-and-independently
#12
An Li, Jiawen Li, Kenneth A Johnson
HIV reverse transcriptase plays a central role in viral replication and requires coordination of both polymerase and RNase H activities. Although this coordination is crucial in viral replication, whether a DNA/RNA hybrid can simultaneously engage both active sites has yet to be determined as structural and kinetic analyses have provided contradictory results. Single nucleotide incorporation and RNase H cleavage were examined using presteady-state kinetics with global data analysis. The results revealed three interconverting reverse transcriptase-DNA/RNA species; 43% were active for both sites simultaneously, 27% showed only polymerase activity, and the remaining 30% were nonproductive...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716813/human-resources-for-treating-hiv-aids-are-the-preventive-effects-of-antiretroviral-treatment-a-game-changer
#13
Till Bärnighausen, David E Bloom, Salal Humair
Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART's prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687153/food-insecurity-among-students-living-with-hiv-strengthening-safety-nets-at-the-nelson-mandela-metropolitan-university-south-africa
#14
L Steenkamp, A Goosen, D Venter, M Beeforth
The HIV prevalence in South Africa among students at higher education institutions (HEIs) in 2008 was reported to be 3.4%, with the highest HIV prevalence found in the Eastern Cape Province. Students at these facilities are also increasingly affected by socio-economic constraints that may impact on food security. Little is known about the impact of food insecurity on HIV-infected students in HEIs in South Africa. The purpose of this paper is to describe food insecurity and the nutritional status among HIV-infected students on the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University campuses in South Africa, as well as current initiatives to strengthen the safety nets for food-insecure students...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647779/evaluation-of-impact-of-social-support-and-care-on-hiv-positive-and-aids-individuals-quality-of-life-a-nonrandomised-community-trial
#15
Xing-Ming Li, Xiao-Qing Yuan, Jun-Jie Wang, Wan-Ying Zhang, Yang Zhou, Gu-Ning Liu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Our study was conducted to further investigate the model of social support and care for People Living with HIV/AIDS(PLHA), to explore their role in People Living with AIDS's quality of life (QOL) as reference for improving nursing policies for AIDS. BACKGROUND: Social support and care are the most important factors impacting the QOL of People Living with HIV/AIDS, but most studies conducted upon the influence of social support and QOL of People Living with HIV/AIDS are mainly based on cross-sectional design...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641491/hiv-1-matrix-31-membrane-binding-peptide-interacts-differently-with-membranes-containing-ps-vs-pi-4-5-p2
#16
Lauren O'Neil, Kathryn Andenoro, Isabella Pagano, Laura Carroll, Leah Langer, Zachary Dell, Davina Perera, Bradley W Treece, Frank Heinrich, Mathias Lösche, John F Nagle, Stephanie Tristram-Nagle
Efficient assembly of HIV-1 at the plasma membrane (PM) of the T-cell specifically requires PI(4,5)P2. It was previously shown that a highly basic region (HBR) of the matrix protein (MA) on the Gag precursor polyprotein Pr55(Gag) is required for membrane association. MA is N-terminally myristoylated, which enhances its affinity to membranes. In this work we used X-ray scattering and neutron reflectivity to determine how the physical properties and structure of lipid bilayers respond to the addition of binding domain peptides, either in the myristoylated form (MA31myr) or without the myristoyl group (MA31)...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619013/the-prevalence-of-malaria-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-yaounde-cameroon
#17
Anna Longdoh Njunda, Charles Njumkeng, Shey Dickson Nsagha, Jules Clement Nguedia Assob, Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
BACKGROUND: Coinfection with malaria and HIV is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the advent of a decline in the global incidence of malaria, it is important to generate updated data on the burden of malaria in people living with HIV (PLWHIV). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria in PLWHIV in Yaounde, Cameroon, as well determine the association between CD4 (+) T cell count and malaria in the study population. METHODS: In a cross sectional study performed between April 2015 and June 2016, 355 PLWHIV were enrolled and blood samples were collected for analysis...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609130/a-10-year-cohort-analysis-of-routine-paediatric-art-data-in-a-rural-south-african-setting
#18
R R Lilian, B Mutasa, J Railton, W Mongwe, J A McINTYRE, H E Struthers, R P H Peters
South Africa's paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme is managed using a monitoring and evaluation tool known as TIER.Net. This electronic system has several advantages over paper-based systems, allowing profiling of the paediatric ART programme over time. We analysed anonymized TIER.Net data for HIV-infected children aged <15 years who had initiated ART in a rural district of South Africa between 2005 and 2014. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to assess outcomes over time. Records of 5461 children were available for analysis; 3593 (66%) children were retained in care...
January 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598705/harnessing-the-power-of-the-electronic-medical-record-to-facilitate-an-opt-out-hiv-screening-program-in-an-urban-academic-emergency-department
#19
Janet Lin, Cammeo Mauntel-Medici, Sara Heinert, Sara Baghikar
Emergency Departments (EDs) are important settings for routine HIV screening because they are safety nets for populations with limited access to primary care and high risk for HIV infection. However, EDs rarely perform routine HIV screening due to logistical barriers. An electronic medical record (EMR)-driven routine opt-out HIV screening program was implemented in an urban academic ED and led to rapid scale-up of screening volume and detection of unknown HIV infection. The streamlined tool, requiring 4 mouse clicks, automates screening for eligibility, facilitates documentation of consent and orders the HIV test...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591294/prediction-of-hard-cardiovascular-events-in-hiv-patients
#20
Paolo Raggi, Davide De Francesco, Marcella Manicardi, Stefano Zona, Antonio Bellasi, Chiara Stentarelli, Federica Carli, Barbara Beghetto, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Malagoli, Giovanni Guaraldi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of risk prediction algorithms used in the general population and an HIV-specific algorithm to predict hard cardiovascular events. METHODS: We compared the pooled equation algorithm (PE) proposed by the American Heart Association with the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the HIV-specific DAD (Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs) algorithm in a cohort of 2550 HIV+ patients followed for 17 337 patient-years. RESULTS: During follow-up we recorded 67 myocardial infarctions and 2 cardiovascular deaths...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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