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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671890/dynamic-thresholds-and-a-summary-roc-curve-assessing-prognostic-accuracy-of-longitudinal-markers
#1
P Saha-Chaudhuri, P J Heagerty
Cancer patients, chronic kidney disease patients, and subjects infected with HIV are routinely monitored over time using biomarkers that represent key health status indicators. Furthermore, biomarkers are frequently used to guide initiation of new treatments or to inform changes in intervention strategies. Since key medical decisions can be made on the basis of a longitudinal biomarker, it is important to evaluate the potential accuracy associated with longitudinal monitoring. To characterize the overall accuracy of a time-dependent marker, we introduce a summary ROC curve that displays the overall sensitivity associated with a time-dependent threshold that controls time-varying specificity...
April 19, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656066/the-clinical-course-of-patients-with-psa%C3%A2-100-ng-ml-insight-into-a-potential-population-for-targeted-psa-screening
#2
Andrew K Leung, Lee Hugar, Dattatraya Patil, Lisa Wong, Bradley Carthon, Kenneth Carney, George Birdsong, Kelvin A Moses, Viraj A Master
OBJECTIVE: To characterize men presenting to a tertiary care safety-net hospital with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values ≥100 ng/mL and identify a potential population for targeted PSA screening. METHODS: Retrospective review of 100 randomly selected patients out of 204 total who presented to Grady Memorial Hospital from 2004-2011 with initial PSA≥100 ng/mL was performed. Demographics, disease characteristics, and survival status were obtained via the Tumor Registry and a combination of electronic medical records and older paper charts, with missing data from paper charts excluded on analyses...
April 12, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561063/mefloquine-for-preventing-malaria-in-pregnant-women
#3
REVIEW
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544530/economic-evaluation-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-strategies-protocol-for-a-methodological-systematic-review-and-quantitative-synthesis
#4
Kednapa Thavorn, Howsikan Kugathasan, Darrell H S Tan, Nasheed Moqueet, Stefan D Baral, Becky Skidmore, Derek MacFadden, Anna Simkin, Sharmistha Mishra
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is an efficacious and effective intervention to decrease the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition. Yet drug and delivery costs prohibit access in many jurisdictions. In the absence of guidelines for the synthesis of economic evaluations, we developed a protocol for a systematic review of economic evaluation studies for PrEP by drawing on best practices in systematic reviews and the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532039/structural-sensitivity-in-hiv-modeling-a-case-study-of-vaccination
#5
Cora L Bernard, Margaret L Brandeau
Structural assumptions in infectious disease models, such as the choice of network or compartmental model type or the inclusion of different types of heterogeneity across individuals, might affect model predictions as much as or more than the choice of input parameters. We explore the potential implications of structural assumptions on HIV model predictions and policy conclusions. We illustrate the value of inference robustness assessment through a case study of the effects of a hypothetical HIV vaccine in multiple population subgroups over eight related transmission models, which we sequentially modify to vary over two dimensions: parameter complexity (e...
November 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477574/cost-effectiveness-of-hepatitis-c-screening-and-treatment-linkage-intervention-in-us-methadone-maintenance-treatment-programs
#6
Bruce R Schackman, Sarah Gutkind, Jake R Morgan, Jared A Leff, Czarina N Behrends, Kevin L Delucchi, Courtney McKnight, David C Perlman, Carmen L Masson, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a hepatitis C (HCV) screening and active linkage to care intervention in US methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients using data from a randomized trial conducted in New York City and San Francisco. METHODS: We used a decision analytic model to compare 1) no intervention; 2) HCV screening and education (control); and 3) HCV screening, education, and care coordination (active linkage intervention). We also explored an alternative strategy wherein HCV/HIV co-infected participants linked elsewhere...
February 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474546/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-text-messaging-intervention-to-promote-virologic-suppression-and-retention-in-care-in-an-urban-safety-net-hiv-clinic-the-connect4care-c4c-trial
#7
Katerina A Christopoulos, Elise D Riley, Adam W Carrico, Jacqueline Tulsky, Judith T Moskowitz, Samantha Dilworth, Lara S Coffin, Leslie Wilson, Jason Johnson Peretz, Joan F Hilton
Background: Text messaging is a promising strategy to support HIV care engagement, but little is known about its efficacy in urban safety-net HIV clinic populations. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a supportive and motivational text messaging intervention, Connect4Care (C4C), among viremic patients who had a history of poor retention or were new to clinic. Participants were randomized (stratified by new HIV diagnosis status) to receive one of the following for 12 months: 1) thrice-weekly intervention messages, plus texted primary care appointment reminders and a monthly text message requesting confirmation of study participation, or; 2) texted reminders and monthly messages alone...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474256/correlates-of-linkage-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-hiv-testing-clients
#8
Charlene A Flash, Oluwatobi O Adegboyega, Xiaoying Yu, Carmen Avalos, Syundai Johnson, Kenneth H Mayer, Thomas P Giordano
BACKGROUND: Publicly funded HIV-testing sites can identify HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates and provide PrEP linkage. SETTING: Harris Health System's HIV clinic, HIV-testing program, and HIV-prevention program (HPP) in Houston, TX, a high HIV-incidence city. METHODS: A prospective assessment of individuals aged 18 years and older recruited from walk-in HIV testing from December 2013 to April 2015 included risk assessment, HIV testing, and self-administered survey, with follow-up surveys at 6 and 12 months and medical record review...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415175/metabolic-effects-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-co-formulated-tenofovir-disoproxal-fumarate-and-emtricitabine
#9
David V Glidden, Kathleen Mulligan, Vanessa McMahan, Peter L Anderson, Juan Guanira, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Susan P Buchbinder, Linda-Gail Bekker, Mauro Schechter, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Robert M Grant
Background: Antiretroviral drugs have been associated with changes in fat metabolism including lipids, fat mass and fat distribution. In HIV treatment, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been shown to have a more favorable metabolic profile than other drugs in its class. However, the metabolic effects of TDF used as PrEP have not been reported. Methods: We evaluated the effects of TDF/FTC on lipids and body composition in participants in a blinded placebo controlled PrEP trial...
February 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408573/malaria-sickle-cell-disease-hiv-and-co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-an-observational-study
#10
Ewurama D A Owusu, Nana S A Cofie, Edna A Nai, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Charles A Brown, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch
OBJECTIVES: This observational study recorded the malaria and sickle cell disease (SCD) profile of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and determined whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole (CTX) and haemoglobin S (Hb S) allele influenced malaria episodes. METHODS: Sickling status, malaria episodes and HIV type, among others, were retrospectively extracted from the clinical records of 1,001 patients of the ART clinic in Ridge Regional Hospital (Accra, Ghana) between 2010 and 2015...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402245/next-wave-of-interventions-to-reduce-under-five-mortality-in-rwanda-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-survey-data
#11
Cheryl L Amoroso, Marie Paul Nisingizwe, Dominique Rouleau, Dana R Thomson, Daniel M Kagabo, Tatien Bucyana, Peter Drobac, Fidele Ngabo
BACKGROUND: Sustained investments in Rwanda's health system have led to historic reductions in under five (U5) mortality. Although Rwanda achieved an estimated 68% decrease in the national under U5 mortality rate between 2002 and 2012, according to the national census, 5.8% of children still do not reach their fifth birthday, requiring the next wave of child mortality prevention strategies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 9002 births to 6328 women age 15-49 in the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395997/prevention-of-malaria-in-pregnancy
#12
REVIEW
Meghna Desai, Jenny Hill, Silke Fernandes, Patrick Walker, Christopher Pell, Julie Gutman, Kassoum Kayentao, Raquel Gonzalez, Jayne Webster, Brian Greenwood, Michel Cot, Feiko O Ter Kuile
Malaria remains one of the most preventable causes of adverse birth outcomes. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is used to prevent malaria, but resistance to this drug combination has decreased its efficacy and new alternatives are needed. In Africa, a meta-analysis showed three-course or monthly IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to be safe and more effective than the original two-course sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine strategy, prompting WHO to update its policy in 2012...
April 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386285/functional-optimization-of-broadly-neutralizing-hiv-1-antibody-10e8-by-promoting-membrane-interactions
#13
Edurne Rujas, Daniel P Leaman, Sara Insausti, Lei Ortigosa-Pascual, Lei Zhang, Michael B Zwick, José L Nieva
The 10E8 antibody targets a helical epitope in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and transmembrane domain (TMD) of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) subunit gp41, and is among the broadest known neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Accordingly, this antibody and its mechanism of action valuably inform the design of effective vaccines and immunotherapies. 10E8 exhibits unusual adaptations to attain specific, high-affinity binding to the MPER at the viral membrane interface. Reversing charge of the basic paratope surface (from net positive to net negative) reportedly lowered its neutralization potency...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384024/clinical-and-economic-effects-of-a-pharmacist-administered-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-clinic-for-patients-living-with-hiv
#14
Thomas J Dilworth, Pamela W Klein, Renée-Claude Mercier, Matthew E Borrego, Bernadette Jakeman, Steven D Pinkerton
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists have demonstrated the ability to improve patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and economic effects of a pharmacist-administered ART adherence clinic for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: This pilot study with a pretest-posttest design examined the effect of a pharmacy adherence clinic on patient HIV viral load and CD4 count over a 6-month period...
February 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331843/performance-of-genotypic-algorithms-for-predicting-tropism-for-hiv-1-crf01_ae-recombinant
#15
C Soulie, L Morand-Joubert, J Cottalorda, C Charpentier, P Bellecave, L Le Guen, S Yerly, B Montes, S Fafi-Kremer, J Dina, V Avettand-Fenoel, C Amiel, C Roussel, C Pallier, K Zafilaza, S Sayon, A Signori-Schmuck, A Mirand, M A Trabaud, S Berger, V Calvez, A G Marcelin
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus about the performances of genotypic rules for predicting HIV-1 non-B subtype tropism. Three genotypic methods were compared for CRF01_AE HIV-1 tropism determination. METHODS: The V3 env region of 207 HIV-1 CRF01_AE and 178 B subtypes from 17 centers in France and 1 center in Switzerland was sequenced. Tropism was determined by Geno2Pheno algorithm with false positive rate (FPR) 5% or 10%, the 11/25 rule or the combined criteria of the 11/25, net charge rule and NXT/S mutations...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284696/re-evaluating-the-possible-increased-risk-of-hiv-acquisition-with-progestin-only-injectables-versus-maternal-mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-africa-a-decision-analysis
#16
Maria Isabel Rodriguez, Mary E Gaffield, Leo Han, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: The association between increased risk of HIV acquisition and use of progestin-only injectables (POIs) is controversial. We sought to compare the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition with use of POIs using updated data on this association and considering an expanded number of African countries. METHODS: We designed a decision-analytic model to compare the benefits and risks of POIs on the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition on life expectancy for women in 9 African countries...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258330/characterization-of-envelope-surface-glycoprotein-from-hiv-2-primary-isolates-with-different-coreceptor-usage-profile
#17
Paula Cerejo, Quirina Santos-Costa, Marta Calado, Maria Espírito-Santo, Ricardo Parreira, José Miguel Azevedo-Pereira
The main goal of this work was to identify molecular signatures in envelope surface glycoprotein that may be correlated with coreceptor usage by different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 strains. From inspection of aligned HIV-2 sequences, we verified that V1/V2 region showed the highest degree of amino acid sequence heterogeneity, including polymorphisms in N-linked glycosylation sites, sequence, and length. Furthermore, we did not find any correlation between the net charge and specific amino acid positions in V3 region with any particular coreceptor usage pattern...
February 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246657/consequences-of-restricted-sti-testing-for-young-heterosexuals-in-the-netherlands-on-test-costs-and-qaly-losses
#18
Anita W M Suijkerbuijk, Eelco A B Over, Fleur van Aar, Hannelore M Götz, Birgit H B van Benthem, Anna K Lugnér
BACKGROUND: Due to rising costs caused by increasing demand for sexually transmitted infection (STI) care, the Dutch government changed the funding of STI clinics. In 2015, a more restrictive testing policy was introduced with syphilis and HIV tests only on indication for younger, heterosexual clients. We evaluated intended savings and missed syphilis and/or HIV infections and explored efficiency of possible test policies. METHODS: Using surveillance data from 2011 to 2013 with extensive testing for all, we estimated effects of restrictive testing on test costs, number of infections missed, costs per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) lost, and calculated the net monetary benefit from a government perspective...
February 2018: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229000/changes-in-specific-substance-involvement-scores-among-sbirt-recipients-in-an-hiv-primary-care-setting
#19
Carol Dawson-Rose, Jessica E Draughon, Yvette Cuca, Roland Zepf, Emily Huang, Bruce A Cooper, Paula J Lum
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and is associated with worse outcomes along the HIV care continuum. One potentially effective clinic-based approach to addressing unhealthy substance use is screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). METHODS: We conducted a two-arm randomized trial to examine the effects of a self-administered, computerized SBIRT intervention compared to a clinician-administered SBIRT intervention in an HIV primary clinic...
December 12, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210831/correlates-of-linkage-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-hiv-testing-clients
#20
Charlene A Flash, Oluwatobi O Adegboyega, Xiaoying Yu, Carmen Avalos, Syundai Johnson, Kenneth H Mayer, Thomas P Giordano
BACKGROUND: Publicly funded HIV testing sites can identify HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates and provide PrEP linkage. SETTING: Harris Health System's HIV clinic, HIV testing program and HIV Prevention Program in Houston, TX, a high HIV incidence city. METHODS: A prospective assessment of individuals ≥18 years old recruited from walk-in HIV testing December, 2013 to April, 2015 included risk assessment, HIV testing and self-administered survey, with follow-up surveys at 6 and 12 months and medical record review...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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