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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415175/metabolic-effects-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-co-formulated-tenofovir-disoproxal-fumarate-and-emtricitabine
#1
David V Glidden, Kathleen Mulligan, Vanessa McMahan, Peter L Anderson, Juan Guanira, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Susan P Buchbinder, Linda-Gail Bekker, Mauro Schechter, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Robert M Grant
Background: Antiretroviral drugs have been associated with changes in fat metabolism including lipids, fat mass and fat distribution. In HIV treatment, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been shown to have a more favorable metabolic profile than other drugs in its class. However, the metabolic effects of TDF used as PrEP have not been reported. Methods: We evaluated the effects of TDF/FTC on lipids and body composition in participants in a blinded placebo controlled PrEP trial...
February 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408573/malaria-sickle-cell-disease-hiv-and-co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-an-observational-study
#2
Ewurama D A Owusu, Nana S A Cofie, Edna A Nai, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Charles A Brown, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch
OBJECTIVES: This observational study recorded the malaria and sickle cell disease (SCD) profile of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and determined whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole (CTX) and haemoglobin S (Hb S) allele influenced malaria episodes. METHODS: Sickling status, malaria episodes and HIV type, among others, were retrospectively extracted from the clinical records of 1,001 patients of the ART clinic in Ridge Regional Hospital (Accra, Ghana) between 2010 and 2015...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402245/next-wave-of-interventions-to-reduce-under-five-mortality-in-rwanda-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-survey-data
#3
Cheryl L Amoroso, Marie Paul Nisingizwe, Dominique Rouleau, Dana R Thomson, Daniel M Kagabo, Tatien Bucyana, Peter Drobac, Fidele Ngabo
BACKGROUND: Sustained investments in Rwanda's health system have led to historic reductions in under five (U5) mortality. Although Rwanda achieved an estimated 68% decrease in the national under U5 mortality rate between 2002 and 2012, according to the national census, 5.8% of children still do not reach their fifth birthday, requiring the next wave of child mortality prevention strategies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 9002 births to 6328 women age 15-49 in the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395997/prevention-of-malaria-in-pregnancy
#4
REVIEW
Meghna Desai, Jenny Hill, Silke Fernandes, Patrick Walker, Christopher Pell, Julie Gutman, Kassoum Kayentao, Raquel Gonzalez, Jayne Webster, Brian Greenwood, Michel Cot, Feiko O Ter Kuile
Malaria remains one of the most preventable causes of adverse birth outcomes. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is used to prevent malaria, but resistance to this drug combination has decreased its efficacy and new alternatives are needed. In Africa, a meta-analysis showed three-course or monthly IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to be safe and more effective than the original two-course sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine strategy, prompting WHO to update its policy in 2012...
January 30, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386285/functional-optimization-of-broadly-neutralizing-hiv-1-antibody-10e8-by-promoting-membrane-interactions
#5
Edurne Rujas, Daniel P Leaman, Sara Insausti, Lei Ortigosa-Pascual, Lei Zhang, Michael B Zwick, José L Nieva
The 10E8 antibody targets a helical epitope in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and transmembrane domain (TMD) of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) subunit gp41, and is among the broadest known neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Accordingly, this antibody and its mechanism of action valuably inform the design of effective vaccines and immunotherapies. 10E8 exhibits unusual adaptations to attain specific, high-affinity binding to the MPER at the viral membrane interface. Reversing charge of the basic paratope surface (from net positive to net negative) reportedly lowered its neutralization potency...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384024/clinical-and-economic-effects-of-a-pharmacist-administered-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-clinic-for-patients-living-with-hiv
#6
Thomas J Dilworth, Pamela W Klein, Renée-Claude Mercier, Matthew E Borrego, Bernadette Jakeman, Steven D Pinkerton
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists have demonstrated the ability to improve patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and economic effects of a pharmacist-administered ART adherence clinic for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: This pilot study with a pretest-posttest design examined the effect of a pharmacy adherence clinic on patient HIV viral load and CD4 count over a 6-month period...
February 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331843/performance-of-genotypic-algorithms-for-predicting-tropism-for-hiv-1-crf01_ae-recombinant
#7
C Soulie, L Morand-Joubert, J Cottalorda, C Charpentier, P Bellecave, L Le Guen, S Yerly, B Montes, S Fafi-Kremer, J Dina, V Avettand-Fenoel, C Amiel, C Roussel, C Pallier, K Zafilaza, S Sayon, A Signori-Schmuck, A Mirand, M A Trabaud, S Berger, V Calvez, A G Marcelin
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus about the performances of genotypic rules for predicting HIV-1 non-B subtype tropism. Three genotypic methods were compared for CRF01_AE HIV-1 tropism determination. METHODS: The V3 env region of 207 HIV-1 CRF01_AE and 178 B subtypes from 17 centers in France and 1 center in Switzerland was sequenced. Tropism was determined by Geno2Pheno algorithm with false positive rate (FPR) 5% or 10%, the 11/25 rule or the combined criteria of the 11/25, net charge rule and NXT/S mutations...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284696/re-evaluating-the-possible-increased-risk-of-hiv-acquisition-with-progestin-only-injectables-versus-maternal-mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-africa-a-decision-analysis
#8
Maria Isabel Rodriguez, Mary E Gaffield, Leo Han, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: The association between increased risk of HIV acquisition and use of progestin-only injectables (POIs) is controversial. We sought to compare the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition with use of POIs using updated data on this association and considering an expanded number of African countries. METHODS: We designed a decision-analytic model to compare the benefits and risks of POIs on the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition on life expectancy for women in 9 African countries...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258330/characterization-of-env-surface-glycoprotein-from-hiv-2-primary-isolates-with-different-coreceptor-usage-profile
#9
Paula Cerejo, Quirina Santos-Costa, Marta Calado, Maria Espírito-Santo, Ricardo Parreira, J Miguel Azevedo Pereira
The main goal of this work was to identify molecular signatures in envelope surface glycoprotein that may be correlated with coreceptor usage by different HIV-2 strains. From inspection of aligned HIV-2 sequences we verified that V1/V2 region showed the highest degree of amino acid sequence heterogeneity including polymorphisms in N-linked glycosylation sites, sequence and length. Furthermore, we did not find any correlation between the net charge and specific amino acids positions in V3 region with any particular coreceptor-usage pattern...
December 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246657/consequences-of-restricted-sti-testing-for-young-heterosexuals-in-the-netherlands-on-test-costs-and-qaly-losses
#10
Anita W M Suijkerbuijk, Eelco A B Over, Fleur van Aar, Hannelore M Götz, Birgit H B van Benthem, Anna K Lugnér
BACKGROUND: Due to rising costs caused by increasing demand for sexually transmitted infection (STI) care, the Dutch government changed the funding of STI clinics. In 2015, a more restrictive testing policy was introduced with syphilis and HIV tests only on indication for younger, heterosexual clients. We evaluated intended savings and missed syphilis and/or HIV infections and explored efficiency of possible test policies. METHODS: Using surveillance data from 2011 to 2013 with extensive testing for all, we estimated effects of restrictive testing on test costs, number of infections missed, costs per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) lost, and calculated the net monetary benefit from a government perspective...
December 8, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229000/changes-in-specific-substance-involvement-scores-among-sbirt-recipients-in-an-hiv-primary-care-setting
#11
Carol Dawson-Rose, Jessica E Draughon, Yvette Cuca, Roland Zepf, Emily Huang, Bruce A Cooper, Paula J Lum
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and is associated with worse outcomes along the HIV care continuum. One potentially effective clinic-based approach to addressing unhealthy substance use is screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). METHODS: We conducted a two-arm randomized trial to examine the effects of a self-administered, computerized SBIRT intervention compared to a clinician-administered SBIRT intervention in an HIV primary clinic...
December 12, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210831/correlates-of-linkage-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-hiv-testing-clients
#12
Charlene A Flash, Oluwatobi O Adegboyega, Xiaoying Yu, Carmen Avalos, Syundai Johnson, Kenneth H Mayer, Thomas P Giordano
BACKGROUND: Publicly funded HIV testing sites can identify HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates and provide PrEP linkage. SETTING: Harris Health System's HIV clinic, HIV testing program and HIV Prevention Program in Houston, TX, a high HIV incidence city. METHODS: A prospective assessment of individuals ≥18 years old recruited from walk-in HIV testing December, 2013 to April, 2015 included risk assessment, HIV testing and self-administered survey, with follow-up surveys at 6 and 12 months and medical record review...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209922/altered-brain-morphometry-in-7-year-old-hiv-infected-children-on-early-art
#13
Emmanuel C Nwosu, Frances C Robertson, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Els Dobbels, Francesca Little, Barbara Laughton, Andre van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Even with the increased roll out of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), paediatric HIV infection is associated with neurodevelopmental delays and neurocognitive deficits that may be accompanied by alterations in brain structure. Few neuroimaging studies have been done in children initiating ART before 2 years of age, and even fewer in children within the critical stage of brain development between 5 and 11 years. We hypothesized that early ART would limit HIV-related brain morphometric deficits at age 7...
December 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174315/workshop-report-nucleic-acid-delivery-devices-for-hiv-vaccines-workshop-proceedings-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases-bethesda-maryland-usa-may-21-2015
#14
Bruce G Weniger, Ian E Anglin, Tina Tong, Michael Pensiero, Jeffrey K Pullen
On May 21st, 2015, the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on delivery devices for nucleic acid (NA) as vaccines in order to review the landscape of past and future technologies for administering NA (e.g., DNA, RNA, etc.) as antigen into target tissues of animal models and humans. Its focus was on current and future applications for preventing and treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease, among other infectious-disease priorities...
November 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133803/microbial-diversity-of-genital-ulcers-of-hsv-2-seropositive-women
#15
Supriya D Mehta, Ashish K Pradhan, Stefan J Green, Ankur Naqib, Elijah Odoyo-June, Charlotte A Gaydos, Sheila Barry, Alan Landay, Robert C Bailey
We measured the microbial community structure of genital ulcers in women. Swabs from clinically detected ulcers were tested for HSV-2 and Treponema pallidum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HSV-2 and T. pallidum were detected by serum antibody testing. Microbial community structure was characterized by high-throughput 16 s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Multiple group testing and Elastic net and Lasso regressions identified taxa associated with differences in factors of interest. Among 49 ulcer specimens from 49 HSV-2 seropositive women, by PCR HSV-2 was recovered from 28 (57%) specimens and T...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123514/assessment-of-the-combined-effect-of-epstein-barr-virus-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-on-endemic-burkitt-lymphoma-using-a-multiplex-serological-approach
#16
Ruth Aguilar, Delphine Casabonne, Cristina O'Callaghan-Gordo, Marta Vidal, Joseph J Campo, Nora Mutalima, Evelina Angov, Sheetij Dutta, Deepak Gaur, Chetan E Chitnis, Virander Chauhan, Angelika Michel, Silvia de Sanjosé, Tim Waterboer, Manolis Kogevinas, Rob Newton, Carlota Dobaño
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a necessary cause of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), while the role of Plasmodium falciparum in eBL remains uncertain. This study aimed to generate new hypotheses on the interplay between both infections in the development of eBL by investigating the IgG and IgM profiles against several EBV and P. falciparum antigens. Serum samples collected in a childhood study in Malawi (2005-2006) from 442 HIV-seronegative children (271 eBL cases and 171 controls) between 1.4 and 15 years old were tested by quantitative suspension array technology against a newly developed multiplex panel combining 4 EBV antigens [Z Epstein-Barr replication activator protein (ZEBRA), early antigen-diffuse component (EA-D), EBV nuclear antigen 1, and viral capsid antigen p18 subunit (VCA-p18)] and 15 P...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117791/implementing-generalized-additive-models-to-estimate-the-expected-value-of-sample-information-in-a-microsimulation-model-results-of-three-case-studies
#17
Dustin J Rabideau, Pamela P Pei, Rochelle P Walensky, Amy Zheng, Robert A Parker
BACKGROUND: The expected value of sample information (EVSI) can help prioritize research but its application is hampered by computational infeasibility, especially for complex models. We investigated an approach by Strong and colleagues to estimate EVSI by applying generalized additive models (GAM) to results generated from a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). METHODS: For 3 potential HIV prevention and treatment strategies, we estimated life expectancy and lifetime costs using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) model, a complex patient-level microsimulation model of HIV progression...
November 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095554/patients-perceptions-of-their-doctors-notes-and-after-visit-summaries-a-mixed-methods-study-of-patients-at-safety-net-clinics
#18
Brittaney M Belyeu, Jared W Klein, Lisa M Reisch, Sue Peacock, Natalia V Oster, Joann G Elmore, Sara L Jackson
BACKGROUND: Patients are increasingly offered electronic access to their doctors' notes, and many consistently receive paper After-Visit Summaries. Specific feedback from patients about notes and summaries are lacking, particularly within safety-net settings. DESIGN: A mixed methods study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with poorly controlled diabetes attending two urban safety-net primary care clinics in Washington State. METHODS: Patients read their own most recent clinic note and After-Visit Summary, then completed a brief survey followed by a focus group discussion (3 groups in a large general medicine teaching clinic and 1 in an HIV/AIDS clinic) about their perceptions of the clinic note and After-Visit Summary...
November 2, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081993/is-more-research-always-needed-estimating-optimal-sample-sizes-for-trials-of-retention-in-care-interventions-for-hiv-positive-east-africans
#19
Jennifer Uyei, Lingfeng Li, R Scott Braithwaite
INTRODUCTION: Given the serious health consequences of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, randomised control trials of interventions to improve retention in care may be warranted. As funding for global HIV research is finite, it may be argued that choices about sample size should be tied to maximising health. METHODS: For an East African setting, we calculated expected value of sample information and expected net benefit of sampling to identify the optimal sample size (greatest return on investment) and to quantify net health gains associated with research...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059424/hiv-care-initiation-a-teachable-moment-for-smoking-cessation
#20
Damon J Vidrine, Summer G Frank, Micah J Savin, Andrew J Waters, Yisheng Li, Sixia Chen, Faith E Fletcher, Roberto C Arduino, Ellen R Gritz
Introduction: Tobacco use among persons living with HIV represents an important risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Thus, efforts designed to inform the development of appropriate smoking cessation programs for this population remains a public health priority. To address this need, a study was conducted to longitudinally assess the relationship between intention to quit smoking and cessation over the 12 month period following initiation of HIV care. Methods: Patients initiating HIV care at a large inner city safety net clinic were enrolled (n=378) in a 12-month prospective study...
September 25, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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