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Flight physiology

David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kristin Bianchini, Christy A Morrissey
Efficient fuelling is essential for migratory birds because fuel loads and fuelling rates affect individual fitness and survival during migration. Many migrant shorebirds are exposed to oil pollution and its toxic constituents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), at migratory staging sites, which has the potential to interfere with avian refuelling physiology. In this study, we orally dosed shorebirds with environmentally-relevant PAH mixtures to simulate dietary exposure during staging. Forty-nine wild-caught Sanderling (Calidris alba) were exposed to 0 (control), 12...
June 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Norman Atkins, Shifang Ren, Nathan G Hatcher, Penny W Burgoon, Jennifer W Mitchell, Jonathan V Sweedler, Martha U Gillette
Daily oscillations of brain and body states are under complex temporal modulation by environmental light and the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock. To better understand mediators of differential temporal modulation, we characterize neuropeptide releasate profiles by non-selective capture of secreted neuropeptides in an optic nerve-horizontal SCN brain slice model. Releasates are collected following electrophysiological stimulation of the optic nerve/retinohypothalamic tract under conditions that alter the phase of SCN activity state...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Shuhui Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Mingzhu Sun, Qiuping Zhang, Teng Li, Xiang Li, Jia Xu, Xin Zhao, Dongyan Chen, Xizeng Feng
BACKGROUND: With increased social pressure, individuals face a high risk of depression. Subsequently, depression affects cognitive behaviour and negatively impacts daily life. Fortunately, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Jia Wei Xiao Yao (JWXY) capsule is effective in reducing depression and improving cognitive behaviour. METHODS: The constituents of JWXY capsule were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses...
June 14, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Kristina A Muise, Allyson K Menzies, Craig K R Willis
Acute stressors such as capture and handling can elicit physiological responses in endothermic animals. One example of such a response is an increase in body temperature (Tb ) commonly referred to as stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH). For species that employ torpor, typically an inactive state characterized by a controlled reduction in Tb and metabolic rate, a rapid increase in Tb could be advantageous, especially in the context of escape from predators. We quantified SIH in silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) because they readily enter torpor and often roost in exposed places where they could be vulnerable to predators...
June 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Noriyuki Hirata, Futoshi Suizu, Mami Matsuda-Lennikov, Tsutomu Tanaka, Tatsuma Edamura, Satoko Ishigaki, Thoria Donia, Pathrapol Lithanatudom, Chikashi Obuse, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Masayuki Noguchi
Serine-threonine kinase Akt (also known as PKB, protein kinase B), a core intracellular mediator of cell survival, is involved in various human cancers and has been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of autophagy in mammalian cells. Nonetheless, the physiological function of Akt in the lysosomes is currently unknown. We have reported previously that PtdIns(3)P-dependent lysosomal accumulation of the Akt-Phafin2 complex is a critical step for autophagy induction. Here, to characterize the molecular function of activated Akt in the lysosomes in the process of autophagy, we searched for the molecules that interact with the Akt complex at the lysosomes after induction of autophagy...
June 5, 2018: Oncogene
Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo Monda, Raffaele Orsitto, Giovanna Zezza, Giovanni Fiorentino, Monica Salerno, Antonio I Triggiani, Andrea Viggiano, Maria P Mollica, Marco Carotenuto, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Giovanni Messina
Emotional stability plays a key role in individual and team performance during both routine activities and management of unexpected emergencies. Using a psycho-physiological approach, the stress response was investigated in drone operators in service. Methods: Salivary α-amylase (sAA), galvanic skin response (GSR) and anxiety were assessed over a 2-h operating flight. Results: Compared to baseline values, GSR and sAA values increased in operating conditions. Moreover, these values were higher in Pilots than in Sensor Operators, indicating that their stress response was greater...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Krista M Armbruster, Timothy C Meredith
Lipoproteins are important constituents of the bacterial cell envelope and potent activators of the mammalian innate immune response. Despite their significance to both cell physiology and immunology, much remains to be discovered about novel lipoprotein forms, how they are synthesized, and the effect of the various forms on host immunity. To enable thorough studies on lipoproteins, this protocol describes a method for bacterial lipoprotein enrichment and preparation of N-terminal tryptic lipopeptides for structural determination by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ilya V Ryaboy, James A Watts, Megan L Barnwell
Athlete's heart is the condition of cardiac remodeling as a result of physiologic stress induced by regular strenuous physical activity by professional or elite amateur individuals. The literature describes several characteristics of the athletic heart, including left ventricular hypertrophy, increased left ventricular mass, right ventricular dilatation, atrial enlargement, electrocardiographic changes, and abnormalities on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We present a case of athletic heart in an exceptionally physically fit active duty naval aviator who experienced syncope and underwent extensive cardiac testing...
May 31, 2018: Military Medicine
Zhuo Liu, Yongfeng Sun, Yanwen Jiang, Yuqiang Qian, Shuxiong Chen, Shan Gao, Lu Chen, Chunjin Li, Xu Zhou
BACKGROUND: Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for the development and maintenance of normal physiological functions of the ovary. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ovarian retinoid homeostasis during follicular development remain unclear. METHODS: The present study determined retinoid levels and the expression levels of genes involved in the retinol uptake and its metabolic pathway in the ovaries of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-treated mice and in granulosa cells treated with FSH using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) combined with quadrupole time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/HSMS) and real-time PCR analysis...
May 26, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Yang Yang, Qisheng Zhong, Hao Zhang, Canlong Mo, Jinting Yao, Taohong Huang, Ting Zhou, Wen Tan
Isosteviol sodium (STV-Na) was reported to possess significant protective effects on ischemic stroke in recent years. However, the protective mechanism of STV-Na against stroke was still unclear. In this work, an untargeted lipidomics approach based on the ultra high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupling with ion-trap and time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHSFC-IT-TOF/MS) was employed to investigate the lipid profiles of stroke rats with STV-Na treatment for the first time. The possible mechanism of STV-Na was further elucidated...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jing Yang, Yanhua Qu, Yuan Huang, Fumin Lei
BACKGROUND: Feathers with complex and fine structure are hallmark avian integument appendages, which have contributed significantly to the survival and breeding for birds. Here, we aimed to explore the differentiation, morphogenesis and development of diverse feathers in the domestic duck. RESULTS: Transcriptome profiles of skin owing feather follicle from two body parts at three physiological stages were constructed to understand the molecular network and excavate the candidate genes associated with the development of plumulaceous and flight feather structures...
May 24, 2018: BMC Genomics
Fethi Bouak, Oshin Vartanian, Kevin Hofer, Bob Cheung
BACKGROUND: The effects of acute mild hypoxic hypoxia (HH) and physical activity on physiological measures, signs and symptoms, mood, fatigue, cognition, and performance on a simulated flight task were investigated between 8000 (8K; 2438 m) and 14,000 ft (14K; 4267 m). METHOD: In a hypobaric chamber, 16 military helicopter pilots were randomly exposed to 4 altitudes and 3 physical exertion levels. After each exercise period, participants identified targets on a designated flight path on a desktop simulator and completed a cognitive test battery...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Heather E Wright Beatty, Andrew J Law, J Russell Thomas, Viresh Wickramasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Rotary wing pilot neck strain is increasing in prevalence due to the combined effects of head supported mass (e.g., Night Vision Goggles, head mounted displays) and whole-body vibration. This study examined the physiological responses of pilots during exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) representative of the National Research Council's Bell 412 helicopter in forward flight. WBV levels were measured and evaluated using the ISO-2631-1-1997 WBV standards. METHODS: Twelve pilots (aged 20-59 yr, 7 of the 12 with 20+ years flight experience) underwent six 15-min vibration trials on a human rated shaker platform...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Albert J Fornace, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Vijay K Singh
The search for and development of radiation countermeasures to treat acute lethal radiation injury has been underway for the past six decades, resulting in the identification of multiple classes of radiation countermeasures. However, to date only granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Neupogen) and PEGylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Neulasta) have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Gamma-tocotrienol has demonstrated radioprotective efficacy in murine and nonhuman primate models...
July 2018: Health Physics
Jun Qian, Fan Xie, Yanhong Shi, Jinhang Li, Liuqiang Zhang, Yiming Li, Fujiang Guo, Rui Wang
Bavachinin (BVC), one of the main bioactive prenylated flavonoids derived from Psoralea corylifolia Linn, has a wide variety of pharmacological effects, such as antiangiogenic, antitumour, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities, especially as a pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) agonist. A rapid and sensitive method for quantifying BVC in rat plasma was developed and validated through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry...
May 21, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Jennifer L Zaslona, Karyn M O'Keeffe, T Leigh Signal, Philippa H Gander
In commercial aviation, fatigue is defined as a physiological state of reduced mental or physical performance capability resulting from sleep loss, extended wakefulness, circadian phase, and/or workload. The International Civil Aviation Organisation mandates that responsibility for fatigue risk management is shared between airline management, pilots, and support staff. However, to date, the majority of research relating to fatigue mitigations in long range operations has focused on the mitigations required or recommended by regulators and operators...
2018: PloS One
Sherif Ramadan, Takeshi Miyake, Junichi Yamaura, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Pigeon racing is a popular sport worldwide. Pigeons are under continuous selection to improve speed, spatial orientation, and endurance during long flights. However, numerous genetic and non-genetic factors affect survivability and homing ability, making such traits difficult for breeders to control. Polymorphisms in the lactate dehydrogenase A gene (LDHA) likely affects pigeon racing and homing abilities, due to its role in physical and mental performance. Additionally, the adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 gene (ADCYAP1) has been associated with physiological and behavioral shifts that occur during avian migration...
2018: PloS One
Jonas Münch, Gwendolyn Billig, Christian A Huebner, Trese Leinders-Zufall, Frank Zufall, Thomas J Jentsch
Ca2+-activated Cl- currents have been observed in many physiological processes, including sensory transduction in mammalian olfaction. The olfactory vomeronasal (or Jacobson's) organ (VNO) detects molecular cues originating from animals of the same species or from predators. It then triggers innate behaviors such as aggression, mating, or flight. In the VNO, Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) are thought to amplify the initial pheromone-evoked receptor potential by mediating a depolarizing Cl- efflux. Here, we confirmed the co-localization of the Ca2+-activated Cl- channels anoctamin 1 (Ano1, also called TMEM16A) and Ano2 (TMEM16B) in microvilli of apically and basally located vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and their absence in supporting cells of the VNO...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Maximiliano J Garzón, Nicolás Schweigmann
BACKGROUND: Gene flow restrictions between populations of Aedes albifasciatus, the vector of Western equine encephalitis and Dirophilaria immitis, have been described in the central region of Argentina. Genetic and eco-physiological variations usually result in local forms reflecting the climatic regions. Mosquito wings and their different parts have ecological functions in flight and communication. Therefore, wing shape could be considered an aspect of sexual dimorphism, and its eco-physiological responses can be expressed as morphological changes induced by the environment...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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