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Flight physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630705/physiological-effects-of-stress-related-to-helicopter-travel-in-federal-emergency-management-agency-search-and-rescue-canines
#1
E Perry, N Gulson, T-W Liu Cross, K S Swanson
Working canines are deployed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as part of a National Disaster Response Plan. Stress associated with helicopter flight and the resulting physical effects on the dog are unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that (1) helicopter travel affects the physiology and faecal microbiota of working canines, but that (2) physiological consequences of helicopter travel will not negatively affect their work performance. A total of nine FEMA canines were loaded onto helicopters and flown for 30 min in July 2015...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630571/predictive-variables-of-half-marathon-performance-for-male-runners
#2
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Jesus Camara, Christoper Stickley, José A Rodríguez-Marroyo, Juan García-López
The aims of this study were to establish and validate various predictive equations of half-marathon performance. Seventy-eight half-marathon male runners participated in two different phases. Phase 1 (n = 48) was used to establish the equations for estimating half-marathon performance, and Phase 2 (n = 30) to validate these equations. Apart from half-marathon performance, training-related and anthropometric variables were recorded, and an incremental test on a treadmill was performed, in which physiological (VO2max, speed at the anaerobic threshold, peak speed) and biomechanical variables (contact and flight times, step length and step rate) were registered...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619089/light-manipulation-of-mosquito-behaviour-acute-and-sustained-photic-suppression-of-biting-activity-in-the-anopheles-gambiae-malaria-mosquito
#3
Aaron D Sheppard, Samuel S C Rund, Gary F George, Erin Clark, Dominic J Acri, Giles E Duffield
BACKGROUND: Host-seeking behaviours in anopheline mosquitoes are time-of-day specific, with a greater propensity for nocturnal biting. We investigated how a short exposure to light presented during the night or late day can inhibit biting activity and modulate flight activity behaviour. RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), maintained on a 12:12 LD cycle, were exposed transiently to white light for 10-min at the onset of night and the proportion taking a blood meal in a human biting assay was recorded every 2 h over an 8-h duration...
June 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612235/bio-logging-new-technologies-to-study-conservation-physiology-on-the-move-a-case-study-on-annual-survival-of-himalayan-vultures
#4
Sherub Sherub, Wolfgang Fiedler, Olivier Duriez, Martin Wikelski
Bio-logging, the on-animal deployment of miniaturised electronic data recorders, allows for the study of location, body position, and physiology of individuals throughout their ontogeny. For terrestrial animals, 1 Hz GPS-position, 3D-body acceleration, and ambient temperature provide standard data to link to the physiology of life histories. Environmental context is added at ever finer scales using remote sensing earth observation data. Here we showcase the use of such bio-logging approaches in a conservation physiology study on endangered Himalayan vultures (Gyps himalayensis)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611162/a-large-chronic-pericardial-effusion-in-an-ultramarathon-runner-with-anti-ccp-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Thomas J McClelland, Rose Penfold, Stefan Kluzek, Navraj S Nagra
Pericardial effusions arise as an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pericardial effusions are often asymptomatic, particularly in the early phase, but patients are at risk of cardiac tamponade as the effusion progresses. We discuss the case of a 40-year-old male ultramarathon runner with RA who presented with mild pleuritic chest pain and exertional dyspnoea after a recent long-haul flight. Despite a relative tachycardia, his observations were otherwise unremarkable. His blood tests revealed a C-reactive protein (CRP) of 86 mg/L and an anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) titre of 360 units/mL...
June 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597244/seasonal-and-flight-related-variation-of-galectin-expression-in-heart-liver-and-flight-muscles-of-yellow-rumped-warblers-setophaga-coronata
#6
Stefanie S Bradley, Morag F Dick, Christopher G Guglielmo, Alexander V Timoshenko
Galectins, a family of multifunctional glycan-binding proteins, are proposed as biomarkers of cellular stress responses. Avian migration is an energetically challenging physical stress, which represents a physiological model of muscular endurance exercises. This study assesses change in galectin gene expression profiles associated with seasonal variation in migratory state and endurance flight in yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Bioinformatics analysis and real-time qPCR were used to analyse the expression of galectins in flight muscle, heart and liver tissues of 15 warblers separated into three groups of winter unflown, and fall migratory flown/unflown birds...
June 8, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586192/selenium-functionalized-graphene-oxide-that-can-modulate-the-balance-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#7
Jiahao Xia, Feng Li, Shaobo Ji, Huaping Xu
Graphene oxide (GO) is an important two-dimensional material since it is water soluble and can be functionalized to adapt to different applications. However, the current covalent functionalization methods usually require hash conditions, long duration and sometimes even multi-steps, while noncovalent functionalization is inevitably unstable, especially under physiological environment where competing species exist. Diselenide bond is a dynamic covalent bond and can respond to both redox condition and visible light irradiation in a sensitive manner...
June 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581019/identification-by-using-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-non-commercial-yogurts-in-southern-anatolia-turkey
#8
Ayse Karaduman, Mehmet Ozaslan Ozaslan, Ibrahim H Kilic, Sibel Bayil-Oguzkan, Bekir S Kurt, Nese Erdogan
Yogurt is a dairy product obtained by bacterial fermentation of milk. Commercial yogurts are produced using standard starters while, in the production of non-commercial yogurt, the microbiota is quite different since yogurts are used as starter for years. To determine the final characteristics of the fermented product it is necessary to know the biochemical properties of the starter cultures, such as acidity, aroma and flavor. This can only be achieved by identifying and characterizing the bacteria in starter cultures...
March 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559122/reprint-of-overview-of-avian-toxicity-studies-for-the-deepwater-horizon-natural-resource-damage-assessment
#9
S J Bursian, C R Alexander, D Cacela, F L Cunningham, K M Dean, B S Dorr, C K Ellis, C A Godard-Codding, C G Guglielmo, K C Hanson-Dorr, K E Harr, K A Healy, M J Hooper, K E Horak, J P Isanhart, L V Kennedy, J E Link, I Maggini, J K Moye, C R Perez, C A Pritsos, S A Shriner, K A Trust, P L Tuttle
The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 establishes liability for injuries to natural resources because of the release or threat of release of oil. Assessment of injury to natural resources resulting from an oil spill and development and implementation of a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of natural resources to compensate for those injuries is accomplished through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process. The NRDA process began within a week of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on April 20, 2010...
May 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554506/bion-m-1-first-continuous-blood-pressure-monitoring-in-mice-during-a-30-day-spaceflight
#10
Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Anfisa Popova, Jean-Christophe Lloret, Patrick Aubry, Anatoliy Borovik, Daria Tsvirkun, Olga Vinogradova, Eugeniy Ilyin, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud
Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554380/overexpression-of-hlyb-and-mdh-genes-confers-halotolerance-in-fremyella-diplosiphon-a-freshwater-cyanobacterium
#11
Behnam Tabatabai, AnithaChristy S Arumanayagam, Oluwatomisin Enitan, Arunmani Mani, Savithiry S Natarajan, Viji Sitther
Fremyella diplosiphon is a freshwater cyanobacterium that has great potential as a biofuel agent due to its ability to grow in low light intensity and acclimation to different wavelengths. To enhance its halotolerance for growth in 35gL(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), plasmids harboring hemolysin B (hlyB) and malate dehydrogenase (mdh) genes were transformed into wild type F. diplosiphon (WT-Fd33). Electroporation-mediated overexpression of the genes resulted in two transformants, HSF33-1 and HSF33-2, with 9- and 20-fold increases in hlyB and mdh transcript levels...
August 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539140/hemoglobin-oxygen-saturation-with-mild-hypoxia-and-microgravity
#12
Johnny Conkin, James H Wessel, Jason R Norcross, Omar S Bekdash, Andrew F J Abercromby, Matthew D Koslovsky, Michael L Gernhardt
INTRODUCTION: Microgravity (μG) exposure and even early recovery from μG in combination with mild hypoxia may increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen (O2) partial pressure gradient. METHODS: Four male astronauts on STS-69 (1995) and four on STS-72 (1996) were exposed on Earth to an acute sequential hypoxic challenge by breathing for 4 min 18.0%, 14.9%, 13.5%, 12.9%, and 12.2% oxygen-balance nitrogen. The 18.0% O2 mixture at sea level resulted in an inspired O2 partial pressure (PIo2) of 127 mmHg...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529490/microgravity-induced-transcriptome-adaptation-in-mouse-paraspinal-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-highlights-insulin-resistance-linked-genes
#13
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity as well as chronic muscle disuse are two causes of low back pain originated at least in part from paraspinal muscle deconditioning. At present no study investigated the complexity of the molecular changes in human or mouse paraspinal muscles exposed to microgravity. The aim of this study was to evaluate longissimus dorsi adaptation to microgravity at both morphological and global gene expression level. C57BL/N6 male mice were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite for 30 days (BF) or housed in a replicate flight habitat on ground (BG)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514848/structure-and-oxidation-of-pyrrole-adducts-formed-between-aflatoxin-b2a-and-biological-amines
#14
Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
Aflatoxin B2a has been shown to bind to proteins through a dialdehyde intermediate under physiological conditions. The proposed structure of this adduct has been published showing a Schiff base interaction, but adequate verification using structural elucidation instrumental techniques has not been performed. In this work, we synthesized the aflatoxin B2a amino acid adduct under alkaline conditions, and the formation of a new product was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
May 24, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505265/the-influence-of-the-topography-of-the-ailao-mountains-on-congregated-landings-of-airborne-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae-populations
#15
Yan Wu, Xi-Jie Li, Xiao Chen, Gao Hu, Yan-Yue Hu, Kai Xiong, Guo Zhang, Jian Zhu, Shao-Lei Chen, Ming-Hong Lu, Ai-Dong Chen, Bao-Ping Zhai
The Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is an important migrating rice pest whose outbreak may be caused by large-scale congregated landings. Hitherto, the meteorological factors that influence congregated landings were thought to be rainfall and downdraft. However, for migratory insects on a plateau, low temperature may be another key factor leading to congregated landings. However, no reports have been published. Therefore, this paper evaluates the reason for a large-scale congregated landing in the mountainous area in Yuanjiang via light trap monitoring...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503167/the-impact-of-space-flight-on-survival-and-interaction-of-cupriavidus-metallidurans-ch34-with-basalt-a-volcanic-moon-analog-rock
#16
Bo Byloos, Ilse Coninx, Olivier Van Hoey, Charles Cockell, Natasha Nicholson, Vyacheslav Ilyin, Rob Van Houdt, Nico Boon, Natalie Leys
Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms could be used to biomine from extra-terrestrial material and extract elements useful as micronutrients in life support systems. This research aimed to identify the impact of space flight on the long-term survival of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 in mineral water and the interaction with basalt, a lunar-type rock in preparation for the ESA spaceflight experiment, BIOROCK. Therefore, C. metallidurans CH34 cells were suspended in mineral water supplemented with or without crushed basalt and send for 3 months on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499683/response-of-flight-nurses-in-a-simulated-helicopter-environment
#17
David M Kaniecki, Ronald L Hickman, Celeste M Alfes, Andrew P Reimer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a helicopter flight simulator could provide a useful educational platform by creating experiences similar to those encountered by actual flight nurses. METHODS: Flight nurse (FN) and non-FN participants completed a simulated emergency scenario in a flight simulator. Physiologic and psychological stress during the simulation was measured using heart rate and perceived stress scores. A questionnaire was then administered to assess the realism of the flight simulator...
May 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467754/metabolomic-analysis-of-mice-exposed-to-gamma-radiation-reveals-a-systemic-understanding-of-total-body-exposure
#18
Srujana Golla, Jaya Prakash Golla, Kristopher W Krausz, Soumen K Manna, Cedric Simillion, Diren Beyoğlu, Jeffrey R Idle, Frank J Gonzalez
Diagnostic markers are needed for accidental or deliberate radiation exposure that could cause acute and chronic radiation toxicity. Biomarkers of temporal, dose-dependent, aging-attenuated and multiple radiation exposures have been previously described by others. However, the physiological origin and biochemical networks that generate these biomarkers and their association at the molecular level have yet to be explored. Hence, the discovery and identification of total-body-irradiation-induced tissue specific biomarkers remains an enormous challenge within radiation biodosimetry research...
May 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462575/lactacidemic-variation-and-movement-patterns-during-anaerobic-power-test
#19
Vitor L de Andrade, Marcelo Papoti, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Carlos A Kalva-Filho, Ronaldo Bucken Gobbi, Luiz H Palucci Vieira, Bruno Souza Bedo, Paulo R Pereira Santiago
BACKGROUND: After the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) high blood lactate concentrations ([La-]) are found. However, no study verified the behavior of this metabolite during RAST. For this, the aim of the present study was to verify the implications of increase [La-] on movement patterns' in RAST performance. METHODS: Six healthy and active individuals (21.8 ± 3.1 years, 70.9 ± 10.8 kg and 179.7 ± 3.3 cm) executed a standardized warm-up. Two minutes after, subjects performed RAST composed of six maximal 35 m bouts separated by 10 s of passive recovery...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444807/raf-kinase-inhibitor-protein-lessons-of-a-better-way-for-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-activation-in-the-heart
#20
Kristina Lorenz, Marsha Rich Rosner, Theresa Brand, Joachim P Schmitt
Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) provides the most efficient physiological mechanism to enhance contraction and relaxation of the heart. Activation of βARs allows rapid enhancement of myocardial function in order to fuel the muscles for running and fighting in a fight-or-flight response. Likewise, βARs become activated during cardiovascular disease in an attempt to counteract the restrictions of cardiac output. However, long-term stimulation of βARs increases the likelihood of cardiac arrhythmias, adverse ventricular remodelling, decline of cardiac performance and premature death, thereby limiting the use of βAR agonists in the treatment of heart failure...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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