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Flight physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529490/microgravity-induced-transcriptome-adaptation-in-mouse-paraspinal-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-highlights-insulin-resistance-linked-genes
#1
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity as well as chronic muscle disuse are two causes of low back pain originated at least in part from paraspinal muscle deconditioning. At present no study investigated the complexity of the molecular changes in human or mouse paraspinal muscles exposed to microgravity. The aim of this study was to evaluate longissimus dorsi adaptation to microgravity at both morphological and global gene expression level. C57BL/N6 male mice were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite for 30 days (BF) or housed in a replicate flight habitat on ground (BG)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514848/structure-and-oxidation-of-pyrrole-adducts-formed-between-aflatoxin-b2a-and-biological-amines
#2
Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
Aflatoxin B2a has been shown to bind to proteins through a dialdehyde intermediate under physiological conditions. The proposed structure of this adduct has been published showing a Schiff base interaction, but adequate verification using structural elucidation instrumental techniques has not been performed. In this work, we synthesized the aflatoxin B2a amino acid adduct under alkaline conditions and the formation of a new product was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry...
May 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505265/the-influence-of-the-topography-of-the-ailao-mountains-on-congregated-landings-of-airborne-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae-populations
#3
Yan Wu, Xi-Jie Li, Xiao Chen, Gao Hu, Yan-Yue Hu, Kai Xiong, Guo Zhang, Jian Zhu, Shao-Lei Chen, Ming-Hong Lu, Ai-Dong Chen, Bao-Ping Zhai
The Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is an important migrating rice pest whose outbreak may be caused by large-scale congregated landings. Hitherto, the meteorological factors that influence congregated landings were thought to be rainfall and downdraft. However, for migratory insects on a plateau, low temperature may be another key factor leading to congregated landings. However, no reports have been published. Therefore, this paper evaluates the reason for a large-scale congregated landing in the mountainous area in Yuanjiang via light trap monitoring...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503167/the-impact-of-space-flight-on-survival-and-interaction-of-cupriavidus-metallidurans-ch34-with-basalt-a-volcanic-moon-analog-rock
#4
Bo Byloos, Ilse Coninx, Olivier Van Hoey, Charles Cockell, Natasha Nicholson, Vyacheslav Ilyin, Rob Van Houdt, Nico Boon, Natalie Leys
Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms could be used to biomine from extra-terrestrial material and extract elements useful as micronutrients in life support systems. This research aimed to identify the impact of space flight on the long-term survival of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 in mineral water and the interaction with basalt, a lunar-type rock in preparation for the ESA spaceflight experiment, BIOROCK. Therefore, C. metallidurans CH34 cells were suspended in mineral water supplemented with or without crushed basalt and send for 3 months on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499683/response-of-flight-nurses-in-a-simulated-helicopter-environment
#5
David M Kaniecki, Ronald L Hickman, Celeste M Alfes, Andrew P Reimer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a helicopter flight simulator could provide a useful educational platform by creating experiences similar to those encountered by actual flight nurses. METHODS: Flight nurse (FN) and non-FN participants completed a simulated emergency scenario in a flight simulator. Physiologic and psychological stress during the simulation was measured using heart rate and perceived stress scores. A questionnaire was then administered to assess the realism of the flight simulator...
May 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467754/metabolomic-analysis-of-mice-exposed-to-gamma-radiation-reveals-a-systemic-understanding-of-total-body-exposure
#6
Srujana Golla, Jaya Prakash Golla, Kristopher W Krausz, Soumen K Manna, Cedric Simillion, Diren Beyoğlu, Jeffrey R Idle, Frank J Gonzalez
Diagnostic markers are needed for accidental or deliberate radiation exposure that could cause acute and chronic radiation toxicity. Biomarkers of temporal, dose-dependent, aging-attenuated and multiple radiation exposures have been previously described by others. However, the physiological origin and biochemical networks that generate these biomarkers and their association at the molecular level have yet to be explored. Hence, the discovery and identification of total-body-irradiation-induced tissue specific biomarkers remains an enormous challenge within radiation biodosimetry research...
May 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462575/lactacidemic-variation-and-movement-patterns-during-anaerobic-power-test
#7
Vitor L de Andrade, Marcelo Papoti, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Carlos A Kalva-Filho, Ronaldo Bucken Gobbi, Luiz H Palucci Vieira, Bruno Souza Bedo, Paulo R Pereira Santiago
BACKGROUND: After the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) high blood lactate concentrations ([La-]) are found. However, no study verified the behavior of this metabolite during RAST. For this, the aim of the present study was to verify the implications of increase [La-] on movement patterns' in RAST performance. METHODS: Six healthy and active individuals (21.8 ± 3.1 years, 70.9 ± 10.8 kg and 179.7 ± 3.3 cm) executed a standardized warm-up. Two minutes after, subjects performed RAST composed of six maximal 35 m bouts separated by 10 s of passive recovery...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444807/rkip-lessons-of-a-better-way-for-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-activation-in-the-heart
#8
Kristina Lorenz, Marsha Rich Rosner, Theresa Brand, Joachim P Schmitt
Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βAR) provides the most efficient physiological mechanism to enhance contraction and relaxation of the heart. Activation of βAR allows rapid enhancement of myocardial function in order to fuel the muscles for running and fighting in a fight-or-flight response. Likewise, βAR get activated during cardiovascular disease in an attempt to counteract the restrictions of cardiac output. However, long-term stimulation of βAR increases the likelihood of cardiac arrhythmias, adverse ventricular remodelling, decline of cardiac performance and premature death, thereby limiting the use of βAR agonists in the treatment of heart failure...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433608/toward-biotechnology-in-space-high-throughput-instruments-for-in-situ-biological-research-beyond-earth
#9
REVIEW
Fathi Karouia, Kianoosh Peyvan, Andrew Pohorille
Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites...
April 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#10
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424311/mechanics-of-the-thorax-in-flies
#11
REVIEW
Tanvi Deora, Namrata Gundiah, Sanjay P Sane
Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415855/predicting-jet-lag-in-long-haul-cabin-crew-the-role-of-illness-cognitions-and-behaviour
#12
Cristina Ruscitto, Jane Ogden
OBJECTIVE: Established risk factors for jet lag are mostly physiological including circadian preference, age, gender, the number of flight zones crossed and to some extent direction of travel. Some research has also highlighted a role for psychosocial factors including sleep, diet and 'circadian' health behaviours and illness cognitions although this remains relatively untested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sleep, diet and illness cognitions in predicting perceived jet lag amongst long-haul crew...
April 18, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405295/flight-performance-in-the-altricial-zebra-finch-developmental-effects-and-reproductive-consequences
#13
Ondi L Crino, Brett Klaassen van Oorschot, Kristen E Crandell, Creagh W Breuner, Bret W Tobalske
The environmental conditions animals experience during development can have sustained effects on morphology, physiology, and behavior. Exposure to elevated levels of stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GCs) during development is one such condition that can have long-term effects on animal phenotype. Many of the phenotypic effects of GC exposure during development (developmental stress) appear negative. However, there is increasing evidence that developmental stress can induce adaptive phenotypic changes. This hypothesis can be tested by examining the effect of developmental stress on fitness-related traits...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401467/response-of-extreme-haloarchaeon-haloarcula-argentinensis-rr10-to-simulated-microgravity-in-clinorotation
#14
Rebecca Thombre, Vinaya Shinde, Jyotsana Dixit, Sagar Jagtap, Pandit B Vidyasagar
Gravity is the fundamental force that may have operated during the evolution of life on Earth. It is thus important to understand as to what the effects of gravity are on cellular life. The studies related to effect of microgravity on cells may provide greater insights in understanding of how the physical force of gravity shaped life on Earth. The present study focuses on a unique group of organisms called the Haloarchaea, which are known for their extreme resistance to survive in stress-induced environments...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393904/transcriptomic-changes-in-an-animal-bacterial-symbiosis-under-modeled-microgravity-conditions
#15
Giorgio Casaburi, Irina Goncharenko-Foster, Alexandrea A Duscher, Jamie S Foster
Spaceflight imposes numerous adaptive challenges for terrestrial life. The reduction in gravity, or microgravity, represents a novel environment that can disrupt homeostasis of many physiological processes. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly clear that an organism's microbiome is critical for host health and examining its resiliency in microgravity represents a new frontier for space biology research. In this study, we examine the impact of microgravity on the interactions between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its beneficial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, which form a highly specific binary mutualism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392112/a-descending-neuron-correlated-with-the-rapid-steering-maneuvers-of-flying-drosophila
#16
Bettina Schnell, Ivo G Ros, Michael H Dickinson
To navigate through the world, animals must stabilize their path against disturbances and change direction to avoid obstacles and to search for resources [1, 2]. Locomotion is thus guided by sensory cues but also depends on intrinsic processes, such as motivation and physiological state. Flies, for example, turn with the direction of large-field rotatory motion, an optomotor reflex that is thought to help them fly straight [3-5]. Occasionally, however, they execute fast turns, called body saccades, either spontaneously or in response to patterns of visual motion such as expansion [6-8]...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391090/fast-and-ultrafast-endocytosis
#17
REVIEW
Shigeki Watanabe, Emmanuel Boucrot
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the main endocytic pathway supporting housekeeping functions in cells. However, CME may be too slow to internalize proteins from the cell surface during certain physiological processes such as reaction to stress hormones ('fight-or-flight' reaction), chemotaxis or compensatory endocytosis following exocytosis of synaptic vesicles or hormone-containing vesicles. These processes take place on a millisecond to second timescale and thus require very rapid cellular reaction to prevent overstimulation or exhaustion of the response...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376347/overview-of-avian-toxicity-studies-for-the-deepwater-horizon-natural-resource-damage-assessment
#18
S J Bursian, C R Alexander, D Cacela, F L Cunningham, K M Dean, B S Dorr, C K Ellis, C A Godard-Codding, C G Guglielmo, K C Hanson-Dorr, K E Harr, K A Healy, M J Hooper, K E Horak, J P Isanhart, L V Kennedy, J E Link, I Maggini, J K Moye, C R Perez, C A Pritsos, S A Shriner, K A Trust, P L Tuttle
The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 establishes liability for injuries to natural resources because of the release or threat of release of oil. Assessment of injury to natural resources resulting from an oil spill and development and implementation of a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of natural resources to compensate for those injuries is accomplished through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process. The NRDA process began within a week of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on April 20, 2010...
April 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370607/evidence-for-a-role-of-oestrogen-receptor-related-receptor-in-the-regulation-of-male-sexual-behaviour-in-the-moth-agrotis-ipsilon
#19
F Bozzolan, N Durand, E Demondion, T Bourgeois, E Gassias, S Debernard
The oestrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) are orphan nuclear receptors that were originally identified on the basis of their close homology to the oestrogen receptors. The three mammalian ERR genes participate in the regulation of vital physiological processes including reproduction, development and metabolic homeostasis. Although unique ERRs have been found in insects, data on the function and regulation of these receptors remain sparse. In the present study, a 2095-bp full-length cDNA encoding an ERR, termed AiERR, was isolated from males of the moth Agrotis ipsilon and deposited in the GenBank database under the accession number KT944662...
March 29, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367722/feline-urine-metabolomic-signature-characterization-of-low-molecular-weight-substances-in-urine-from-domestic-cats
#20
Sol-Maiam Rivera-Vélez, Nicolas F Villarino
Objectives This aim of this study was to characterize the composition and content of the feline urine metabolome. Methods Eight healthy domestic cats were acclimated at least 10 days before starting the study. Urine samples (~2 ml) were collected by ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. Samples were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 8 mins, and the supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometery. The urine metabolome was characterized using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Results Three hundred and eighteen metabolites were detected in the urine of the eight cats...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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