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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673435/decompression-sickness-in-the-f-a-18c-after-atypical-cabin-pressure-fluctuations
#1
Katherine J Lee, Aliye Z Sanou
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) is evolving as more cases of atypical pressure fluctuations occur. This ongoing change makes it a difficult condition to diagnose and even more difficult to identify. Both Flight Surgeons and Undersea Medical Officers (UMOs) must keep DCS on the differential. These two cases describe altitude DCS after unique pressure patterns, with one at a markedly lower than expected altitude for DCS. CASE REPORT: Both cases occurred in the F/A-18C and resulted in DCS requiring hyperbaric chamber treatment...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672586/selection-on-the-regulation-of-sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#2
Kang Seon Lee, Paramita Chatterjee, Eun-Young Choi, Min Kyung Sung, Jaeho Oh, Hyejung Won, Seong-Min Park, Youn-Jae Kim, Soojin V Yi, Jung Kyoon Choi
Adrenergic α2C receptor (ADRA2C) is an inhibitory modulator of the sympathetic nervous system. Knockout mice for this gene show physiological and behavioural alterations that are associated with the fight-or-flight response. There is evidence of positive selection on the regulation of this gene during chicken domestication. Here, we find that the neuronal expression of ADRA2C is lower in human and chimpanzee than in other primates. On the basis of three-dimensional chromatin structure, we identified a cis-regulatory region whose DNA sequences have been significantly accelerated in human and chimpanzee...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#3
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665494/isolation-and-characterization-of-the-cotinine-degrading-bacterium-nocardioides-sp-strain-jq2195
#4
Jiguo Qiu, Yanting Zhang, Lingling Zhao, Qin He, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong, Jian He
Cotinine, the primary nicotine metabolite, not only more stable and more difficult to degrade in the environment but is a potential health risk to human. To date, little is known about the biodegradation process of cotinine. In this study, a bacterial strain JQ2195 was isolated from municipal wastewater and was identified as Nocardioides sp. based on morphological, physiological characteristics, and 16 S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. This strain utilized cotinine as a sole carbon source and degraded 0...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660804/nutritional-stress-reduces-flight-performance-and-exploratory-behavior-in-a-butterfly
#5
Elisabeth Reim, Danny Eichhorn, Jan D Roy, Philip O M Steinhoff, Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic global change, including agricultural intensification and climate change, poses a substantial challenge to many herbivores due to a reduced availability of feeding resources. The concomitant food stress is expected to detrimentally affect performance, amongst others in dispersal-related traits. Thus, while dispersal is of utmost importance to escape from deteriorating habitat conditions, such conditions may negatively feedback on the ability to do so. Therefore, we here investigate the impact of larval and adult food stress on traits related to dispersal ability, including morphology, physiology, flight performance, and exploratory behavior, in a butterfly...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627585/cardiovascular-correlates-of-emotional-state-cognitive-workload-and-time-on-task-effect-during-a-realistic-flight-simulation
#6
Antonio R Hidalgo-Muñoz, Damien Mouratille, Nadine Matton, Mickaël Causse, Yves Rouillard, Radouane El-Yagoubi
In aviation, emotion and cognitive workload can considerably increase the probability of human error. An accurate online physiological monitoring of pilot's mental state could prevent accidents. The heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of 21 private pilots were analysed during two realistic flight simulator scenarios. Emotion was manipulated by a social stressor and cognitive workload with the difficulty of a secondary task. Our results confirmed the sensitivity of the HR to cognitive demand and training effects, with increased HR when the task was more difficult and decreased HR with training (time-on-task)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617986/fermentation-products-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-airways-induce-aggregation-and-dormancy-associated-expression-profiles-in-a-cf-clinical-isolate-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#7
Joann Phan, Tara Gallagher, Andrew Oliver, Whitney England, Katrine Whiteson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known dominant opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) with a wide range of metabolic capacities. However, P. aeruginosa does not colonize the airways alone, and benefits from the metabolic products of neighboring cells-especially volatile molecules that can travel between different parts of the airways easily. Here, we present a study that investigates the metabolic, gene expression profiles, and phenotypic responses of a P. aeruginosa clinical isolate to fermentation products lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol, metabolites that are produced by facultative anaerobic members of the CF polymicrobial community and potential biomarkers of disease progression...
March 29, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606672/critical-care-performance-in-a-simulated-military-aircraft-cabin-environment
#8
Margaret M McNeill
BACKGROUND: Critical Care Air Transport Teams care for 5% to 10% of injured patients who are transported on military aircraft to definitive treatment facilities. Little is known about how the aeromedical evacuation environment affects care. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of 2 stressors of flight, altitude-induced hypoxia and aircraft noise, and to examine the contributions of fatigue and clinical experience on cognitive and physiological performance of the Critical Care Air Transport Team...
April 2018: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596867/the-short-term-stress-response-mother-nature-s-mechanism-for-enhancing-protection-and-performance-under-conditions-of-threat-challenge-and-opportunity
#9
REVIEW
Firdaus S Dhabhar
Our group has proposed that in contrast to chronic stress that can have harmful effects, the short-term (fight-or-flight) stress response (lasting for minutes to hours) is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that enhances protection and performance under conditions involving threat/challenge/opportunity. Short-term stress enhances innate/primary, adaptive/secondary, vaccine-induced, and anti-tumor immune responses, and post-surgical recovery. Mechanisms and mediators include stress hormones, dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking/function and local/systemic chemokine and cytokine production...
March 26, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560415/biomedical-findings-from-nasa-s-project-mercury-a-case-series
#10
William R Carpentier, John B Charles, Mark Shelhamer, Amanda S Hackler, Tracy L Johnson, Catherine M M Domingo, Jeffrey P Sutton, Graham B I Scott, Virginia E Wotring
The United States first sent humans into space during six flights of Project Mercury from May 1961 to May 1963. These flights were brief, with durations ranging from about 15 min to just over 34 h. A primary purpose of the project was to determine if humans could perform meaningful tasks while in space. This was supported by a series of biomedical measurements on each astronaut before, during (when feasible), and after flight to document the effects of exposure to the spaceflight environment. While almost all of the data presented here have been published in technical reports, this is the first integrated summary of the main results...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535755/physiological-and-metabolic-responses-triggered-by-omeprazole-improve-tomato-plant-tolerance-to-nacl-stress
#11
Youssef Rouphael, Giampaolo Raimondi, Luigi Lucini, Petronia Carillo, Marios C Kyriacou, Giuseppe Colla, Valerio Cirillo, Antonio Pannico, Christophe El-Nakhel, Stefania De Pascale
Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535026/assessment-of-cerebral-blood-flow-in-neonates-and-infants-a-phase-contrast-mri-study
#12
REVIEW
Peiying Liu, Ying Qi, Zixuan Lin, Qiyong Guo, Xiaoming Wang, Hanzhang Lu
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is implicated in several neonatal and infant diseases. However, measurement of CBF in this population remains difficult and has not been used in routine clinical MRI. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) methods suffer from both low SNR and poor quantification when applied to very young children. Furthermore, rapid change in brain physiology in this age range makes it difficult to choose sequence parameters such as labeling pulse flip angle and post labeling delay. Phase-contrast (PC) MRI is another approach to measure flow...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527011/space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome-sans
#13
REVIEW
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Tyson J Brunstetter, William J Tarver
Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the "space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome" (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i...
March 12, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523944/bioaccessible-peptides-released-by-in-vitro-gastrointestinal-digestion-of-fermented-goat-milks
#14
Miriam Moreno-Montoro, Paula Jauregi, Miguel Navarro-Alarcón, Manuel Olalla-Herrera, Rafael Giménez-Martínez, Lourdes Amigo, Beatriz Miralles
In this study, ultrafiltered goat milks fermented with the classical starter bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus or with the classical starter plus the Lactobacillus plantarum C4 probiotic strain were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and/or high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap (HPLC-IT-MS/MS). Partial overlapping of the identified sequences with regard to fermentation culture was observed...
March 10, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517475/rathayibacter-oskolensis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinobacterium-from-androsace-koso-poljanskii-ovcz-primulaceae-endemic-to-the-central-russian-upland
#15
Lubov V Dorofeeva, Irina P Starodumova, Valentina I Krauzova, Natalia V Prisyazhnaya, Natalia G Vinokurova, Valentina Y Lysanskaya, Sergey V Tarlachkov, Lyudmila I Evtushenko
A rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming and non-motile bacterium, strain DL-329T , was isolated from the above-ground part of a plant, Androsace koso-poljanskii Ovcz. (Primulaceae), at the the State Natural Reserve 'Belogorie', Russia. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the strain clustered with members of the genus Rathayibacter, showing the highest sequence similarity to Rathayibacter tritici (98.89 %), Rathayibacter rathayi (98.82 %) and Rathayibacter festucae (98.82 %). The DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated that strain DL-329T represents a separate genomic species...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515884/hovering-hummingbird-wing-aerodynamics-during-the-annual-cycle-ii-implications-of-wing-feather-moult
#16
Yonathan Achache, Nir Sapir, Yossef Elimelech
Birds usually moult their feathers in a particular sequence which may incur aerodynamic, physiological and behavioural implications. Among birds, hummingbirds are unique species in their sustained hovering flight. Because hummingbirds frequently hover-feed, they must maintain sufficiently high flight capacities even when moulting their flight feathers. A hummingbird wing consists of 10 primary flight feathers whose absence during moult may strongly affect wing performance. Using dynamic similarity rules, we compared time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements over several wing geometries that follow the natural feather moult sequence of Calypte anna , a common hummingbird species in western North America...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515882/how-maternal-investment-varies-with-environmental-factors-and-the-age-and-physiological-state-of-wild-tsetse-glossina-pallidipes-and-glossina-morsitans-morsitans
#17
John W Hargrove, M Odwell Muzari, Sinead English
Theory suggests females should optimize resource allocation across reproductive bouts to maximize lifetime reproduction, balancing current and future reproductive efforts according to physiological state and projected survival and reproduction. Tests of these ideas focus on long-lived vertebrates: few measure age-related reproductive output in iteroparous invertebrates, or partition reserves between those allocated to offspring versus mothers. We investigated how maternal age, and environmental and physiological factors influence reproductive investment in wild tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen and G...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515460/behavioral-morphological-and-gene-expression-changes-induced-by-60-co-%C3%AE-ray-irradiation-in-bactrocera-tau-walker
#18
Jun Cai, Hongxia Yang, Song Shi, Guohua Zhong, Xin Yi
The sterile insect technique (SIT) may reduce pest populations by allowing sufficient amount of irradiation-induced sterile males to mate with wild females whilst maintaining mating ability comparable to wild males. Although the SIT methods are well understood, the optimal sterilizing dose and processing development stage for application vary among species. To ensure effective pest control programs, effects of irradiation on physiology, behavior, and gene function in the target species should be defined, however, little is known about irradiation effects in Bactrocera tau ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514885/obese-super-athletes-fat-fueled-migration-in-birds-and-bats
#19
REVIEW
Christopher G Guglielmo
Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502276/mining-the-nucleus-accumbens-proteome-for-novel-targets-of-alcohol-self-administration-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#20
Sara Faccidomo, Katarina S Swaim, Briana L Saunders, Taruni S Santanam, Seth M Taylor, Michelle Kim, Grant T Reid, Vallari R Eastman, Clyde W Hodge
RATIONALE: There is a clear need for discovery of effective medications to treat behavioral pathologies associated with alcohol addiction, such as chronic drinking. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this preclinical study was to assess effects of chronic alcohol drinking on the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) proteome to identify and validate novel targets for medications development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) was used to assess effects of chronic voluntary home-cage (24-h access) alcohol drinking on the NAcb proteome of C57BL/6J mice...
March 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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