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Flight physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298467/swimming-and-diving-energetics-in-dolphins-a-stroke-by-stroke-analysis-for-predicting-the-cost-of-flight-responses-in-wild-odontocetes
#1
Terrie M Williams, Traci L Kendall, Beau P Richter, Courtney R Ribeiro-French, Jason S John, Kim L Odell, Barbara A Losch, David A Feuerbach, M Andrew Stamper
Exponential increases in hydrodynamic drag and physical exertion occur when swimmers move quickly through water, and underlie the preference for relatively slow routine speeds by marine mammals regardless of body size. Because of this and the need to balance limited oxygen stores when submerged, flight (escape) responses may be especially challenging for this group. To examine this, we used open-flow respirometry to measure the energetic cost of producing a swimming stroke during different levels of exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285040/starvation-but-not-locomotion-enhances-heart-robustness-in-drosophila
#2
James N Kezos, Larry G Cabral, Brandon D Wong, Belinda K Khou, Angela Oh, Jerry F Harb, Danny Chiem, Timothy J Bradley, Laurence D Mueller, Michael R Rose
Insects and vertebrates have multiple major physiological systems, each species having a circulatory system, a metabolic system, and a respiratory system that enable locomotion and survival in stressful environments, among other functions. Broadening our understanding of the physiology of Drosophila melanogaster requires the parsing of interrelationships among such major component physiological systems. By combining electrical pacing and flight exhaustion assays with manipulative conditioning, we have started to unpack the interrelationships between cardiac function, locomotor performance, and other functional characters such as starvation and desiccation resistance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282618/integrating-multiple-stressors-across-life-stages-and-latitudes-combined-and-delayed-effects-of-an-egg-heat-wave-and-larval-pesticide-exposure-in-a-damselfly
#3
Szymon Sniegula, Lizanne Janssens, Robby Stoks
To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses...
March 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277962/oxidative-challenges-of-avian-migration-a-comparative-field-study-on-a-partial-migrant
#4
Cas Eikenaar, Emma Källstig, Martin N Andersson, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Caroline Isaksson
Most avian migrants alternate flight bouts, characterized by high metabolic rates, with stopovers, periods of fuel replenishment through hyperphagia. High-energy metabolism and excessive calorie intake shift the balance between damaging prooxidants and antioxidants toward the former. Hence, migration likely affects the oxidative balance of birds. Migratory flight indeed appears to cause oxidative damage; however, whether migration affects the oxidative state of birds at stopover is unclear. Therefore, we compared total nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (AOX) and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA; a measure of lipid peroxidation) in the plasma of migrant and resident common blackbirds...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248222/on-the-rate-of-synthesis-of-individual-proteins-within-and-between-different-striated-muscles-of-the-rat
#5
Stuart Hesketh, Kanchana Srisawat, Hazel Sutherland, Jonathan Jarvis, Jatin Burniston
The turnover of muscle protein is responsive to different (patho)-physiological conditions but little is known about the rate of synthesis at the level of individual proteins or whether this varies between different muscles. We investigated the synthesis rate of eight proteins (actin, albumin, ATP synthase alpha, beta enolase, creatine kinase, myosin essential light chain, myosin regulatory light chain and tropomyosin) in the extensor digitorum longus, diaphragm, heart and soleus of male Wistar rats (352 ± 30 g body weight)...
March 15, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240352/cardiac-sympathetic-innervation-from-a-different-point-of-re-view
#6
Tania Zaglia, Marco Mongillo
The audience of basic and clinical scientists is familiar with the notion that the sympathetic nervous system controls heart function during stresses. However, evidence indicates that the neurogenic control of the heart spans from the maintenance of housekeeping functions in the resting conditions, to the recruitment of maximal performance, in the fight-or-flight responses, across a whole range of intermediate states. To perform such sophisticated functions, sympathetic ganglia integrate both peripheral and central inputs, and transmit information to the heart via 'motor' neurons, directly interacting with target cardiomyocytes...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238935/tryptophan-and-purine-metabolites-are-consistently-upregulated-in-the-urinary-metabolome-of-patients-diagnosed-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-throughout-pregnancy-a-longitudinal-metabolomics-study-of-chinese-pregnant-women-part-2
#7
Kai P Law, Ting-Li Han, Xun Mao, Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pathological state of glucose intolerance associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and an increased risk of developing maternal type 2 diabetes later in life. The mechanisms underlying GDM development are not fully understood. We examined the pathophysiology of GDM through comprehensive metabolic profiling of maternal urine, using participants from a longitudinal cohort of normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by GDM. METHODS: Based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, an untargeted metabolomics study was performed to explore the differences in the urinary metabolome of GDM cases and healthy controls over the course of pregnancy...
February 24, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224277/energy-metabolism-during-endurance-flight-and-the-post-flight-recovery-phase
#8
REVIEW
Susanne Jenni-Eiermann
Migrating birds are known to fly non-stop for thousands of kilometres without food or water intake and at a high metabolic rate thereby relying on energy stores which were built up preceding a flight bout. Hence, from a physiological point of view the metabolism of a migrant has to switch between an active fasting phase during flight and a fuelling phase during stopover. To meet the energetic and water requirements of endurance flight, migratory birds have to store an optimal fuel composition and they have to be able to quickly mobilize and deliver sufficient energy to the working flight muscles...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223945/toward-respiratory-assessment-using-depth-measurements-from-a-time-of-flight-sensor
#9
Charles Sharp, Vahid Soleimani, Sion Hannuna, Massimo Camplani, Dima Damen, Jason Viner, Majid Mirmehdi, James W Dodd
Introduction: There is increasing interest in technologies that may enable remote monitoring of respiratory disease. Traditional methods for assessing respiratory function such as spirometry can be expensive and require specialist training to perform and interpret. Remote, non-contact tracking of chest wall movement has been explored in the past using structured light, accelerometers and impedance pneumography, but these have often been costly and clinical utility remains to be defined. We present data from a 3-Dimensional time-of-flight camera (found in gaming consoles) used to estimate chest volume during routine spirometry maneuvres...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220056/a-lipidomic-and-metabolomic-serum-signature-from-nonhuman-primates-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#10
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Tytus D Mak, Giuseppe Astarita, Simon Authier, Karen Wong, Albert J Fornace
INTRODUCTION: Due to dangers associated with potential accidents from nuclear energy and terrorist threats, there is a need for high-throughput biodosimetry to rapidly assess individual doses of radiation exposure. Lipidomics and metabolomics are becoming common tools for determining global signatures after disease or other physical insult and provide a "snapshot" of potential cellular damage. OBJECTIVES: The current study assesses changes in the nonhuman primate (NHP) serum lipidome and metabolome 7 days following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR)...
May 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219754/identification-of-responsive-proteins-in-panonychus-citri-exposed-to-abamectin-by-a-proteomic-approach
#11
Xiao-Min Shen, Rui Zhong, Wen-Kai Xia, Dong Wei, Tian-Bo Ding, Chong-Yu Liao, Jin-Zhi Niu, Wei Dou, Jin-Jun Wang
Abamectin is a microbial-derived pesticide widely used for control of agricultural pests. However, sustained use of abamectin has led to the development of resistance in some target species. Previous studies on arthropod resistance to abamectin have mainly used traditional biochemical and molecular approaches. To understand the responses of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, exposed to abamectin, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 26 distinct protein spots were present in response to abamectin exposure...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#12
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208630/cocoa-and-grape-seed-byproducts-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-proanthocyanidins
#13
María De La Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Jorge Joven, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193822/comparative-system-identification-of-flower-tracking-performance-in-three-hawkmoth-species-reveals-adaptations-for-dim-light-vision
#14
Anna L Stöckl, Klara Kihlström, Steven Chandler, Simon Sponberg
Flight control in insects is heavily dependent on vision. Thus, in dim light, the decreased reliability of visual signal detection also prompts consequences for insect flight. We have an emerging understanding of the neural mechanisms that different species employ to adapt the visual system to low light. However, much less explored are comparative analyses of how low light affects the flight behaviour of insect species, and the corresponding links between physiological adaptations and behaviour. We investigated whether the flower tracking behaviour of three hawkmoth species with different diel activity patterns revealed luminance-dependent adaptations, using a system identification approach...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187140/diel-periodicity-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-under-field-conditions
#15
Richard K Evans, Michael D Toews, Ashfaq A Sial
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176941/bioglass-implant-coating-interactions-in-synthetic-physiological-fluids-with-varying-degrees-of-biomimicry
#16
A C Popa, G E Stan, M A Husanu, I Mercioniu, L F Santos, H R Fernandes, Jmf Ferreira
Synthetic physiological fluids are currently used as a first in vitro bioactivity assessment for bone grafts. Our understanding about the interactions taking place at the fluid-implant interface has evolved remarkably during the last decade, and does not comply with the traditional International Organization for Standardization/final draft International Standard 23317 protocol in purely inorganic simulated body fluid. The advances in our knowledge point to the need of a true paradigm shift toward testing physiological fluids with enhanced biomimicry and a better understanding of the materials' structure-dissolution behavior...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174421/streptomyces-euryhalinus-sp-nov-a-new-actinomycete-isolated-from-a-mangrove-forest
#17
Kaushik Biswas, Jayanta D Choudhury, Riddhi Mahansaria, Malay Saha, Joydeep Mukherjee
A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete (strain MS 3/20(T)) was isolated from the sediment of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in India. On International Streptomyces Project (ISP) medium 2, the isolate produced yellowish brown to red aerial hyphae that carried spiny-surfaced spores in a retinaculum-apertum arrangement. Whole-cell hydrolysate of the strain contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and galactose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). Diagnostic polar lipids were glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, unidentified phospholipid and unidentified amino lipid...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173929/postflight-reconditioning-for-european-astronauts-a-case-report-of-recovery-after-six-months-in-space
#18
Nora Petersen, Gunda Lambrecht, Jonathan Scott, Natalie Hirsch, Maria Stokes, Joachim Mester
BACKGROUND: Postflight reconditioning of astronauts is understudied. Despite a rigorous, daily inflight exercise countermeasures programme during six months in microgravity (μG) on-board the International Space Station (ISS), physiological impairments occur and postflight reconditioning is still required on return to Earth. Such postflight programmes are implemented by space agency reconditioning specialists. Case Description and Assessments: A 38 year old male European Space Agency (ESA) crewmember's pre- and postflight (at six and 21 days after landing) physical performance from a six-month mission to ISS are described...
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168019/time-restricted-flight-ability-influences-dispersal-and-colonization-rates-in-a-group-of-freshwater-beetles
#19
Lars Lønsmann Iversen, Riinu Rannap, Lars Briggs, Kaj Sand-Jensen
Variation in the ability to fly or not is a key mechanism for differences in local species occurrences. It is increasingly acknowledged that physiological or behavioral mechanisms rather than morphological differences may drive flight abilities. However, our knowledge on the seasonal variability and stressors creating nonmorphological differences in flight abilities and how it scales to local and regional occurrences is very limited particularly for small, short-lived species such as insects. Here, we examine how flight ability might vary across seasons and between two closely related genera of freshwater beetles with similar geographical ranges, life histories, and dispersal-related morphology...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166636/cartilaginous-metabolomic-study-reveals-potential-mechanisms-of-osteophyte-formation-in-osteoarthritis
#20
Zhongwei Xu, Tingmei Chen, Jiao Luo, Shijia Ding, Sichuan Gao, Jian Zhang
Osteophyte is one of the inevitable consequences of progressive osteoarthritis with the main characteristics of cartilage degeneration and endochondral ossification. The pathogenesis of osteophyte formation is not fully understood to date. In this work, metabolomic approaches were employed to explore potential mechanisms of osteophyte formation by detecting metabolic variations between extracts of osteophyte cartilage tissues (n = 32) and uninvolved control cartilage tissues (n = 34), based on the platform of ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, as well as the use of multivariate statistic analysis and univariate statistic analysis...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
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