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Flight physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081144/digital-health-tracking-physiomes-and-activity-using-wearable-biosensors-reveals-useful-health-related-information
#1
Xiao Li, Jessilyn Dunn, Denis Salins, Gao Zhou, Wenyu Zhou, Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Dalia Perelman, Elizabeth Colbert, Ryan Runge, Shannon Rego, Ria Sonecha, Somalee Datta, Tracey McLaughlin, Michael P Snyder
A new wave of portable biosensors allows frequent measurement of health-related physiology. We investigated the use of these devices to monitor human physiological changes during various activities and their role in managing health and diagnosing and analyzing disease. By recording over 250,000 daily measurements for up to 43 individuals, we found personalized circadian differences in physiological parameters, replicating previous physiological findings. Interestingly, we found striking changes in particular environments, such as airline flights (decreased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2] and increased radiation exposure)...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072549/free-flight-physiology-paragliding-and-the-study-of-extreme-altitude
#2
Matt Wilkes, Martin J MacInnis, Matthew J Witt, Michael Vergalla, Mathieu Verschave Keysers, Adrian Thomas, Lucy A Hawkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068065/sustained-nitric-oxide-release-from-a-tertiary-s-nitrosothiol-based-polyphosphazene-coating
#3
Alec Lutzke, Jesus B Tapia, Megan J Neufeld, Melissa M Reynolds
Nitric oxide (NO) occurs naturally in mammalian biochemistry as a critical signaling molecule and exhibits antithrombotic, antibacterial, and wound-healing properties. NO-forming biodegradable polymers have been utilized in the development of antithrombotic or antibacterial materials for biointerfacial applications, including tissue engineering and the fabrication of erodible coatings for medical devices such as stents. Use of such NO-forming polymers has frequently been constrained by short-term release or limited NO storage capacity and has led to the pursuit of new materials with improved NO release function...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065668/ablation-of-the-cardiac-ryanodine-receptor-phospho-site-ser2808-does-not-alter-the-adrenergic-response-or-the-progression-to-heart-failure-in-mice-elimination-of-the-genetic-background-as-critical-variable
#4
Francisco J Alvarado, Xi Chen, Héctor H Valdivia
BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) phospho-site S2808 has been touted by the Marks group as a hallmark of heart failure (HF) and a critical mediator of the physiological fight-or-flight response of the heart. In support of this hypothesis, mice unable to undergo phosphorylation at RyR2-S2808 (S2808A) were significantly protected against HF and displayed a blunted response to adrenergic stimulation. However, the issue remains highly controversial because several groups have been unable to reproduce these findings...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051132/determining-the-migration-duration-of-rice-leaf-folder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-guen%C3%A3-e-moths-using-a-trajectory-analytical-approach
#5
Feng-Ying Wang, Fan Yang, Ming-Hong Lu, Shan-Yu Luo, Bao-Ping Zhai, Ka-Sing Lim, Caitríona E McInerney, Gao Hu
Many moths finish their long distance migration after consecutive nights, but little is known about migration duration and distance. This information is key to predicting migration pathways and understanding their evolution. Tethered flight experiments have shown that ovarian development of rice leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis [Guenée]) moths was accelerated and synchronized by flight in the first three nights, whereby most females were then matured for mating and reproduction. Thus, it was supposed that this moth might fly three nights to complete its migration...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050606/long-term-exposure-to-space-s-microgravity-alters-the-time-structure-of-heart-rate-variability-of-astronauts
#6
Kuniaki Otsuka, Germaine Cornelissen, Satoshi Furukawa, Yutaka Kubo, Mitsutoshi Hayashi, Koichi Shibata, Koh Mizuno, Tatsuya Aiba, Hiroshi Ohshima, Chiaki Mukai
BACKGROUND: Spaceflight alters human cardiovascular dynamics. The less negative slope of the fractal scaling of heart rate variability (HRV) of astronauts exposed long-term to microgravity reflects cardiovascular deconditioning. We here focus on specific frequency regions of HRV. METHODS: Ten healthy astronauts (8 men, 49.1 ± 4.2 years) provided five 24-hour electrocardiographic (ECG) records: before launch, 20.8 ± 2.9 (ISS01), 72.5 ± 3.9 (ISS02) and 152.8 ± 16...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028082/a-variable-instar-climate-driven-individual-beetle-based-phenology-model-for-the-invasive-asian-longhorned-beetle-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#7
R Talbot Trotter, Melody A Keena
Efforts to manage and eradicate invasive species can benefit from an improved understanding of the physiology, biology, and behavior of the target species, and ongoing efforts to eradicate the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) highlight the roles this information may play. Here, we present a climate-driven phenology model for A. glabripennis that provides simulated life-tables for populations of individual beetles under variable climatic conditions that takes into account the variable number of instars beetles may undergo as larvae...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018618/airplane-tracking-documents-the-fastest-flight-speeds-recorded-for-bats
#8
Gary F McCracken, Kamran Safi, Thomas H Kunz, Dina K N Dechmann, Sharon M Swartz, Martin Wikelski
The performance capabilities of flying animals reflect the interplay of biomechanical and physiological constraints and evolutionary innovation. Of the two extant groups of vertebrates that are capable of powered flight, birds are thought to fly more efficiently and faster than bats. However, fast-flying bat species that are adapted for flight in open airspace are similar in wing shape and appear to be similar in flight dynamics to fast-flying birds that exploit the same aerial niche. Here, we investigate flight behaviour in seven free-flying Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and report that the maximum ground speeds achieved exceed speeds previously documented for any bat...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012301/psychophysiological-reactivity-of-currently-dental-phobic-remitted-dental-phobic-and-never-dental-phobic-individuals-during-exposure-to-dental-related-and-other-affect-inducing-materials
#9
André Wannemueller, Dirk Adolph, Hans-Peter Joehren, Simon E Blackwell, Jürgen Margraf
Psychophysiological responses indicating the preparation of defensive behaviour, such as heart rate (HR)-increase and startle-response (SR) potentiation, have often been reported amongst individuals suffering from phobic disorders when exposed to phobia-related information. Although exposure is widely considered the 'gold standard' for treatment of Specific Phobia, it is unclear to what extent psychophysiological defensive response patterns change following treatment, and whether any changes are maintained...
December 14, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011823/predator-stress-induced-immunosuppression-trade-off-immune-redistribution-or-immune-reconfiguration
#10
Shelley A Adamo, Russell H Easy, Ilya Kovalko, Jenna MacDonald, Ashleigh McKeen, Taylor Swanburg, Kurtis F Turnbull, Catherine Reeve
Although predator exposure increases the risk of wound infections, it typically induces immunosuppression. A number of non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been put forward to explain this immunosuppression, including: trade-offs between the immune system and other systems required for anti-predator behaviour, redistribution of immune resources towards mechanisms needed to defend against wound infections, and reconfiguration of the immune system to optimize defense under the physiological state of fight-or-flight readiness...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010809/deeply-torpid-bats-can-change-position-without-elevation-of-body-temperature
#11
Tomáš Bartonička, Hana Bandouchova, Hana Berková, Ján Blažek, Radek Lučan, Ivan Horáček, Natália Martínková, Jiri Pikula, Zdeněk Řehák, Jan Zukal
Because body temperature is tightly coupled to physiological function, hibernating animals entering deep torpor are typically immobile. We analysed thermal behaviour and locomotory activity of hibernating greater mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis and found two types of movement behaviour related to body temperature, i.e. movement at high fur temperature and at low fur temperatures (Tflow; <5°C). First Tflow movements appeared at the beginning of March and often occurred during long torpor bouts. In most cases, Tflow events represented slow displacements between clusters of bats...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008985/an-exceptionally-facile-two-step-structural-isomerization-and-detoxication-via-a-water-assisted-double-lossen-rearrangement
#12
Feng Li, Chun-Hua Huang, Lin-Na Xie, Na Qu, Jie Shao, Bo Shao, Ben-Zhan Zhu
N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), which is best known as an organocatalyst for efficient C-H activation, has been found to be oxidized by quinoid compounds to its corresponding catalytically active nitroxide-radical. Here, we found that NHPI can be isomerized into isatoic anhydride by an unusually facile two-step method using tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ, p-chloranil), accompanied by a two-step hydrolytic dechlorination of highly toxic TCBQ into the much less toxic dihydroxylation product, 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid)...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987354/physiologic-changes-of-urinary-proteome-by-caffeine-and-excessive-water-intake
#13
Paleerath Peerapen, Nardtaya Ausakunpipat, Suchitra Sutthimethakorn, Siripat Aluksanasuwan, Arada Vinaiphat, Visith Thongboonkerd
BACKGROUND: Diurnal variations and physiologic changes of urinary proteome have been suggested in the urinary proteomics field. However, no clear evidence has been demonstrated. The present study thus aimed to define changes in urinary proteome by physiological stimuli, i.e. caffeine intake and excessive water drinking, both of which cause physiologic diuresis. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 30 healthy individuals under three different conditions: (i) morning void as the control; (ii) after drinking a cup of coffee; and (iii) after drinking 1 L of water within 20 min...
December 17, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983942/flight-motor-modulation-with-speed-in-the-hawkmoth-manduca-sexta
#14
Tyson L Hedrick, Jorge Martínez-Blat, Mariah J Goodman
The theoretical underpinnings for flight, including animal flight with flapping wings, predict a curvilinear U-shaped or J-shaped relationship between flight speed and the power required to maintain that speed. Experimental data have confirmed this relationship for a variety of bird and bat species but not insects, possibly due to differences in aerodynamics and physiology or experimental difficulties. Here we quantify modulation of the main flight motor muscles (the dorsolongitudinal and dorsoventral) via electromyography in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) flying freely over a range of speeds in a wind tunnel and show that these insects exhibit a U-shaped speed-power relationship, with a minimum power speed of 2ms(-1), indicating that at least large flying insects achieve sufficiently high flight speeds that drag and power become limiting factors...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968711/evaluation-of-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-the-conformational-heterogeneity-of-intact-proteins-using-beta2-microglobulin-as-model-compound
#15
Laura Bertoletti, Julie Schappler, Raffaella Colombo, Serge Rudaz, Rob Haselberg, Elena Domínguez-Vega, Sara Raimondi, Govert W Somsen, Ersilia De Lorenzi
In this work we explored the feasibility of different CE-ESI-MS set-ups for the analysis of conformational states of an intact protein. By using the same background electrolyte at quasi physiological conditions (50 mM ammonium bicarbonate, pH 7.4) a sequential optimization was carried out, initially by evaluating a sheath-liquid interface with both a single quadrupole (SQ) and a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer; then a sheathless interface coupled with high-resolution QTOF MS was considered. Beta2-microglobulin has been taken as a model, as it is an amyloidogenic protein and its conformational changes are strictly connected to the onset of a disease...
November 16, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939316/mechanical-constraints-on-flight-at-high-elevation-decrease-maneuvering-performance-of-hummingbirds
#16
Paolo S Segre, Roslyn Dakin, Tyson J G Read, Andrew D Straw, Douglas L Altshuler
High-elevation habitats offer ecological advantages including reduced competition, predation, and parasitism [1]. However, flying organisms at high elevation also face physiological challenges due to lower air density and oxygen availability [2]. These constraints are expected to affect the flight maneuvers that are required to compete with rivals, capture prey, and evade threats [3-5]. To test how individual maneuvering performance is affected by elevation, we measured the free-flight maneuvers of male Anna's hummingbirds in a large chamber translocated to a high-elevation site and then measured their performance at low elevation...
December 19, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929413/exosome-proteome-of-u-87mg-glioblastoma-cells
#17
Sohyun Chun, Seunghyun Ahn, Chang-Hwan Yeom, Seyeon Park
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter secreted by many cell types, and are associated with a wide range of physiological and/or pathological processes. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA contribute to cell-to-cell communication and cell-to-environment regulation, however, their biological functions are not yet fully understood. In this report, exosomes in the glioblastoma cell line, U-87MG, were isolated and the proteome was investigated. In addition, exosome proteome changes in U-87MG cells exposed to a low temperature were investigated to elucidate whether the exosome proteome could respond to an external stimulus...
December 6, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927999/elevated-temperature-drives-a-shift-from-selfing-to-outcrossing-in-the-insect-pollinated-legume-faba-bean-vicia-faba
#18
Jacob Bishop, Hannah E Jones, Donal M O'Sullivan, Simon G Potts
Climate change can threaten the reproductive success of plants, both directly, through physiological damage during increasingly extreme weather events, and indirectly, through disruption of plant-pollinator interactions. To explore how plant-pollinator interactions are modified by extreme weather, we exposed faba bean (Vicia faba) plants to elevated temperature for 5 d during flowering, simulating a heatwave. We then moved the plants to flight cages with either bumblebees or no pollinators, or to two field sites, where plants were enclosed in mesh bags or pollinated by wild insect communities...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903627/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-system-during-intense-endurance-exercise-lessons-from-migrating-birds
#19
REVIEW
Clara Cooper-Mullin, Scott R McWilliams
During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900518/the-reconstruction-algorithm-used-for-68-ga-psma-hbed-cc-pet-ct-reconstruction-significantly-influences-the-number-of-detected-lymph-node-metastases-and-coeliac-ganglia
#20
Thomas Krohn, Anita Birmes, Oliver H Winz, Natascha I Drude, Felix M Mottaghy, Florian F Behrendt, Frederik A Verburg
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the numbers of lymph node metastases and coeliac ganglia delineated on [(68)Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT scans differ among datasets generated using different reconstruction algorithms. METHODS: Data were constructed using the BLOB-OS-TF, BLOB-OS and 3D-RAMLA algorithms. All reconstructions were assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians for the number of pelvic/paraaortal lymph node metastases as well the number of coeliac ganglia. Standardized uptake values (SUV) were also calculated in different regions...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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