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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783103/significance-of-micrornas-in-androgen-signaling-and-prostate-cancer-progression
#1
REVIEW
Ken-Ichi Takayama, Aya Misawa, Satoshi Inoue
The androgen receptor (AR) plays important roles in prostate cancer development and prostate tumor growth. After binding to androgens, AR functions as a nuclear receptor and translocates to the nucleus to bind to specific AR-binding sites (ARBSs). AR regulates epigenetic factor recruitments to activate its downstream signaling. Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is initially useful for prostate cancer patients, most patients eventually show resistance with hormone-refractory prostate cancers (HRPCs) or castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs)...
August 7, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756597/treatments-for-metastatic-prostate-cancer-mpc-a-review-of-costing-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Jan Norum, Carsten Nieder
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in Western countries. More than one third of PC patients develop metastatic disease, and the 5-year expected survival in distant disease is about 35%. During the last few years, new treatments have been launched for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to review the current literature on health economic analysis on the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (mPC), compare the studies, summarize the findings and make the results available to administrators and decision makers...
July 29, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724614/nuclear-mtor-acts-as-a-transcriptional-integrator-of-the-androgen-signaling-pathway-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Étienne Audet-Walsh, Catherine R Dufour, Tracey Yee, Fatima Z Zouanat, Ming Yan, Georges Kalloghlian, Mathieu Vernier, Maxime Caron, Guillaume Bourque, Eleonora Scarlata, Lucie Hamel, Fadi Brimo, Armen G Aprikian, Jacques Lapointe, Simone Chevalier, Vincent Giguère
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling reprograms cellular metabolism to support prostate cancer (PCa) growth and survival. Another key regulator of cellular metabolism is mTOR, a kinase found in diverse protein complexes and cellular localizations, including the nucleus. However, whether nuclear mTOR plays a role in PCa progression and participates in direct transcriptional cross-talk with the AR is unknown. Here, via the intersection of gene expression, genomic, and metabolic studies, we reveal the existence of a nuclear mTOR-AR transcriptional axis integral to the metabolic rewiring of PCa cells...
July 19, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723515/understanding-mechanisms-of-resistance-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-the-role-of-the-androgen-receptor
#4
REVIEW
Derya Tilki, Edward M Schaeffer, Christopher P Evans
CONTEXT: After initiation of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), most patients progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) within 2 or 3 yr. In the USA, approximately 67000 men are estimated to have metastatic CRPC. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of different mechanisms driving resistance to therapy in metastatic CRPC, with a focus on androgen receptor (AR)-dependent pathways. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A Medline search via PubMed was performed using the keywords metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), castration-resistant, CRPC, prostate cancer, androgen resistance, hormone-refractory, hormone-independent, androgen receptor, and androgen receptor axis...
December 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692047/androgen-induces-g3bp2-and-sumo-mediated-p53-nuclear-export-in-prostate-cancer
#5
D Ashikari, K Takayama, T Tanaka, Y Suzuki, D Obinata, T Fujimura, T Urano, S Takahashi, S Inoue
The androgen receptor (AR) has a central role in prostate cancer progression, particularly treatment-resistance disease including castration-resistant prostate cancer. Loss of the p53 tumor suppressor, a nuclear transcription factor, is also known to contribute to prostate malignancy. Here we report that p53 is translocated to the cytoplasm by androgen-mediated induction of G3BP2, a newly described direct target gene of AR. G3BP2 induces both cell cycle progression and blocks apoptosis. Translocation of p53 is regulated by androgen-dependent sumoylation mediated by the G3BP2-interacting SUMO-E3 ligase, RanBP2...
July 10, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683707/docetaxel-in-hormone-sensitive-advanced-prostate-cancer-genesis-sefh-evaluation-reporta
#6
Juan Carlos García de Paredes Esteban, Emilio Jesús Alegre Del Rey, Rocío Asensi Díez
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common urogenital malignancy in older men and the second leading cause of death by cancer in men in Europe. Current therapeutic practice considers Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) as first line treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer at high-risk, either locally advanced or metastatic. ADT can be achieved through orchiectomy (surgical castration), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists, or through complete androgen blockade (LHRH agonist combined with an anti-androgen)...
July 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659719/somatic-mutation-analyses-in-studies-of-the-clonal-evolution-and-diagnostic-targets-of-prostate-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Dmitry S Mikhaylenko, Gennady D Efremov, Vladimir V Strelnikov, Dmitry V Zaletaev, Boris Y Alekseev
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common uro-oncological disease in the global population and still requires a more efficient laboratory diagnosis. Point mutations of oncogenes and tumor sup-pressor genes are the most frequent molecular genetic events in carcinogenesis. The mutations are re-sponsible, to a great extent, for the clonal evolution of cancer and can be considered as primary candi-date molecular markers of PC. Using next-generation sequencing to analyze the mutations in PC, the main molecular PC subtypes were identified, which depended on the presence of fusion genes and FOXA1, CHD1, and SPOP point mutations; other driver mutations responsible for the progression of PC subclones were also characterized...
June 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614092/poloxamer-p85-increases-anticancer-activity-of-schiff-base-against-prostate-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Selami Demirci, Ayşegül Doğan, Neşe Başak Türkmen, Dilek Telci, Ahmet B Çağlayan, Mustafa Ç Beker, Ertuğrul Kiliç, Ferda Özkan, Bülent Dede, Fikrettin Şahin
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men and the leading cause of death after lung cancer. Development of hormone-refractory disease is a crucial step for prostate cancer progression for which an effective treatment option is currently unavailable. Therefore, there is a need for new agents that can efficiently target cancer cells, decrease tumor growth, and thereby extend the survival of patients in late-stage castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the current study, a novel heterodinuclear copper(II)Mn(II) Schiff base complex combined with P85 was used to evaluate anticancer activity against prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo...
September 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608931/the-association-between-germline-brca2-variants-and-sensitivity-to-platinum-based-chemotherapy-among-men-with-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#9
Mark M Pomerantz, Sandor Spisák, Li Jia, Angel M Cronin, Istvan Csabai, Elisa Ledet, A Oliver Sartor, Irene Rainville, Edward P O'Connor, Zachary T Herbert, Zoltan Szállási, William K Oh, Philip W Kantoff, Judy E Garber, Deborah Schrag, Adam S Kibel, Matthew L Freedman
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer 2 (BRCA2)-associated breast and ovarian cancers are sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. It is unknown whether BRCA2-associated prostate cancer responds favorably to such treatment. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a single-institution cohort of men with castration-resistant, metastatic prostate cancer was performed to determine the association between carrier status of pathogenic BRCA2 germline variants and prostate-specific antigen response to carboplatin-based chemotherapy...
June 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535104/measuring-the-value-of-new-drugs-validity-and-reliability-of-4-value-assessment-frameworks-in-the-oncology-setting
#10
Tanya G K Bentley, Joshua T Cohen, Elena B Elkin, Julie Huynh, Arnab Mukherjea, Thanh H Neville, Matthew Mei, Ronda Copher, Russell Knoth, Ioana Popescu, Jackie Lee, Jenelle M Zambrano, Michael S Broder
BACKGROUND: Several organizations have developed frameworks to systematically assess the value of new drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the convergent validity and interrater reliability of 4 value frameworks to understand the extent to which these tools can facilitate value-based treatment decisions in oncology. METHODS: Eight panelists used the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) frameworks to conduct value assessments of 15 drugs for advanced lung and breast cancers and castration-refractory prostate cancer...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337529/the-impact-of-repeated-cycles-of-radioligand-therapy-using-177-lu-lu-psma-617-on-renal-function-in-patients-with-hormone-refractory-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#11
Anna Yordanova, Anja Becker, Elisabeth Eppard, Stefan Kürpig, Christian Fisang, Georg Feldmann, Markus Essler, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar
BACKGROUND: [(177)Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 is a well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. However, because of the mainly renal excretion of the tracer, the kidneys are one of the most limiting organs. The purpose of this study was to examine the post-therapeutic changes in renal function over time and to identify risk factors for developing renal toxicity. We also tested the reliability of markers for renal function monitoring. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer treated with at least three cycles of [(177)Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 were investigated...
August 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314320/the-clinical-efficacy-of-enzalutamide-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-prospective-single-center-study
#12
Giuseppe Cicero, Rossella DE Luca, Patrizia Dorangricchia, Francesco Dieli
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of enzalutamide in Italian patients with hormone-refractory metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, progressing after chemotherapy with docetaxel plus prednisone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients were enrolled. Reduction in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was assessed as the primary endpoint, while reduction in pain, safety, progression-free survival and overall survival represented secondary endpoints...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256535/rest-is-a-crucial-regulator-for-acquiring-emt-like-and-stemness-phenotypes-in-hormone-refractory-prostate-cancer
#13
Yi-Ting Chang, Tzu-Ping Lin, Mel Campbell, Chin-Chen Pan, Shu-Hui Lee, Hsin-Chen Lee, Muh-Hwa Yang, Hsing-Jien Kung, Pei-Ching Chang
Castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC), also known as hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC), requires immediate attention since it is not only resistant to androgen ablation, chemo- and radiotherapy, but also highly metastatic. Increasing evidence suggests that enrichment of neuroendocrine (NE) cells is associated with CRPC. Here, combined RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analysis reveals that REST is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness acquisition in NE differentiated prostate cancer (PCa) cells via direct transcriptional repression of Twist1 and CD44...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183253/optimal-management-of-prostate-cancer-based-on-its-natural-clinical-history
#14
Gaetano Facchini, Francesco Perri, Gabriella Misso, Carmine D Aniello, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Sabrina Rossetti, Chiara Della Pepa, Salvatore Pisconti, Gerhard Unteregger, Alessia Cossu, Michele Caraglia, Massimiliano Berretta, Carla Cavaliere
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in males and, despite a marked improvement in diagnostic techniques, a not small percentage of prostate tumours is still diagnosed in advanced stage. It is now clear that prostate cancer passes through distinct phases during its natural history, starting from an initial phase, in which the disease has a locoregional extent, until a very late phase when it becomes refractory to hormone therapy. It is important to distinguish between local disease, in which tumor may be considered localized in the gland and a systemic disease characterized by high tumor burden and/or dissemination of circulating tumour cells...
February 8, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156633/evaluation-of-the-palliative-benefit-and-toxicity-of-ra-223-treatment-of-men-with-hormone-refractory-prostate-cancer-in-a-community-setting
#15
Bide Xiong, Fang Liu, Elizabeth Garber, James Wheeler
225 Background: The ALSYMCA (Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer) trial was a phase III, placebo controlled, randomized trial in which 921 men with bone metastasis from hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) were randomly assigned to receive radium-223 (Ra-223) or placebo. Ra-223 produced a 30% survival benefit, with a median survival of 14.9 months compared to 11.3 months for patients treated with a placebo, which led to FDA approval in 2013. METHODS: We identified through the nuclear medicine records 11 patients who started Ra-223 between March 15, 2013 and December 10, 2015...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126272/prostate-specific-antigen-response-in-black-and-white-patients-treated-with-abiraterone-acetate-for-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer
#16
Sundhar Ramalingam, Michael S Humeniuk, Rachel Hu, Julia Rasmussen, Patrick Healy, Yuan Wu, Michael R Harrison, Andrew J Armstrong, Daniel J George, Tian Zhang
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests differences in androgen receptor AR signaling between black (B) and white (W) patients with prostate cancer, but pivotal trials of abiraterone acetate (AA) for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) enrolled few black patients, a population with a higher mortality from prostate cancer. Our primary objective was to determine differences in response to AA between B and W patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of B vs...
June 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111042/-immunotherapy-in-uropathology
#17
Virginie Verkarre, Hélène Roussel, Clémence Granier, Eric Tartour, Yves Allory
The algorithms for treatment of metastatic cancers are evolving due to positive results obtained with immunotherapy. Therapeutics approaches to stimulate the immune system have already been used in the treatment of kidney and bladder cancer, such as the administration of cytokines and BCG therapy, confirming the immunogenicity of these tumors. The aim of immunotherapies is not only to activate the immune system against tumor cells, but also to take into account the tumor-induced suppressive microenvironment, in particular by removing the anergy of T-cell lymphocytes, and by targeting the co-stimulation inhibitors molecules...
February 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089304/management-of-prostate-cancer-in-elderly-patients-recommendations-of-a-task-force-of-the-international-society-of-geriatric-oncology
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Droz, Gilles Albrand, Silke Gillessen, Simon Hughes, Nicolas Mottet, Stéphane Oudard, Heather Payne, Martine Puts, Gilbert Zulian, Lodovico Balducci, Matti Aapro
CONTEXT: Prostate cancer is the most frequent male cancer. Since the median age of diagnosis is 66 yr, many patients require both geriatric and urologic evaluation if treatment is to be tailored to individual circumstances including comorbidities and frailty. OBJECTIVE: To update the 2014 International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) guidelines on prostate cancer in men aged >70 yr. The update includes new material on health status evaluation and the treatment of localised, advanced, and castrate-resistant disease...
January 11, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069826/endostatin-inhibits-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-growth-by-suppressing-nuclear-receptor-mediated-oxidative-stress
#19
Joo Hyoung Lee, Minsung Kang, Hong Wang, Gurudatta Naik, James A Mobley, Guru Sonpavde, W Timothy Garvey, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan
Androgen-deprivation therapy has been identified to induce oxidative stress in prostate cancer (PCa), leading to reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in a hormone-refractory manner. Thus, antioxidant therapies have gained attention as adjuvants for castration-resistant PCa. Here, we report for the first time that human endostatin (ES) prevents androgen-independent growth phenotype in PCa cells through its molecular targeting of AR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and downstream pro-oxidant signaling...
April 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052297/androgen-receptor-gene-copy-number-and-protein-expression-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-prostate-cancer
#20
Filip Poelaert, Candy Kumps, Nicolaas Lumen, Stephanie Verschuere, Louis Libbrecht, Marleen Praet, Sylvie Rottey, Tom Claeys, Piet Ost, Karel Decaestecker, Gert De Meerleer, Charles Van Praet
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the androgen receptor (AR) gene copy number in androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) treatment-naïve prostate cancer (PCa) patients and to evaluate the corresponding AR protein expression and assess the association between these features and prognostic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chromosome X and AR gene copy number, using fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization, and epithelial-stromal AR expression, using AR immunohistochemistry, were analyzed in 62 ADT treatment-naïve PCa patients and 8 castration-refractory patients...
January 5, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
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