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Dose banding

Yasuhiro Horita, Abdullah Alsultan, Awewura Kwara, Sampson Antwi, Antony Enimil, Antoinette Orstin, Albert Dompreh, Hongmei Yang, Lubbe Wiesner, Charles A Peloquin
Optimal doses for anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in children have yet to be established. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended revised dosages of the first-line anti-TB drugs for children. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies that investigated the adequacy of the WHO revised dosages to date have yielded conflicting results. We performed population PK modeling using data from one of these studies to identify optimal dosages ranges. Ghanaian children with tuberculosis on recommended therapy with rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (EMB) for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected at pre-dose, 1, 2, 4, and 8-hours post-dose...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Paulina Kazmierska, Anna Kobrzycka, Renata Bocian, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Anita Krokosz, Jacek Grebowski
Since the first identification of fullerenes (C60 ) and their synthesis in 1985, those compounds have been extensively studied in the biomedical field. In particular, their water-soluble derivatives, fullerenols (C60 (OH)n, n = 2-48), have recently been the subject of numerous investigations concerning their antioxidant and prooxidant properties in biological systems. A small fraction of that research has focused on the possible use of C60 and C60 (OH)n in neuroscience and the therapy of pathologies such as dementia, amyloid-β (Aβ) formation, and Parkinson's disease...
June 14, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Ravi Sakthivel, Dicson Sheeja Malar, Kasi Pandima Devi
In the present study, the antiproliferative activity of phytol and its mechanism of action against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 were studied in detail. Results showed that phytol exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 70.81 ± 0.32 μM and 60.7 ± 0.47 μM at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Phytol showed no adverse toxic effect in normal human lung cells (L-132), but mild toxic effect was observed when treated with maximum dose (67 and 84 μM)...
June 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Noémi Papp, Szilvia Vas, Emese Bogáthy, Zita Kátai, Diána Kostyalik, György Bagdy
Brain oscillations in the gamma frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been implicated in several sensory and cognitive processes, and have also been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), similarly to other antidepressants, are known to produce markedly different effects on sleep and behavioral measures with acute and chronic administration. Although there are studies examining the acute effect of escitalopram on slower (<30 Hz) oscillations, we hardly could find any data about the effect of the drug on higher-frequency EEG oscillations (>30 Hz) in different sleep-wake stages, particularly comparing the acute and chronic effects of the drug concerning gamma oscillations...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Girja S Shukla, Yu-Jing Sun, Stephanie C Pero, Giselle S Sholler, David N Krag
The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate T7 bacteriophage as a nanoparticle platform for expression of neoantigens that could allow rapid generation of vaccines for potential studies in human cancer patients. We have generated recombinant T7 phage vaccines carrying neoepitopes derived from mutated proteins of B16-F10 melanoma tumor cells. With the single mutated amino acid (AA) centered, peptides were expressed on the outer coat of T7 phage. All peptides with 11 and 34 AAs were successfully expressed...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Fabio A Schaberle
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) initiates with the absorption of light, which depends on the spectral overlap between the light source emission and the photosensitizer absorption, resulting in the number of photons absorbed, the key parameter starting PDT processes. Most papers report light doses regardless if the light is only partially absorbed or shifted relatively to the absorption peak, misleading the actual light dose value and not allowing quantitative comparisons between photosensitizers and light sources...
June 9, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Sachin Rai, Vidya Rattan, Akshat Gupta, Praveen Kumar
Aims & objective: To evaluate the efficacy of combined intralesional injection of Hyaloronidase and Triamcinolone with third molar removal in early and intermediate stage (Stage II & III) of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) for improvement in mouth opening and hypersensitivity to food. Study design: 48 patients in stage II & III OSMF were selected for the study. All the third molars were extracted in each patient followed by 6-8 doses of combined intralesional injection of Hyaloronidase and triamcinolone at 10 days interval targeting the fibrotic bands...
May 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
A Ortiz-Morales, E López-González, G Rueda-Morales, G Ortega-Cervantez, J Ortiz-Lopez
Graphite powder (GP) subjected to microwave radiation (MWG) results in exfoliation of graphite particles into few-layered graphene flakes (GF) intermixed with partially exfoliated graphite particles (PEG). Characterization of MWG by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy reveal few-layer GF with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 5 µm. Raman D, G, and 2D (G') bands characteristic of graphitic structures include evidence of the presence of bilayered graphene. The thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetric properties of MWG are evaluated and can be characterized as a gamma-ray sensitive and dose-resistant material with kinetic parameters (activation energy for the main peak located at 400 and 408 K is 0...
June 6, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Javad Baharara, Tayebe Ramezani, Nasrein Hosseini, Marzieh Mousavi
The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is widely considered today. This investigation was aimed at the biosynthesis and coating of Ag.NPs with Zataria multiflora ( Zm- Ag.NPs) leaf extract and assessment of its apoptosis promoting effects. The Zm -Ag.NPs was characterized by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, TEM, EDS, DLS, and measurement of zeta-potential. Apoptosis induction effects of Zm- Ag.NPs were assessed using acridine orange - propidium iodide ( AO/PI), DAPI staining, caspase3/9 activation assay, and annexinV/PI assay...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Cyril J Awaida, Samer F Jabbour, Youssef A El Rayess, Joseph S El Khoury, Elio G Kechichian, Marwan W Nasr
BACKGROUND: Microbotox consists of the injection of microdroplets of botulinum toxin into the dermis to improve the different lower-face and neck aging components. No clinical trial has evaluated its effect on the different face and neck components and no study has compared it to the "Nefertiti Lift" procedure. METHODS: In this crossover study, patients previously treated with the "Nefertiti Lift" were injected using the Microbotox technique...
June 4, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Á Á Tóth, L D Dragojlović, N V Ignjatov, M Krmar
In recent years, field flattening free accelerators have been introduced in therapy practice. One of the objective of these measurements was to establish if the maze door, designed for accelerators operating with flattening filter can provide adequate shielding in field flattening free mode of operation. Linac installed in this standard one band maze vault is equipped to operate at 6 MV with field flattening filter and in field flattening free mode of operation. Series of measurements of the photon dose at the maze door (with different jaws openings and gantry positions) were performed in both operation modes with and without water canister to mimic standard therapy conditions...
May 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Zhizhen Huang, Yifeng Huang, Ningsheng Xu, Jun Chen, Juncong She, Shaozhi Deng
Thermo-enhancement is an effective way to achieve high performance field electron emitters, and enables the individually tuning on the emission current by temperature and the electron energy by voltage. The field emission current from metal or n-doped semiconductor emitter at a relatively lower temperature (i.e., < 1000 K) is less temperature sensitive due to the weak dependence of free electron density on temperature, while that from p-doped semiconductor emitter is restricted by its limited free electron density...
June 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ryan L Wood, Keaton S Karlinsey, Austin D Thompson, Mark N Rigby, Greggory D Boatright, William G Pitt, Beverly L Roeder, Scott C Steffensen, Alonzo D Cook
Schwann cells play a major role in helping heal injured nerves. They help clear debris, produce neurotrophins, upregulate neurotrophin receptors, and form bands of Büngner to guide the healing nerve. But nerves do not always produce enough neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors to repair themselves. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important neurotrophin for promoting nerve healing and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) has been shown to stimulate NGF receptors (NGFR). This study tested the administration of a single intraneural injection of LPC (1 mg/mL for single LPC injection and 10 mg/mL for multiple LPC injections) at day 0 and one (day 7), two (days 5 and 7), or three (days 5, 7, and 9) injections of NGF (160 ng/mL for single injections and 80 ng/mL for multiple injections) to determine baseline effects on crushed sciatic nerves in rats...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Wadim Vodovozov, Justus Schneider, Shehabeldin Elzoheiry, Jan-Oliver Hollnagel, Andrea Lewen, Oliver Kann
Gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) represent a physiological fast brain rhythm that occurs in many cortex areas in awake mammals, including humans. They associate with sensory perception, voluntary movement, and memory formation and require precise synaptic transmission between excitatory glutamatergic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons such as parvalbumin-positive basket cells. Notably, gamma oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to shortage in glucose and oxygen supply (metabolic stress), with devastating consequences for higher cognitive functions...
May 28, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kainat Khan, Shikha Tewari, Madhup Rastogi, Gaurav Raj Agarwal, Surendra Prasad Mishra, Nuzhat Husain
Background: Radiation causes oxidative lesions and strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells. Extended length PCR is a reliable method for assessing DNA damage. Longer DNA strands with DNA damage are difficult to amplify compared to smaller DNA strands by PCR. The present study was aimed to evaluate DNA damage caused by ionising radiation exposure in therapeutic and diagnostic medicine. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 50 cases with low dose single exposure (LDS), low dose multiple exposure (LDM) and low dose angiography (LDA) which were compared with 25 high dose controls (HDC) and 25 controls with no exposure (NEC)...
May 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Javed Ahsan Quadri, Saba Sarwar, Pinky, Parmita Kar, Seema Singh, Saumya Ranjan Mallick, Sudheer Arava, Tapash Chand Nag, Tara Sankar Roy, A Shariff
An increased prevalence of cardiac complications has been observed in residents of fluorosis endemic areas chronically exposed to fluoride. Fluoride induces soft tissue injury due to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and mitochondriopathy. It was hypothesized that chronic fluoride exposure induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes due to inflammation, lysis of extra cellular matrix and altered calcium metabolism. This study was planned to evaluate the effects of chronic fluoride exposure and the mechanism of action in the cardiac muscle...
May 22, 2018: Toxicology
Pavlotsky Felix, Dawood Marwan, Barzilai Aviv
BACKGROUND: Narrow Band UVB (NB UVB) is a first line therapy for stage I Mycosis Fungoides (MF) with complete response (CR) in 75%-85% of patients. However, long-term, off-therapy disease free survival (DFS) data are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term DFS following NB UVB treatment stage I MF. METHODS: An historic cohort of all stage I MF patients achieving CR with NB UVB and discontinuing any treatment prior to 2011. Age at the beginning of phototherapy, gender, stage, skin phototype, number of treatments, total dose and the length of DFS was collected...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Neetika Nath, Jennifer Esche, Jessica Müller, Lars R Jensen, Matthias Port, Mario Stanke, Lars Kaderali, Harry Scherthan, Andreas W Kuss
Ionizing radiation can induce genomic lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks whose incomplete or faulty repair can result in mutations, which in turn can influence cellular functions and alter the fate of affected cells and organ systems. Ionizing-radiation-induced sequence alterations/mutations occur in a stochastic manner, which contributes to an increased cancer risk in irradiated individuals. Ionizing radiation exposure, and particularly acute doses at high dose rates (as often observed in radiation accidents), induce alterations in the genome that in part will reflect specific characteristics of the DNA damage response and the repair mechanisms involved...
July 2018: Health Physics
Steven G Swarts, Jason W Sidabras, Oleg Grinberg, Dmitriy S Tipikin, Maciej M Kmiec, Sergey V Petryakov, Wilson Schreiber, Victoria A Wood, Benjamin B Williams, Ann Barry Flood, Harold M Swartz
Instrumentation and application methodologies for rapidly and accurately estimating individual ionizing radiation dose are needed for on-site triage in a radiological/nuclear event. One such methodology is an in vivo X-band, electron paramagnetic resonance, physically based dosimetry method to directly measure the radiation-induced signal in fingernails. The primary components under development are key instrument features, such as resonators with unique geometries that allow for large sampling volumes but limit radiation-induced signal measurements to the nail plate, and methodological approaches for addressing interfering signals in the nail and for calibrating dose from radiation-induced signal measurements...
July 2018: Health Physics
O Atli, V Kilic, M Baysal, G Kilic, G Gormus, S Ucarcan, B Korkut, S Ilgin
Trazodone (TRZ) is an antidepressant drug commonly used in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Although some studies demonstrated the adverse effects of TRZ related to cardiovascular system, the conflicting results were observed in these studies. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cardiac adverse effects of TRZ in rats at repeated doses in our study. In accordance with this purpose, TRZ was administered orally to rats at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg doses for 28 days. Electrocardiogram records, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-myoglobin band, cardiac troponin-T (cTn-T) levels, DNA damage in cardiomyocytes, and histologic view of heart tissues were evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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