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Dose banding

Wipawan Muanghorn, Nattaya Konsue, Hasan Sham, Zainon Othman, Faizal Mohamed, Noramaliza Mohd Noor, Norsyafiqah Othman, Nur Shamin Shyamimi Mohd Noor Akmal, Nurulhuda Ahmad Fauzi, Mary Margaret Packiamuthu Dewaprigam Solomen, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis
Effects of food irradiation on allergen and nutritional composition of giant freshwater prawn are not well documented. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on tropomyosin allergen, proximate composition, and mineral elements in Macrobrachium rosenbergii . In this study, prawn was peeled, cut into small pieces, vacuum packaged and gamma irradiated at 0, 5, 7, 10 and 15 kGy with a dose rate of 0.5 kGy/h using cobalt-60 as the source, subsequently determined the level of tropomyosin, proximate composition and mineral elements respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
R Court, M T Chirehwa, L Wiesner, B Wright, W Smythe, N Kramer, H McIlleron
SETTING: Rifampicin (RMP) drives treatment response in drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Low RMP concentrations increase the risk of poor outcomes, and drug quality needs to be excluded as a contributor to low RMP exposure. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We performed an open-label, three-way cross-over study of three licensed RMP-containing formulations widely used in South Africa to evaluate the bioavailability of RMP in a two-drug fixed-dose combination tablet (2FDC) and a four-drug FDC (4FDC) against a single-drug reference...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Michał Świeca, Urszula Gawlik-Dziki, Łukasz Sęczyk, Dariusz Dziki, Małgorzata Sikora
Interactions of phenolics from green coffee bean flour (GCS) with the matrix of wheat bread have been studied employing direct (electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques) and indirect tests (nutrient digestibility). According to the chromatograms of digests, the antiradical activity of enriched bread was exhibited by free phenolics. An increase the area of chromatograms and some additional peaks observed for enriched bread may confirm some interactions of proteins with phenolics. The electrophoretic profile of these extracts showed that the band corresponding to a protein with molecular mass of 38 kDA had much higher intensity in enriched bread...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Nils Kappelmann, Golam M Khandaker, Henrik Dal, Jan Stochl, Kyriaki Kosidou, Peter B Jones, Christina Dalman, Håkan Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with impaired neurodevelopment as indexed by lower premorbid IQ. We examined associations between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, IQ, and subsequent schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses (ONAP) to elucidate the role of neurodevelopment and inflammation in the pathogenesis of psychosis. METHODS: Population-based data on ESR and IQ from 638 213 Swedish men assessed during military conscription between 1969 and 1983 were linked to National Hospital Discharge Register for hospitalisation with schizophrenia and ONAP...
April 6, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Daniel M Tompsett, Stefanie Biedermann, Wei Liu
Construction of simultaneous confidence sets for several effective doses currently relies on inverting the Scheffé type simultaneous confidence band, which is known to be conservative. We develop novel methodology to make the simultaneous coverage closer to its nominal level, for both two-sided and one-sided simultaneous confidence sets. Our approach is shown to be considerably less conservative than the current method, and is illustrated with an example on modeling the effect of smoking status and serum triglyceride level on the probability of the recurrence of a myocardial infarction...
April 3, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Fitsum Getachew, Albert Vandenberg, Judit Smits
BACKGROUND: Faba bean (Vicia faba) vicine/convicine (V-C) aglycones (divicine/isouramil) provoke an acute hemolytic anemia called favism in individuals with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme defect in their red blood cells. Geneticists/plant breeders are working with faba bean to decrease V-C levels to improve public acceptance of this high protein pulse crop. Here, we present a fast and simple ex-vivo in vitro bioassay for V-C toxicity testing of faba bean or faba bean food products...
April 2, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sangyoon Lee, Min Seok Lee, Moon Gi Kang
The noise distribution of images obtained by X-ray sensors in low-dosage situations can be analyzed using the Poisson and Gaussian mixture model. Multiscale conversion is one of the most popular noise reduction methods used in recent years. Estimation of the noise distribution of each subband in the multiscale domain is the most important factor in performing noise reduction, with non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) representing an effective method for scale and direction decomposition. In this study, we use artificially generated noise to analyze and estimate the Poisson-Gaussian noise of low-dose X-ray images in the NSCT domain...
March 29, 2018: Sensors
Abhispa Sahu, Pratima Solanki, Susmita Mitra
Curcuminoids (Curs), oleoresins from Curcuma longa L., have known anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, but high toxicity, poor aqueous solubility and susceptibility to degradation in body fluids are deterrents to their clinical administration. Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (PMMA-NPs) are biocompatible and resilient and can entrap hydrophobic drugs. The present investigation is related to solubilizing Curs by incorporating them in these nanoparticles (NPs) and is related to a study comparing the anticarcinogenic effect of drug-loaded NPs with free Cur using lung cancer (A549) cell line...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hyun Woo Goo
BACKGROUND: Combined prospectively electrocardiography (ECG)- and respiratory-triggered sequential cardiac computed tomography (CT) has not been evaluated in free-breathing children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the success rate and image quality of combined prospectively ECG- and respiratory-triggered sequential cardiac CT in free-breathing children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Image quality of combined prospectively ECG- and respiratory-triggered sequential cardiac CT in 870 children (≤5 years of age) was evaluated in terms of severe motion (maximal distance ≥2 mm) and band artifacts (maximal attenuation difference ≥100 Hounsfield units)...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Nikita Medvedev, Beata Ziaja
Diamond bulk irradiated with a free-electron laser pulse of 6100 eV photon energy, 5 fs duration, at the ~19-25 eV/atom absorbed doses, is studied theoretically on its way to warm dense matter state. Simulations with our hybrid code XTANT show disordering on sub-100 fs timescale, with the diffraction peak (220) vanishing faster than the peak (111). The warm dense matter formation proceeds as a nonthermal damage of diamond with the band gap collapse triggering atomic disordering. Short-living graphite-like state is identified during a few femtoseconds between the disappearance of (220) peak and the disappearance of (111) peak...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katsuya Kato, Kenichi Gemba, Kazuto Ashizawa, Hiroaki Arakawa, Satoshi Honda, Naomi Noguchi, Sumihisa Honda, Nobukazu Fujimoto, Takumi Kishimoto
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to reveal the prevalence of lung cancer (LC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in subjects with past asbestos exposure (AE). We also examined pulmonary or pleural changes correlated with the development of LC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study. There were 2132 subjects enrolled between 2010 and 2012. They included 96.2% men and 3.8% women, with a mean age of 76.1 years; 78.8% former or current smokers; and 21...
April 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Shumei Wang, Xue Han, Lanwei Zhang, Yingchun Zhang, Hongbo Li, Yuehua Jiao
The Lactobacillus paracasei subsp . paracasei M5 strain exerted potential anticancer activity through the cell wall. In this study, whole peptidoglycan (WPG) was extracted from the Lactobacillus paracasei subsp . paracasei M5 strain and was evaluated for anticancer effects as well as its properties. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of WPG with dominant bands of approximately 14.4 kDa. Further analysis revealed that the amino acids present in the WPG consisted of alanine, glycine, glutamic acid, and lysine in a molar ratio of approximately 8 : 5 : 3 : 3...
2018: BioMed Research International
Merina Paul Das, Jeyanthi Rebecca Livingstone, Pandiyarasan Veluswamy, Jayabrata Das
Green synthetic route of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has already been proved to be an advantageous over other physico-chemical approaches due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, ecofriendly and nontoxicity. In this finding, aqueous Wedelia chinensis leaf extract (WLE) mediated synthesis of AgNPs was approached. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 408 nm preliminary indicated the formation of AgNPs, while TEM and XRD characterization confirmed the formation of spherically shaped and crystalline AgNPs with an average size of 31...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Chenbin Liu, Steven E Schild, Joe Y Chang, Zhongxing Liao, Shawn Korte, Jiajian Shen, Xiaoning Ding, Yanle Hu, Yixiu Kang, Sameer R Keole, Terence T Sio, William W Wong, Narayan Sahoo, Martin Bues, Wei Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate how spot size and spacing affect plan quality, robustness, and interplay effects of robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two robustly optimized IMPT plans were created for 10 lung cancer patients: first by a large-spot machine with in-air energy-dependent large spot size at isocenter (σ: 6-15 mm) and spacing (1.3 σ), and second by a small-spot machine with in-air energy-dependent small spot size (σ: 2-6 mm) and spacing (5 mm)...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Luyan Tang, Wenyu Wu, Wenwen Fu, Yao Hu
Phototherapy is widely used in the treatment of vitiligo. Previous studies have focused on the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on melanocytes; however, the biological effects of phototherapy and melanocytes on keratinocytes remain to be elucidated. To investigate and assess the effects of clinically doses of broad band (BB)-UVA, narrow band (NB)-UVB and melanocytes on human keratinocytes in vitro , clinical doses of BB-UVA or NB-UVB radiation and human melanoma cell A375 co-culture were performed as stress divisors to HaCaT cells...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lucy Kerns
In risk assessment, it is often desired to make inferences on the risk at certain low doses or on the dose(s) at which a specific benchmark risk (BMR) is attained. At times, [Formula: see text] dose levels or BMRs are of interest, and some form of multiplicity adjustment is necessary to ensure a valid [Formula: see text] simultaneous inference. Bonferroni correction is often employed in practice for such purposes. Though relative simple to implement, the Bonferroni strategy can suffer from extreme conservatism (Nitcheva et al...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Sheta M Sheta, Said M El-Sheikh, Mohkles M Abd-Elzaher
Novel copper metal organic framework nanoparticles Cu-MOF-NPs (C1) were prepared via two simple alternative methods and confirmed by analytical characterization using mass, IR, Raman, XRD spectrum, HR-TEM and TGA-DSC. Mass spectroscopy revealed the molecular ion peak at 647 m/z for the monomeric unit structure n[Cu(AIP)2 (PIY)(H2 O)2 ]·4H2 O, the presence of which was further supported by mass fragmentation. The Raman spectrum revealed two separate peaks corresponding to D and G bands of carbon in the structure of C1...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Kamal U Zaidi, Sharique A Ali, Ayesha S Ali
Background: Human skin exists in a wide range of different colors and gradations, ranging from white to brown to black. This is due to the presence of a chemically inert and stable pigment known as melanin, which is produced deep inside the skin but is displayed as a mosaic at the surface of the body. Methods & Materials: In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway...
2018: Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal
Hassan Ibrahim, Moustafa El Taieb, Zeinab El Gamel, Abdel Rahman El Saied
BACKGROUND: Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) is the gold standard in the treatment of vitiligo. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH- vitamin D) might play a physiological role in photo-induced melanogenesis in human skin so the association between vitamin D levels and vitiligo still needs to be investigated more thoroughly. OBJECTIVE: we aim to investigate the influence of cumulative doses of NB-UVB phototherapy on vitamin D in patients with vitiligo and their correlation with NB-UVB-induced pigmentation...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Celine Nadaradjane, Chia-Ping Huang Yang, Alicia Rodriguez-Gabin, Kenny Ye, Keizo Sugasawa, Onur Atasoylu, Amos B Smith, Susan Band Horwitz, Hayley M McDaid
(+)-Discodermolide is a microtubule-stabilizing agent with potential for the treatment of taxol-refractory malignancies. (+)-Discodermolide congeners containing the C-3'-phenyl side chain of taxol (paclitaxel) were synthesized based on computational docking models predicting this moiety would fill an aromatic pocket of β-tubulin insufficiently occupied by (+)-discodermolide, thereby conferring improved ligand-target interaction. It was recently demonstrated, however, that the C-3'-phenyl side chain occupied a different space, instead extending toward the M-loop of β-tubulin, where it induced a helical conformation, hypothesized to improve lateral contacts between adjacent microtubule protofilaments...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
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