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Dose banding

Michael D Schwartz, Jeremiah B Palmerston, Diana L Lee, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
Trace amines (TAs), endogenous amino acid metabolites that are structurally similar to the biogenic amines, are endogenous ligands for trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a GPCR that modulates dopaminergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic activity. Selective TAAR1 full and partial agonists exhibit similar pro-cognitive, antidepressant- and antipsychotic-like properties in rodents and non-human primates, suggesting TAAR1 as a novel target for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that TAAR1 partial agonists are wake-promoting in rats and mice, and that TAAR1 knockout (KO) and overexpressing mice exhibit altered sleep-wake and EEG spectral composition...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ta Thi Loan, Le Thanh Do, Hoon Yoo
The cellular effects of platinum nanoparticles (PNP05, average size of 5 nm, and PNP30, average size of 30 nm) were investigated on murine leukemia Raw 264.7 cells. Cells treated with various concentrations of PNPs showed size-dependent cytotoxicity in an MTT assay with PNP5 of smaller nanoparticles higher toxicity than PNP30. Investigations on cell morphology, Annexin V assay, DNA fragmentation and the activity of caspase-3/-7 showed that PNPs induced apoptosis on Raw 264.7 cells by changing cell morphology and density, increasing cell population in apoptosis and causing nucleus fragmentation...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Viraj Pandit, Muhammad Khan, El Rasheid Zakaria, Tally M Largent-Milnes, Mohammad Hamidi, Terence O'Keeffe, Todd W Vanderah, Bellal Joseph
INTRODUCTION: While studies show that single-dose remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) improves outcomes, the effect of continuous (daily) RIC is unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of continuous-RIC on cognitive and motor function following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We subjected 24 male C57BL mice to a cortical-controlled TBI. Two-hours after TBI the animals were randomly allocated to the RIC group (n=12) or the Sham group (n=12). RIC was induced by non-invasive external compression of the hind limb using an occlusive band (six 4-min cycles/24 hours) for consecutive 6 days...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ahmad Negintaji, Alireza Safahieh, Hossein Zolgharnein, Soheila Matroodi
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical that is widely used in plastics manufacturing. BPA enters in the aquatic environment mainly through urban and industrial sewage effluents, thereby posing a potential threat to organisms living in these ecosystems. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of BPA on VTG production with direct (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis) and indirect (alkali-labile phosphate (ALP), total plasma calcium and protein) methods in immature male yellowfin seabream ( Acanthopagrus latus) as a marine fish model...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Kumar Ponnuchamy, Kannan Mani, Arun Prasanna Vimalanathan, Vaseeharan Baskaralingam, Vijaykumar Sekar
The present study deals with the proteomic analysis of crude squid ink isolated from Sepia esculenta for their antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm and cytotoxic activity. To achieve this, SDS-PAGE was used to separate proteins as bands, in-gel trypsin digested and analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total of 4 bands were identified by MASCOT search analysis namely astacin-like squid metalloprotease type I (ASMT-I), 70 kDa neurofilament protein (NP), uncharacterized protein LOC106181966 isoform X1 (UP-Iso-X1) and Ommochrome-binding protein (Oc-BP)...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Seema Menon, Lincy Lawrence, Vipin P Sivaram, Jose Padikkala
BACKGROUND: Oroxylum indicum Vent., a Dasamula plant used in Ayurveda possesses antioxidant properties. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cardioprotective effect of 70% methanolic extract of O. indicum Vent. root bark (OIM) against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy in female Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiotoxicity was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of doxorubicin 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 4 consecutive days after a ten-day pre-treatment of animals with OIM at 200 mg/kg b...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Puneet Raman, Lakshmi Madhavpeddi, Rayna J Gonzales
Vascular basal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and activity can be induced by endotoxin, hypoxia, or ischemia. During vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis, increases in COX-2 activity result in prostanoid production, a contributor to the development and progression of vascular inflammation leading to unstable atherosclerotic plaques and increased risk for thrombotic events. Recent studies demonstrate that select free fatty acids, such as palmitate, can act as pro-inflammatory mediators. However, the effect of palmitate on COX-2 expression and activity, and its impact on the development and progression of vascular inflammation is not well elucidated...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Ikuo Nakanishi, Shinichi Yamashita, Takashi Shimokawa, Masato Kamibayashi, Emiko Sekine-Suzuki, Megumi Ueno, Yukihiro Ogawa, Toshihiko Ozawa, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto
The quantitative evaluation of changes in the redox state induced by low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations such as the plateau region of heavy-ion beams via formation of reactive oxygen species is of considerable importance to eliminate the adverse effects of radiation therapy on normal tissues adjacent to a tumour. In this study, a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH˙) was used as a redox probe to estimate the redox states of protic and aprotic solutions irradiated by low LET carbon-ion (C-ion) beams...
January 31, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Renli Qi, Jinghui Li, Xujun Wu, Xin Geng, Nanhui Chen, Hualin Yu
Gamma band oscillation (GBO) and sensory gating (SG) are associated with many cognitive functions. Ketamine induces deficits of GBO and SG in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the time-courses of the effects of different doses of ketamine on GBO power and SG are poorly understood. Studies have indicated that GBO power and SG have a common substrate for their generation and abnormalities. In this study, we found that (1) ketamine administration increased GBO power in the PFC in rats differently in the low- and high-dose groups; (2) auditory SG was significantly lower than baseline in the 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg groups, but not in the 15 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg groups; and (3) changes in SG and basal GBO power were significantly correlated in awake rats...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xianghui Zhang, Marcel Mainka, Florian Paneff, Henning Hachmeister, André Beyer, Armin Gölzhäuser, Thomas Huser
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS) was employed to investigate the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of biphenylthiol (BPT), 4'-nitro-1,1'-biphenyl-4-thiol (NBPT) and p-terphenylthiol (TPT) on Au surfaces, and their structural transformations into carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) induced by electron irradiation. The high sensitivity of SERS allows us to identify two types of Raman-scattering in electron-irradiated SAMs: (1) Raman-active sites exhibit similar bands as those of pristine SAMs in the fingerprint spectral region, but with indications of an amorphization process; (2) Raman-inactive sites show almost no Raman-scattering signals, except a very weak and broad D band, indicating a lack of structural-order but for the presence of graphitic domains...
January 29, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Meenaakshi Sundhari R P
Objective: The method to treating cancer that combines light and light-sensitive drugs to selectively destroy tumour cells without harming healthy tissue is called photodynamic therapy (PDT). It requires accurate data for light dose distribution, generated with scalable algorithms. One of the benchmark approaches involves Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. This gives an accurate assessment of light dose distribution, but is very demanding in computation time, which prevents routine application for treatment planning...
January 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Dustin R Osborne, Shelley N Acuff, Melissa L Neveu, Mumtaz Syed, Austin D Kaman, Yitong Fu
PURPOSE: The usage of PET/computed tomography (CT) to monitor hepatocellular carcinoma patients following yttrium-90 (Y) radioembolization has increased. Respiratory motion causes liver movement, which can be corrected using gating techniques at the expense of added noise. This work examines the use of amplitude-based gating on Y-PET/CT and its potential impact on diagnostic integrity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were imaged using PET/CT following Y radioembolization...
January 18, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Yuchen Zhuang, Changxu Han, Bing Li, Liang Jin, Erle Dang, Hui Fang, Hongjiang Qiao, Gang Wang
Keratin-17 (K17) is a cytoskeletal protein produced by keratinocytes (KCs), which is overexpressed in psoriasis and may play a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) irradiation is used as a general treatment for psoriasis, although its impact on K17 expression has yet to be determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of NB-UVB irradiation on K17 expression and its signaling pathways. After exposure to NB-UVB irradiation, immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry, CCK-8 assays and transmission electron microscopy to examine proliferation...
January 18, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Saleem Raza, Yousaf Iqbal, Ihsan Ullah, Mohammad S Mubarak, Muhammad Usman Hameed, Muslim Raza
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gamma radiation on levofloxacin. Powder form of levofloxacin was subjected to different radiation doses (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125kGy) of Cobalt-60 source in a Gammacell-220 at a rate of 8.5 Gray/hr. The effect of radiation has been investigated with the aid of different spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by antibacterial activities. UV data did not reveal significant changes in the structure of levofloxacin which is supported by scanning electron microscopy...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rasmus Skov Husted, Anders Troelsen, Kristian Thorborg, Michael Skovdal Rathleff, Henrik Husted, Thomas Bandholm
BACKGROUND: Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) report knee pain, limitation in physical activities and low quality of life. The two primary treatments for knee OA are non-surgical treatment (e.g., exercise) and surgery (total knee arthroplasty (TKA)); however, national guidelines recommend non-surgical treatment to be tried prior to surgical procedures. Patients with knee OA are characterized by decreased muscle strength, particularly in the knee-extensor muscles. Correspondingly, decreased knee-extensor strength is found to be associated with an increased risk of development, progression and severity of knee OA symptoms...
January 18, 2018: Trials
Mohamed Shaban, Abdallah M Ashraf, Mostafa R Abukhadra
TiO2 nanoribbons (TiO2 NRs) loaded with FeCo-Al2O3 catalyst were synthesized and used as a precursor in the synthesis of TiO2 nanoribbons/carbon nanotubes (TiO2 NRs/CNTs) composite by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. TiO2 NRs and TiO2 NRs/CNTs composite were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, SEM, EDX and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results revealed the formation of TiO2-B and hydrogen titanate nanoribbon like structures by the hydrothermal treatment. After loading TiO2 NRs by FeCo-Al2O3 catalyst and the CVD growth of carbon nanotubes, the synthetic TiO2 nanoribbons converted entirely to TiO2-B nanoribbons with nanopits structure...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melanie White-Koning, Caroline Osborne, Angelo Paci, Alan V Boddy, Etienne Chatelut, Gareth J Veal
BACKGROUND: To make systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT) preparation more practicable, dose-banding approaches are currently being introduced in many clinical centres. The present study aimed to determine the potential impact of using recently developed National Health Service in England (NHSE) dose-banding tables in a paediatric setting. METHODS: Using pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from 385 drug administrations in 352 children aged from 1 month to 18 years, treated with five drugs (dactinomycin, busulfan, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide), individual exposures (area under the plasma drug concentration versus time curve; AUC) obtained using doses rounded according to the published NHSE tables were calculated and compared with those obtained by standard dose calculation methods...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Mohamed E M Ali, Azza M Abd El-Aty, Mohamed I Badawy, Rizka K Ali
Pharmaceutical compounds are considered emerging environmental pollutants that have a potential harmful impact on environment and human health. In this study, the biomass of alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) was modified using alkaline solution, and used for the biosorption of tramadol (TRAM) and other pharmaceuticals. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated. The obtained results reveal high adsorption capacity of tramadol over modified algal biomass (MAB) after 45min with removal percentage of 91%...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiuyun Liu, Jia Lin, Yinglan Zhang, Ning Guo, Qiang Li
Given that hearing ability can be challenged in diverse ways, it is necessary to develop an easily conducted, high-throughput method for assessing potential auditory risks. Measuring the acoustic startle response (ASR) has become a critical behavioral method in hearing research using zebrafish (Danio rerio). In this study, changes in the activity of zebrafish larvae (10 days post fertilization (dpf)) due to exposure to a sudden easily-generated broad-band noise were automatically and objectively recorded and analyzed without building sophisticated equipments...
January 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Peng Guan, Yingran Liang, Na Wang
The RhoA/Rho-kinase cascade plays an important role in many aspects of cardiovascular function. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on pressure overload induced heart failure in rats. Pressure overload induced heart failure was induced in SD rats by banding the abdominal aorta for 8 weeks. The rats were divided into four groups: Sham, TAC, TAC plus low dose of fasudil and TAC plus high dose of fasudil group. Low dose and high dose fasudil were 5 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day respectively...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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