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Dose banding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527204/levetiracetam-alters-oscillatory-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Christian S Musaeus, Mouhsin M Shafi, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Susan T Herman, Daniel Z Press
Seizures occur at a higher frequency in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) but overt, clinically obvious events are infrequent. Evidence from animal models and studies in mild cognitive impairment suggest that subclinical epileptic discharges may play a role in the clinical and pathophysiological manifestations of AD. In this feasibility study, the neurophysiological and cognitive effects of acute administration of levetiracetam (LEV) are measured in patients with mild AD to test whether it could have a therapeutic benefit...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515092/human-cd62l-dim-neutrophils-identified-as-a-separate-subset-by-proteome-profiling-and-in-vivo-pulse-chase-labelling
#2
Tamar Tak, Patrick Wijten, Marjolein Heeres, Peter Pickkers, Arjen Scholten, Albert J R Heck, Nienke Vrisekoop, Luke P Leenen, Jos Eacute A M Borghans, Kiki Tesselaar, Leo Koenderman
During acute inflammation three neutrophil subsets are found in the blood: neutrophils with a conventional segmented nucleus, neutrophils with a banded nucleus and T-cell-suppressing CD62L(dim) neutrophils with a high number of nuclear lobes. In this study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01766414) we compared the in vivo kinetics and proteomes of banded, mature and hypersegmented neutrophils to determine whether these cell types represent truly different neutrophil subsets or reflect changes induced by LPS activation...
May 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509433/dosing-anticancer-drugs-in-infants-current-approach-and-recommendations-from-the-children-s-oncology-group-s-chemotherapy-standardization-task-force
#3
Frank M Balis, Richard B Womer, Stacey Berg, Naomi Winick, Peter C Adamson, Elizabeth Fox
An analysis of dose modifications for infants in 29 Children's Oncology Group protocols across 10 cancer types revealed 11 sets of criteria defining the infant population using age, weight, body surface area (BSA), or a combination of these parameters and eight dose modification methods. A new method of dosing anticancer drugs in infants was developed based on the rationale that prior modifications were implemented to reduce toxicity, which is not cancer-specific. The new method uses BSA dose banding in dosing tables for infants and children with a BSA <0...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496033/joint-toxicity-of-fluoroquinolone-and-tetracycline-antibiotics-to-zebrafish-danio-rerio-based-on-biochemical-biomarkers-and-histopathological-observation
#4
Lihe Ding, Luxiu Zang, Yuna Zhang, Yuhuan Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Weiming Ai, Nani Ding, Huili Wang
Herein, we report on the joint toxicity of four fluoroquinolones and two tetracyclines (β-diketone antibiotics-DKAs) to zebrafish based on a series of toxicological endpoints and histopathological observations. A positive dose-dependence was observed in DKA-exposure groups with a 72-hpf EC50 of 130.3 mg/L for hatching rate, 120-hpf LC50 of 149.8 mg/L, and 120-hpf EC50 of 135.1 mg/L for malformation rate. When zebrafish at 60 dpf were exposed to a series of DKA concentrations (45, 60 and 90 mg/L) for 7, 14 and 21 days, creatine kinase and AChE activities were significantly induced, and intracellular malondialdehyde increased in all treatments except for the 45 mg/L treatment...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495137/early-predictors-of-rapidly-evolving-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report
#5
Kryshani T M Fernando, Michael James
Objective The aim of this case report is to highlight some important features of rapidly evolving Multiple Sclerosis. BACKGROUND: In a small proportion of patients, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) can present as a fulminant disease characterised by severe and frequent relapses. This form of rapidly evolving MS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to identify these patients as early as possible, so that they can be managed effectively. However, due to the rarity of fulminant forms of MS, there is limited data on the natural history and management of this condition...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489732/assessment-of-nevirapine-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-dosing-regimens-for-neonates
#6
Tim R Cressey, Baralee Punyawudho, Sophie Le Coeur, Gonzague Jourdain, Chalermpong Saenjum, Edmund Capparelli, Kanokwan Jittayanun, Siriluk Phanomcheong, Anita Luvira, Thitiporn Borkird, Achara Puangsombat, Leon Aarons, Pra-Ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Saik Urien, Marc Lallemant
BACKGROUND: Nevirapine (NVP) is a key component of antiretroviral prophylaxis and treatment for neonates. We evaluated current WHO weight-band NVP prophylactic dosing recommendations and investigated optimal therapeutic NVP dosing for neonates. METHODS: The PHPT-5 study in Thailand assessed the efficacy of 'Perinatal Antiretroviral Intensification' to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in women with <8 weeks of antiretroviral treatment before delivery (NCT01511237)...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480388/isolation-characterization-and-immunochemical-studies-on-fibrous-proteins-from-cowry-shell-cypraea-moneta-linnaeus
#7
R A Togun, R O Balogun, D O Adeyemi, T A Esan, G M Oyatogun, E O Oziegbe, R E Okonji, A Kuku
BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are non-drug substances used to treat, enhance or replace functions of body tissues or organs. Natural sources of biomaterials have recently become the focus of several research activities. Cowry shell constitutes one of the most promising natural sources of biomaterials because of its chemical stability, biodegradability and biocompatibility in the body. However, its applications may be limited due to immunogenic and toxic responses that may occur following implantation, hence this study...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475494/inorganic-scintillation-detectors-based-on-eu-activated-phosphors-for-sup-192-sup-ir-brachytherapy
#8
Gustavo Kertzscher, Sam Beddar
The availability of real-time treatment verification during high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is currently limited. Therefore, we studied the luminescence properties of the widely commercially available scintillators using the inorganic materials Eu-activated phosphors Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>:Eu, YVO<sub>4</sub>:Eu, Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>S:Eu, and Gd<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>S:Eu to determine whether they could be used to accurately and precisely verify HDR brachytherapy doses in real time...
May 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464905/the-korean-herbal-formulation-yukmijihwangtang-stimulates-longitudinal-bone-growth-in-animal-models
#9
Sung-Min Cho, Sun Haeng Lee, Donghun Lee, Ji Hong Lee, Gyu Tae Chang, Hocheol Kim, Jin Yong Lee
BACKGROUND: Yukmijihwangtang (YJT) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been used to treat kidney-yin deficiency symptoms such as dizziness and tinnitus. In addition, because it is also thought to nourish kidney-yin, it has been used to treat short stature from congenital deficiency. This study evaluated the effects of YJT on longitudinal bone growth in rats. METHODS: Female adolescent rats were randomly assigned to groups that received distilled water (per os [p...
May 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464736/incorporation-of-relative-biological-effectiveness-uncertainties-into-proton-plan-robustness-evaluation
#10
Jakob Ödén, Kjell Eriksson, Iuliana Toma-Dasu
BACKGROUND: The constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 is typically assumed in proton therapy. This study presents a method of incorporating the variable RBE and its uncertainties into the proton plan robustness evaluation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The robustness evaluation was split into two parts. In part one, the worst-case physical dose was estimated using setup and range errors, including the fractionation dependence. The results were fed into part two, in which the worst-case RBE-weighted doses were estimated using a Monte Carlo method for sampling the input parameters of the chosen RBE model...
June 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444745/retraction-dose-dependent-dual-effect-of-htlv-1-tax-oncoprotein-on-p53-dependent-nucleotide-excision-repair-in-human-t-cells-by-yana-schavinsky-khrapunsky-esther-priel-and-mordechai-aboud
#11
(no author information available yet)
The above article, published online on 4 October 2007 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 122, pp. 305-316, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor Peter Lichter, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as the bands in Figs 1, 2, 5 and 6 appear to have been manipulated. REFERENCE: Schavinsky-Khrapunsky, Y., Priel, E. and Aboud, M. (2008), Dose-dependent dual effect of HTLV-1 tax oncoprotein on p53-dependent nucleotide excision repair in human T-cells...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443688/use-of-c-banding-for-identifying-radiation-induced-micronuclei
#12
S C de Lima, A Amaral, T de Salazar E Fernandes
Differentiation of micronuclei (MN) caused by ionizing radiation from those caused by chemicals is a crucial step for managing treatment of individuals exposed to radiation. MN in binucleated lymphocytes in peripheral blood are widely used as biomarkers for estimating dose of radiation, but they are not specific for ionizing radiation. MN induced by ionizing radiation originate predominantly as a result of chromosome breaks (clastogenic action), whereas MN caused by chemical agents are derived from the loss of entire chromosomes (aneugenic action)...
April 26, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441611/genotoxic-effect-of-pb-and-cd-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-cultures-of-sphagnum-palustre-an-evaluation-by-issr-markers
#13
Maria Cristina Sorrentino, Fiore Capozzi, Simonetta Giordano, Valeria Spagnuolo
In the present work, the genotoxic effect of cadmium and lead supplied in a laboratory trial, was investigated for the first time in the moss Sphagnum palustre, by ISSR molecular markers. A total of 169 reproducible bands were obtained with 12 primers, ten of which gave polymorphisms (i.e., appearance/disappearance of bands), indicating a clear genotoxic effect induced by the metals. Both metals induced a decrease of the genome template stability in a dose dependent manner. At concentration >10(-5) Cd also induced a general toxic effect in S...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440737/heart-rate-variability-depression-in-porcine-peritonitis-induced-sepsis-without-organ-failure
#14
Dagmar Jarkovska, Lenka Valesova, Jiri Chvojka, Jan Benes, Vojtech Danihel, Jitka Sviglerova, Lukas Nalos, Martin Matejovic, Milan Stengl
Depression of heart-rate variability (HRV) in conditions of systemic inflammation has been shown in both patients and experimental animal models and HRV has been suggested as an early indicator of sepsis. The sensitivity of HRV-derived parameters to the severity of sepsis, however, remains unclear. In this study we modified the clinically relevant porcine model of peritonitis-induced sepsis in order to avoid the development of organ failure and to test the sensitivity of HRV to such non-severe conditions. In 11 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented domestic pigs of both sexes, sepsis was induced by fecal peritonitis...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435101/interaction-of-glucocorticoids-and-progesterone-derivatives-with-human-serum-albumin
#15
Rola Abboud, Mohammad Akil, Catherine Charcosset, Hélène Greige-Gerges
Glucocorticoids (GCs) and progesterone derivatives (PGDs) are steroid hormones with well-known biological activities. Their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) may control their distribution. Their binding to albumin is poorly studied in literature. This paper deals with the interaction of a series of GCs (cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, 6-methylprednisolone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate) and PGDs (progesterone, hydroxylated PGDs, methylated PGDs and dydrogesterone) with HSA solution (pH 7...
April 20, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425497/single-dose-memantine-improves-cortical-oscillatory-response-dynamics-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Gregory A Light, Wen Zhang, Yash B Joshi, Savita Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Neal R Swerdlow
Aberrant gamma band (30-80 Hz) oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Gamma oscillations and their regulation by NMDA receptors can be studied via their evoked power (γEP) and phase locking (γPL) in response to auditory steady state stimulation; these Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSRs) may be biomarkers for target engagement and early therapeutic effects. We previously reported that memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, enhanced 2 biomarkers of early auditory information processing: prepulse inhibition (PPI) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in SZ patients and healthy subjects (HS)...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420586/impaired-oral-absorption-of-methylphenidate-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#17
REVIEW
Carmil Azran, Peter Langguth, Arik Dahan
The anatomic and physiologic changes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after bariatric surgery may significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of medications taken by the patients for various reasons. Unfortunately, there is little information regarding changes in drug absorption after bariatric surgeries, limiting the ability of medical professionals to produce clear recommendations on what changes should be made to the formulations and dosing regimens of drugs after bariatric surgery. In this article, we report and analyze a case of 52-year-old male patient with morbid obesity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who experienced lack of methylphenidate efficacy after Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), which was eventually resolved by using the transdermal patch instead of an oral product...
March 9, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419374/patient-radiation-doses-in-therapeutic-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-in-patras-and-the-key-role-of-the-operator
#18
Anastasia C Hadjiconstanti, Gerasimos A T Messaris, Konstantinos C Thomopoulos, George S Panayiotakis
The patient radiation doses, in conjunction with the operator experience, in therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures, performed in our hospital, were obtained. Ninety-six patients participated in the study and were divided into 3 groups, based on the operator experience. The dosemetric indices, fluoroscopy time (FT), cumulative dose (Ka,r) and air kerma-area product (PKA), were collected. For the total and weight banding group the third quartile values of the distribution of FT, Ka,r and PKA were 2...
April 17, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404759/paving-the-way-for-dose-banding-of-chemotherapy-an-analytical-approach
#19
Heike Reinhardt, Rainer Trittler, Alison G Eggleton, Stefan Wöhrl, Thomas Epting, Marion Buck, Sabine Kaiser, Daniel Jonas, Justus Duyster, Manfred Jung, Martin J Hug, Monika Engelhardt
Background: In an interdepartmental cooperation, we investigated the feasibility and benefits of implementing dose banding of chemotherapy at our medical center. Based on this concept, chemotherapy doses are clustered into bands of similar dosage levels, thereby allowing the preproduction of frequently used standard doses of drugs, with sufficient physicochemical stability. Although established practice in the United Kingdom, there is little published evidence of its introduction elsewhere. Methods: We performed an analysis of local prescribing practice (22,310 chemotherapies) and identified gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and carboplatin, among various others, as cytotoxic drugs suitable for dose banding...
April 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399441/sleep-architecture-in-insomniacs-with-severe-benzodiazepine-abuse
#20
Mauro Manconi, Raffaele Ferri, Silvia Miano, Michelangelo Maestri, Valentina Bottasini, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most commonly prescribed compounds in insomnia. A long-term of BZDs use may cause dependence and abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep architecture and microstructure (in terms of cyclic alternating pattern - CAP - analysis and of sleep EEG power spectral analysis) in a group of long-term users of high doses of BZDs for their primary chronic insomnia. METHODS: Twenty patients consecutively admitted at the Sleep Centre for drug discontinuation and 13 matched healthy controls underwent a full nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording, after one adaptation night...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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