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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920096/structural-pathways-supporting-swift-acquisition-of-new-visuomotor-skills
#1
Ari E Kahn, Marcelo G Mattar, Jean M Vettel, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett
Human skill learning requires fine-scale coordination of distributed networks of brain regions linked by white matter tracts to allow for effective information transmission. Yet how individual differences in these anatomical pathways may impact individual differences in learning remains far from understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in structural organization of networks supporting task performance predict individual differences in the rate at which humans learn a visuomotor skill...
December 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#2
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900643/first-use-of-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-promis-measures-in-adults-with-neurofibromatosis
#3
Mojtaba Talaei-Khoei, Eric Riklin, Vanessa L Merker, Monica R Sheridan, Justin T Jordan, Scott R Plotkin, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
The patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) provides clinicians and researchers access to reliable, validated measures of physical, mental, and social well-being. The use of PROMIS can facilitate comparisons among clinical subpopulations and with the U.S. general population. We report on the first study using PROMIS measures in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF). Eighty-six adult patients (mean age = 44; 55% female; 87% white; 50% NF1, 41% NF2 and 9% schwannomatosis) completed a battery of PROMIS computerized adaptive tests (CATs)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894311/access-to-substance-use-treatment-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#4
Elliott J Liebling, Jesse L Yedinak, Traci C Green, Scott E Hadland, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: Non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a substantial public health problem in the United States, with 1.5 million new initiates annually. Only 746,000 people received treatment for NMPO use in 2013, demonstrating substantial disparities in access to treatment. This study aimed to assess correlates of accessing substance use treatment among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island, a state heavily impacted by NMPO use and opioid overdose. METHODS: This analysis uses data from a study of 200 Rhode Island residents aged 18 to 29 who reported NMPO use in the past 30 days...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894007/infant-attention-to-same-and-other-race-faces
#5
Anantha Singarajah, Jill Chanley, Yoselin Gutierrez, Yoselin Cordon, Bryan Nguyen, Lauren Burakowski, Scott P Johnson
We recorded visual attention to same- and other-race faces in Hispanic and White 11-month-old infants, an age at which face processing is presumably biased by an own-race recognition advantage. Infants viewed pairs of faces differing in race or ethnicity as their eye movements were recorded. We discovered consistently greater attention to Black over Hispanic faces, to Black faces over White faces, and to Hispanic over White faces. Inversion of face stimuli, and infant ethnicity, had little effect on performance...
November 25, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890647/reducing-preterm-birth-by-a-state-wide-multifaceted-program-an-implementation-study
#6
John P Newnham, Scott W White, Suzanne Meharry, Han-Shin Lee, Michelle K Pedretti, Catherine A Arrese, Jeffrey A Keelan, Matthew W Kemp, Jan E Dickinson, Dorota A Doherty
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive preterm birth prevention program was introduced in the state of Western Australia encompassing new clinical guidelines, an outreach program for health care practitioners, a public health program for women and their families based on print and social media, and a new clinic at the state's sole tertiary level perinatal center for referral of those pregnant women at highest risk. The initiative had the single aim of safely lowering the rate of preterm birth. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of the initiative on the rates of preterm birth both state-wide and in the single tertiary level perinatal referral center...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889934/vascular-cell-transcriptomic-changes-to-exercise-training-differ-directionally-along-and-between-skeletal-muscle-arteriolar-trees
#7
M Harold Laughlin, Hsiao T Yang, Darla L Tharp, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Douglas K Bowles
EXT-induced arteriolar adaptations in skeletal muscle are heterogeneous because of spatial variations in muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns during exercise. The purpose of this report is to summarize a series of experiments conducted to test the hypothesis that changes in vascular gene expression are signaled by alterations in shear stress resulting from increases in blood flow, muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns. We also report results from a follow-up study of Ankrd23, one gene whose expression was changed by EXT...
November 27, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887893/emotion-modulation-of-the-startle-reflex-in-essential-tremor-blunted-reactivity-to-unpleasant-and-pleasant-pictures
#8
Jacob A Lafo, Ania Mikos, Paul C Mangal, Bonnie M Scott, Erin Trifilio, Michael S Okun, Dawn Bowers
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor is a highly prevalent movement disorder characterized by kinetic tremor and mild cognitive-executive changes. These features are commonly attributed to abnormal cerebellar changes, resulting in disruption of cerebellar-thalamo-cortical networks. Less attention has been paid to alterations in basic emotion processing in essential tremor, despite known cerebellar-limbic interconnectivity. OBJECTIVES: In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a psychophysiologic index of emotional reactivity, the emotion modulated startle reflex, would be muted in individuals with essential tremor relative to controls...
November 17, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884077/from-patient-to-tube-the-importance-of-physiologically-relevant-quantitative-bioanalytical-assays
#9
Scott Summerfield, Matthew Barfield, Neil Spooner, Steve White
Circulating drug concentrations (clinical or preclinical) underly many interactions between industry and regulators; expressing safety coverage, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships or defining bioequivalence and dosing regimens. Accurate and precise measurement of these circulating concentrations is pivotal to the evolution and validation of any bioanalytical method that supports regulatory interactions. Since the bioanalyst is presented with a sub-aliquot of sampled biological matrix, how do they ensure this aliquot reflects the concentration in the subject at the time of collection? Here we share experiences from project support (internal and at CROs) that suggests we need to be ever vigilant translating the needs of bioanalysis with those of project teams...
December 2016: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879348/the-effects-of-migration-and-assortative-mating-on-admixture-linkage-disequilibrium
#10
Noah Zaitlen, Scott Huntsman, Donglei Hu, Melissa Spear, Celeste Eng, Sam S Oh, Marquitta J White, Angel Mak, Adam Davis, Kelly Meade, Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura, Michael A LeNoir, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Esteban G Burchard, Eran Halperin
Statistical models in medical and population genetics typically assume that individuals assort randomly in a population. While this simplifies model complexity, it contradicts an increasing body of evidence of non-random mating in human populations. Specifically, it has been shown that assortative mating is significantly affected by genomic ancestry. In this work we examine the effects of ancestry-assortative mating on the linkage disequilibrium between local ancestry tracks of individuals in an admixed population...
November 22, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872810/the-association-between-intra-and-juxta-cortical-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-by-quantitative-t2-mapping-at-7%C3%A2-t-mri
#11
Céline Louapre, Sindhuja T Govindarajan, Costanza Giannì, Nancy Madigan, A Scott Nielsen, Jacob A Sloane, Revere P Kinkel, Caterina Mainero
Using quantitative T2* at 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated whether impairment in selective cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS) can be explained by pathology in specific areas and/or layers of the cortex. Thirty-one MS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation, acquisition of 7 T multi-echo T2* gradient-echo sequences, and 3 T anatomical images for cortical surfaces reconstruction. Seventeen age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Cortical T2* maps were sampled at various depths throughout the cortex and juxtacortex...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869510/the-effectiveness-of-commercial-desiccants-and-uncooked-rice-in-removing-moisture-from-hearing-aids
#12
Lauri H Nelson, Karl R White, Dirk V Baker, Angela Hayden, Scott Bird
OBJECTIVE: In many low- and middle-income countries, the availability of hearing technology is limited, with few options for hearing aid repairs. Minimising moisture damage to hearing aid electronics improves function and longevity; however, desiccants that absorb moisture from hearing aid components are unavailable in many regions. This study compared the effectiveness of uncooked white rice and seven commercial silica gel desiccants in removing moisture from hearing aids. DESIGN: Relative humidity measurements in a test chamber were obtained from a water-saturated BTE hearing aid prior to and after placement in uncooked white rice and seven different silica gel desiccants...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863843/score2-report-2-study-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#13
Ingrid U Scott, Paul C VanVeldhuisen, Michael S Ip, Barbara A Blodi, Neal L Oden, Maria Figueroa, Pravin U Dugel
PURPOSE: To describe the design and baseline characteristics of participants in the Study of COmparative Treatments for REtinal Vein Occlusion 2 (SCORE2) and to compare with cohorts from other retinal vein occlusion trials. DESIGN: Phase III prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial designed to assess whether intravitreal bevacizumab is noninferior to intravitreal aflibercept for treatment of decreased vision attributable to macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or hemiretinal vein occlusion (HRVO)...
November 15, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859246/neuroticism-and-extraversion-magnify-discrepancies-between-retrospective-and-concurrent
#14
Jennifer C Lay, Denis Gerstorf, Stacey B Scott, Theresa Pauly, Christiane A Hoppmann
OBJECTIVE: Although research often relies on retrospective affect self-reports, little is known about personality's role in retrospective reports and how these converge or deviate from affect reported in the moment. This micro-longitudinal study examines personality (neuroticism, extraversion) and emotional salience (peak, recent affect) associations with retrospective-momentary affect report discrepancies over different timeframes. METHOD: 179 adults aged 20-78 (M = 48...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856364/incidence-and-prevalence-of-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis-in-olmsted-county-minnesota-from-1970-through-2010
#15
Raina Shivashankar, William J Tremaine, W Scott Harmsen, Edward V Loftus
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) continue to increase worldwide. We sought to update incidence rates of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a well-defined United States (US) population, calculating values for Olmsted County, Minnesota through 2010. We also calculated prevalence values. METHODS: The resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project were used to identify county residents who were diagnosed with IBD (CD or UC), based on previously set criteria...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856306/enhanced-formation-of-giant-cells-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-relation-to-granulomatous-disease
#16
Timothy H Scott-Taylor, Karen Whiting, Ruth Pettengell, David A Webster
Peripheral monocytes from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) had on average a 2 fold greater tendency to form giant cells in medium without additional cytokines. Giant cell formation was faster and 3 to 5 fold higher in most CVID cells compared to normal. Addition of IL4, GMCSF, IFNγ, TNFa and both T cell and monocyte conditioned media promoted monocyte fusion of some CVID individuals over 5 fold the normal average level, with combinations of cytokines and monokines acting synergistically...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855324/green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-differentially-induces-apoptosis-in-cll-b-and-t-cells-but-not-in-healthy-b-and-t-cells-in-a-dose-dependant-manner
#17
Scott Cornwall, Gavin Cull, David Joske, Reza Ghassemifar
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is characterized by an accumulation of CD5-positive monoclonal B-cells due in large part to a failure of apoptosis. The ability to study CLL B-cells in vitro has always been a challenge and hampered by the low viability of the CLL B-cells in cell culture systems. In this study, we present a multicellular cell culture system to maintain CLL B-cells viable in culture for 60h in the presence of a stromal cell feeder layer in combination with a whole white blood cell preparation...
November 2, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854507/sex-based-genetic-association-study-identifies-celsr1-as-a-possible-copd-risk-locus-among-women
#18
Megan Hardin, Michael H Cho, Sunita S Sharma, Kimberly Glass, Peter J Castaldi, Merry-Lynn McDonald, Hugues Aschard, Jody Senter-Sylvia, Kelan Tantisira, Scott T Weiss, Craig P Hersh, Jarrett D Morrow, David Lomas, Alvar Agusti, Per Bakke, Amund Gulsvik, George T O'Connor, Josée Dupuis, John Hokanson, James Crapo, Terri H Beaty, Nan Laird, Edwin K Silverman, Dawn L DeMeo
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a complex disease with strong environmental and genetic influences and sexually dimorphic features. Although genetic risk factors for COPD have been identified, much of the heritability remains unexplained. Sex-based genetic association studies may uncover additional COPD genetic risk factors. METHODS: We studied current and former smokers from COPD case-control cohorts (COPDGene non-Hispanic whites and African Americans, ECLIPSE, and GenKOLS)...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854099/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-early-stage-lung-cancer-from-innovation-to-standard-of-care
#19
REVIEW
Abby White, Scott J Swanson
The era of minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer follows decades of research; the collection and interpretation of countless qualitative and quantitative data points; and tireless efforts by a few pioneering thoracic surgeons who believed they could deliver a safe and oncologically sound operation with less tissue trauma, an improved physiologic profile, and fewer complications than traditional open surgery. This review highlights those efforts and the role of minimally invasive surgery for early-stage lung cancer in light of evolving technology, the emerging understanding of the biology of early-stage lung cancer, and lung cancer screening...
November 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846212/quantifying-differences-and-similarities-in-whole-brain-white-matter-architecture-using-local-connectome-fingerprints
#20
Fang-Cheng Yeh, Jean M Vettel, Aarti Singh, Barnabas Poczos, Scott T Grafton, Kirk I Erickson, Wen-Yih I Tseng, Timothy D Verstynen
Quantifying differences or similarities in connectomes has been a challenge due to the immense complexity of global brain networks. Here we introduce a noninvasive method that uses diffusion MRI to characterize whole-brain white matter architecture as a single local connectome fingerprint that allows for a direct comparison between structural connectomes. In four independently acquired data sets with repeated scans (total N = 213), we show that the local connectome fingerprint is highly specific to an individual, allowing for an accurate self-versus-others classification that achieved 100% accuracy across 17,398 identification tests...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
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