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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533562/accelerating-tropicalization-and-the-transformation-of-temperate-seagrass-meadows
#1
Glenn A Hyndes, Kenneth L Heck, Adriana Vergés, Euan S Harvey, Gary A Kendrick, Paul S Lavery, Kathryn McMahon, Robert J Orth, Alan Pearce, Mathew Vanderklift, Thomas Wernberg, Scott Whiting, Shaun Wilson
Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531301/a-political-case-of-penetrating-cranial-trauma-the-injury-of-james-scott-brady
#2
Richard Menger, Piyush Kalakoti, Rimal Hanif, Osama Ahmed, Anil Nanda, Bharat Guthikonda
James Brady, the White House press secretary during President Ronald Reagan's first term in office, was 1 of 4 people (including the President) wounded during an attempted assassination attempt on President Reagan's life on March 30, 1981. John Hinckley, Jr. was found not guilty of this attempt by reason of insanity. The assassination attempt was a ploy by Hinckley, Jr. to impress the actress Jodie Foster. Brady was the most seriously injured of the 4 who were wounded. He suffered a gunshot wound to the left forehead that traveled through the left frontal lobe, corpus callosum, and then into the right frontal and temporal lobes...
May 22, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528115/alcohol-and-other-substance-use-after-bariatric-surgery-prospective-evidence-from-a-u-s-multicenter-cohort-study
#3
Wendy C King, Jia-Yuh Chen, Anita P Courcoulas, Gregory F Dakin, Scott G Engel, David R Flum, Marcelo W Hinojosa, Melissa A Kalarchian, Samer G Mattar, James E Mitchell, Alfons Pomp, Walter J Pories, Kristine J Steffen, Gretchen E White, Bruce M Wolfe, Susan Z Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence suggests Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) increases risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, prospective assessment of substance use disorders (SUD) after bariatric surgery is limited. OBJECTIVE: To report SUD-related outcomes after RYGB and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). To identify factors associated with incident SUD-related outcomes. SETTING: 10 U.S. hospitals METHODS: The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a prospective cohort study...
March 31, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516853/a-gendered-analysis-of-the-shadow-of-sexual-harm-among-a-college-sample
#4
Aimee Petitt, Noelle Linville, Scott York, Carrie L Cook
This study uses survey methodology to examine correlates of fear of crime among men and women to discern the unique impact of risk perception, victimization, vicarious victimization, and fear of sexual harm on fear of crime. Recently, scholars have begun to examine fear separately by gender, which is vital given the unique experiences men and women have with fear and victimization. We examine two different types of fear of crime to determine whether the effects of these correlates differ by crime type across gender...
May 17, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514234/associations-between-physical-pain-pain-management-and-frequency-of-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-among-young-adults-a-sex-specific-analysis
#5
Tristan I Evans, Elliott J Liebling, Traci C Green, Scott E Hadland, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine sex-specific associations between experiences of physical pain, pain management, and frequency of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use among young adults. METHODS: Among participants enrolled in the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study, we identified associations between physical pain in the past 6 months, pain history, pain management, polysubstance use, and weekly NMPO use. In sex-specific models, independent correlates of weekly NMPO use were identified via modified stepwise Poisson regression...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512697/utilization-of-genetic-counseling-after-direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing-findings-from-the-impact-of-personal-genomics-pgen-study
#6
Diane R Koeller, Wendy R Uhlmann, Deanna Alexis Carere, Robert C Green, J Scott Roberts
Direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (DTC-PGT) results lead some individuals to seek genetic counseling (GC), but little is known about these consumers and why they seek GC services. We analyzed survey data pre- and post-PGT from 1026 23andMe and Pathway Genomics customers. Participants were mostly white (91%), female (60%), and of high socioeconomic status (80% college educated, 43% household income of ≥$100,000). After receiving PGT results, 43 participants (4%) made or planned to schedule an appointment with a genetic counselor; 390 (38%) would have used in-person GC had it been available...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507953/influence-of-microbes-on-neutrophil-life-and-death
#7
REVIEW
Scott D Kobayashi, Natalia Malachowa, Frank R DeLeo
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte in humans and they are among the first white cells recruited to infected tissues. These leukocytes are essential for the innate immune response to bacteria and fungi. Inasmuch as neutrophils produce or contain potent microbicides that can be toxic to the host, neutrophil turnover and homeostasis is a highly regulated process that prevents unintended host tissue damage. Indeed, constitutive neutrophil apoptosis and subsequent removal of these cells by mononuclear phagocytes is a primary means by which neutrophil homeostasis is maintained in healthy individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506586/corrigendum-to-airborne-asbestos-exposures-associated-with-gasket-and-packing-replacement-a-simulation-study-of-flange-and-valve-repair-work-and-an-assessment-of-exposure-variables-regul-toxicol-pharmacol-71-1-2014-35-51
#8
Amy K Madl, Kathryn D Devlin, Angela L Perez, Dana M Hollins, Dallas M Cowan, Paul K Scott, Katherine White, Thales J Cheng, John L Henshaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500774/the-transcriptional-landscape-of-seasonal-coat-colour-moult-in-the-snowshoe-hare
#9
Mafalda S Ferreira, Paulo C Alves, Colin M Callahan, João P Marques, L Scott Mills, Jeffrey M Good, José Melo-Ferreira
Seasonal coat colour change is an important adaptation to seasonally changing environments but the evolution of this and other circannual traits remains poorly understood. In this study we use gene expression to understand seasonal coat colour moulting in wild snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). We used hair colour to follow the progression of the moult, simultaneously sampling skin from three moulting stages in hares collected during the peak of the spring moult from white winter to brown summer pelage. Using RNA-sequencing, we tested if patterns of expression were consistent with predictions based on the established phases of the hair growth cycle...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498501/ppar-gamma-agonist-pioglitazone-modifies-craving-intensity-and-brain-white-matter-integrity-in-patients-with-primary-cocaine-use-disorder-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#10
Joy M Schmitz, Charles E Green, Khader M Hasan, Jessica Vincent, Robert Suchting, Michael F Weaver, F Gerard Moeller, Ponnada A Narayana, Kathryn A Cunningham, Kelly T Dineley, Scott D Lane
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance, and tolerability were evaluated. DESIGN: Two-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC). SETTING: Single-site outpatient treatment research clinic in Houston, Texas, USA...
May 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488904/use-of-an-outreach-coordinator-to-reengage-and-retain-patients-with-hiv-in-care
#11
Madelyne C Bean, Linda Scott, J Michael Kilby, Lauren E Richey
It is well established that retention in high-quality care and regular visits with an HIV/AIDS provider improve outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, nationally and regionally in South Carolina, retention rates remain low. We piloted an outreach program focused on characterizing out of care (OOC) patients to identify PLWHA who were lost to care and attempt reengagement through phone call, letter, and home visit interventions. Primary outcomes were reengagement, defined as attendance to a clinic appointment, and retention in care, defined by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) definition (two visits at least 90 days apart in 2015)...
May 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486935/emergency-department-use-and-barriers-to-wellness-a-survey-of-emergency-department-frequent-users
#12
Lauren E Birmingham, Thaddeus Cochran, Jennifer A Frey, Kirk A Stiffler, Scott T Wilber
BACKGROUND: There is no common understanding of how needs of emergency department (ED) frequent users differ from other patients. This study sought to examine how to best serve this population. Examinations of why ED frequent users present to the ED, what barriers to care exist, and what service offerings may help these patients achieve an optimal level of health were conducted. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of frequent ED users in an adult only, level 1 trauma center with approximately 90,000 visits per year...
May 10, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485987/assessing-self-reported-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances-the-impact-of-gate-questions
#13
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Fermín Fernández Calderón, Scott Sherman, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge; however, few surveys of substance use ask about NPS use. Research is needed to determine how to most effectively query use of NPS and other uncommon drugs. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prevalence of self-reported lifetime and past-year use differs depending on whether or not queries about NPS use are preceded by "gate questions." Gate questions utilize skip-logic, such that only a "yes" response to the use of specific drug class is followed by more extensive queries of drug use in that drug class...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484667/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-postpartum-hemorrhage-in-native-hawaiians-pacific-islanders-and-asians
#14
Scott A Harvey, Eunjung Lim, Krupa R Gandhi, Jill Miyamura, Kazuma Nakagawa
The objective of this study was to assess racial-ethnic differences in the prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI), Asians, and Whites. We performed a retrospective study on statewide inpatient data for delivery hospitalizations in Hawai'i between January 1995 and December 2013. A total of 243,693 in-hospital delivery discharges (35.0% NHOPI, 44.0% Asian, and 21.0% White) were studied. Among patients with PPH, there were more NHOPI (37.1%) and Asians (47...
May 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481909/the-thyroid-cancer-policy-model-a-mathematical-simulation-model-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-the-u-s-population
#15
Carrie Lubitz, Ayman Ali, Tiannan Zhan, Curtis Heberle, Craig White, Yasuhiro Ito, Akira Miyauchi, G Scott Gazelle, Chung Yin Kong, Chin Hur
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer affects over ½ million people in the U.S. and the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than any other cancer, while survival has remained largely unchanged. The aim of this research was to develop, calibrate and verify a mathematical disease model to simulate the natural history of papillary thyroid cancer, which will serve as a platform to assess the effectiveness of clinical and cancer control interventions. METHODS: Herein, we modeled the natural pre-clinical course of both benign and malignant thyroid nodules with biologically relevant health states from normal to detected nodule...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481195/prevalence-of-fatty-liver-disease-and-hepatic-iron-overload-in-a-northeastern-german-population-by-using-quantitative-mr-imaging
#16
Jens-Peter Kühn, Peter Meffert, Christian Heske, Marie-Luise Kromrey, Carsten O Schmidt, Birger Mensel, Henry Völzke, Markus M Lerch, Diego Hernando, Julia Mayerle, Scott B Reeder
Purpose To quantify liver fat and liver iron content by measurement of confounder-corrected proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and R2* and to identify clinical associations for fatty liver disease and liver iron overload and their prevalence in a large-scale population-based study. Materials and Methods From 2008 to 2013, 2561 white participants (1336 women; median age, 52 years; 25th and 75th quartiles, 42 and 62 years) were prospectively recruited to the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Complex chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance (MR) examination of the liver was performed, from which PDFF and R2* were assessed...
May 5, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479423/treating-peripheral-artery-disease-in-the-wake-of-rising-costs-and-protracted-length-of-stay
#17
Grace J Wang, Benjamin M Jackson, Paul J Foley, Scott M Damrauer, Venkat Kalapatapu, Michael A Golden, Ronald M Fairman
OBJECTIVE: There has been growing scrutiny in the treatment of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) due to the utilization of resources to manage this complex patient population. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with prolonged length of stay (LOS>7 days) following lower extremity bypass using data from the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) as well as to define the additional costs incurred due to prolonged LOS in our health system. METHODS: Summary statistics were performed of patients undergoing lower extremity bypass from 2010-2015...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476762/white-matter-microstructure-cognition-and-molecular-markers-in-fragile-x-premutation-females
#18
Annie L Shelton, Kim M Cornish, David Godler, Quang Minh Bui, Scott Kolbe, Joanne Fielding
OBJECTIVE: To examine the interrelationships between fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) mRNA and the FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary methylation, white matter microstructure, and executive function, in women with a FMR1 premutation expansion (PM; 55-199 CGG repeats) and controls (CGG < 44). METHODS: Twenty women with PM without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and 20 control women between 22 and 54 years of age completed this study. FMR1 mRNA and methylation levels for 9 CpG sites within the FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary from peripheral blood samples were analyzed...
May 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475134/modeling-geospatial-patterns-of-late-stage-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-in-the-us
#19
Lee R Mobley, Tzy-Mey Kuo, Lia Scott, Yamisha Rutherford, Srimoyee Bose
In the US, about one-third of new breast cancers (BCs) are diagnosed at a late stage, where morbidity and mortality burdens are higher. Health outcomes research has focused on the contribution of measures of social support, particularly the residential isolation or segregation index, on propensity to utilize mammography and rates of late-stage diagnoses. Although inconsistent, studies have used various approaches and shown that residential segregation may play an important role in cancer morbidities and mortality...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474986/ovarian-hormones-age-and-pubertal-development-and-their-association-with-days-of-headache-onset-in-girls-with-migraine-an-observational-cohort-study
#20
Vincent T Martin, Janelle R Allen, Timothy T Houle, Scott W Powers, Marielle A Kabbouche, Hope L O'Brien, Joanne Kacperski, Susan L LeCates, Shannon White, Polly Vaughan, Karen Mandell, Andrew D Hershey
Background Fifty-three percent of adolescent girls report headaches at the onset of menses, suggesting fluctuations of ovarian hormones trigger migraine during puberty. Aims To determine if urinary metabolites of estrogen and progesterone are associated with days of headache onset (HO) or severity in girls with migraine. Methods This was a pilot study and included 34 girls with migraine balanced across three age strata (pre-pubertal (8-11), pubertal (12-15), and post-pubertal (16-17) years of age). They collected daily urine samples and recorded the occurrence and severity of headache in a daily diary...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
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