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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336265/brain-structural-markers-and-caregiving-characteristics-as-interacting-correlates-of-caregiving-strain
#1
Stephen F Smagula, Scott Beach, Andrea L Rosso, Anne B Newman, Richard Schulz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between brain structural markers and caregiving strain among older informal caregivers. DESIGN: A secondary data analysis combining data from the Caregiver Health Effects Study (1993-1994) and the Cardiovascular Health Study MRI examination (1992-1994). SETTING: Four United States communities. PARTICIPANTS: Co-residing spousal caregivers (N = 237; mean age: 76.2 years, SD: 2...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332711/long-term-white-matter-tract-reorganization-following-prolonged-febrile-seizures
#2
Suresh S Pujar, Kiran K Seunarine, Marina M Martinos, Brian G R Neville, Rod C Scott, Richard F M Chin, Chris A Clark
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated acute white matter changes following prolonged febrile seizures (PFS), but their longer-term evolution is unknown. We investigated a population-based cohort to determine white matter diffusion properties 8 years after PFS. METHODS: We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and applied Tract-Based Spatial Statistics for voxel-wise comparison of white matter microstructure between 26 children with PFS and 27 age-matched healthy controls...
March 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330731/diabetes-self-management-education-and-medical-nutrition-therapy-improve-patient-outcomes-a-pilot-study-documenting-the-efficacy-of-registered-dietitian-nutritionist-interventions-through-retrospective-chart-review
#3
Patricia Z Marincic, Amie Hardin, Maria V Salazar, Susan Scott, Shirley X Fan, Philippe R Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) improve patient outcomes; poor reimbursement limits access to care. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop methodology for tracking patient outcomes subsequent to registered dietitian nutritionist interventions, document outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes attending an American Diabetes Association-recognized program, and obtain outcome data to support reimbursement and public policy initiatives to improve patient access to DSME and MNT...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329099/effect-of-sleeping-position-on-upper-airway-patency-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-determined-by-the-pharyngeal-structure-causing-collapse
#4
Melania Marques, Pedro R Genta, Scott A Sands, Ali Azarbazin, Camila de Melo, Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, David P White, Andrew Wellman
Objectives: In some patients, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be resolved with improvement in pharyngeal patency by sleeping lateral rather than supine, possibly as gravitational effects on the tongue are relieved. Here we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in pharyngeal patency depends on the anatomical structure causing collapse, with patients with tongue-related obstruction and epiglottic collapse exhibiting preferential improvements. Methods: Twenty-four OSA patients underwent upper airway endoscopy during natural sleep to determine the pharyngeal structure associated with obstruction, with simultaneous recordings of airflow and pharyngeal pressure...
January 31, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322982/toward-biomarkers-of-the-addicted-human-brain-using-neuroimaging-to-predict-relapse-and-sustained-abstinence-in-substance-use-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Scott J Moeller, Martin P Paulus
The ability to predict relapse is a major goal of drug addiction research. Clinical and diagnostic measures are useful in this regard, but these measures do not fully and consistently identify who will relapse and who will remain abstinent. Neuroimaging approaches have the potential to complement these standard clinical measures to optimize relapse prediction. The goal of this review was to survey the existing drug addiction literature that either used a baseline functional or structural neuroimaging phenotype to longitudinally predict a clinical outcome, or that examined test-retest of a neuroimaging phenotype during a course of abstinence or treatment...
March 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321275/features-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hispanics-differ-from-african-americans-and-non-hispanic-whites
#6
Neeta K Venepalli, Mary V Modayil, Stephanie A Berg, Tad D Nair, Mayur Parepally, Priyanka Rajaram, Ron C Gaba, James T Bui, Yue Huang, Scott J Cotler
AIM: To compare features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Hispanics to those of African Americans and Whites. METHODS: Patients treated for HCC at an urban tertiary medical center from 2005 to 2011 were identified from a tumor registry. Data were collected retrospectively, including demographics, comorbidities, liver disease characteristics, tumor parameters, treatment, and survival (OS) outcomes. OS analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-five patients with HCC were identified: 80...
March 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317149/association-between-variants-in-genes-involved-in-the-immune-response-and-prostate-cancer-risk-in-men-randomized-to-the-finasteride-arm-in-the-prostate-cancer-prevention-trial
#7
Danyelle A Winchester, Cathee Till, Phyllis J Goodman, Catherine M Tangen, Regina M Santella, Teresa L Johnson-Pais, Robin J Leach, Jianfeng Xu, S Lilly Zheng, Ian M Thompson, M Scott Lucia, Scott M Lippman, Howard L Parnes, William B Isaacs, Angelo M De Marzo, Charles G Drake, Elizabeth A Platz
BACKGROUND: We reported that some, but not all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in select immune response genes are associated with prostate cancer, but not individually with the prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) placebo arm. Here, we investigated whether these same SNPs are associated with risk of lower- and higher-grade prostate cancer in men randomized to finasteride, and with prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation among controls...
March 20, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304242/cardiovascular-efficacy-and-safety-of-bococizumab-in-high-risk-patients
#8
Paul M Ridker, James Revkin, Pierre Amarenco, Robert Brunell, Madelyn Curto, Fernando Civeira, Marcus Flather, Robert J Glynn, Jean Gregoire, J Wouter Jukema, Yuri Karpov, John J P Kastelein, Wolfgang Koenig, Alberto Lorenzatti, Pravin Manga, Urszula Masiukiewicz, Michael Miller, Arend Mosterd, Jan Murin, Jose C Nicolau, Steven Nissen, Piotr Ponikowski, Raul D Santos, Pamela F Schwartz, Handrean Soran, Harvey White, R Scott Wright, Michal Vrablik, Carla Yunis, Charles L Shear, Jean-Claude Tardif
Background Bococizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and reduces levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of bococizumab in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods In two parallel, multinational trials with different entry criteria for LDL cholesterol levels, we randomly assigned the 27,438 patients in the combined trials to receive bococizumab (at a dose of 150 mg) subcutaneously every 2 weeks or placebo...
March 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304025/illuminating-cytochrome-p450-binding-ru-ii-caged-inhibitors-of-cyp17a1
#9
Ao Li, Rahul Yadav, Jessica K White, Mackenzie K Herroon, Brian P Callahan, Izabela Podgorski, Claudia Turro, Emily E Scott, Jeremy J Kodanko
New Ru(ii)-caged abiraterone complexes were synthesized that exhibit strong absorption in the visible region and release the steroidal CYP17A1 inhibitor abiraterone upon exposure to low energy visible light in buffer and prostate cancer cells. Photoinduced release results in abiraterone binding to its CYP17A1 target in an inhibitory mode.
March 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302760/-11-c-pbr28-or-18-f-pbr111-detect-white-matter-inflammatory-heterogeneity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Gourab Datta, Alessandro Colasanti, Nicola Kalk, David R Owen, Gregory Scott, Eugenii Ilan A Rabiner, Roger Gunn, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Lei Nie, Marco Battaglini, Nicola De Stefano, Paul Matthews
Objective: To assess microglial activation in lesions and in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: 34 MS patients (7 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), 27 with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS)) and 30 healthy volunteers, genetically stratified for translocator protein (TSPO), binding status underwent PET scanning with TSPO radioligands ((11)C-PBR28 or (18)F-PBR111). Regional TSPO availability was measured as a distribution volume ratio (DVR) relative to the caudate (a pseudo-reference region)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300201/identification-of-a-novel-locus-associated-with-skin-colour-in-african-admixed-populations
#11
Natalia Hernandez-Pacheco, Carlos Flores, Santos Alonso, Celeste Eng, Angel C Y Mak, Scott Hunstman, Donglei Hu, Marquitta J White, Sam S Oh, Kelley Meade, Harold J Farber, Pedro C Avila, Denise Serebrisky, Shannon M Thyne, Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura, William Rodriguez-Cintron, Saunak Sen, Rajesh Kumar, Michael Lenoir, Jose R Rodriguez-Santana, Esteban G Burchard, Maria Pino-Yanes
Skin pigmentation is a complex trait that varies largely among populations. Most genome-wide association studies of this trait have been performed in Europeans and Asians. We aimed to uncover genes influencing skin colour in African-admixed individuals. We performed a genome-wide association study of melanin levels in 285 Hispanic/Latino individuals from Puerto Rico, analyzing 14 million genetic variants. A total of 82 variants with p-value ≤1 × 10(-5) were followed up in 373 African Americans. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms were replicated, of which nine were associated with skin colour at genome-wide significance in a meta-analysis across the two studies...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295120/geometric-analysis-of-the-proximal-humerus-in-elderly-japanese-patients-implications-for-implant-selection-in-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty
#12
Keisuke Matsuki, Hiroyuki Sugaya, Shota Hoshika, Yusuke Ueda, Norimasa Takahashi, Morihito Tokai, Kazutomo Onishi, Scott A Banks
The implants used in reverse shoulder arthroplasty were originally designed for white patients; thus, they might not be optimal for smaller Asian patients. The selection of reverse shoulder arthroplasty systems is limited in Japan. The purpose of this study was to measure the geometry of the proximal humerus in elderly Japanese patients to inform implant selection according to humerus size. This study included 155 shoulders from 148 patients 50 years or older who underwent computed tomography for shoulder disorders other than arthritis and trauma...
March 14, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294462/disruption-of-white-matter-structural-integrity-and-connectivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-tbss-and-tractography-study
#13
Elizabeth A Olson, Jiaolong Cui, Rena Fukunaga, Lisa D Nickerson, Scott L Rauch, Isabelle M Rosso
BACKGROUND: Most studies of brain white matter (WM) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have focused on combat trauma, and often were confounded by neurological and substance dependence comorbidity. This study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography to characterize WM microstructure in a mixed-sex community sample of PTSD patients exposed to diverse and multiple traumas, and in trauma-exposed normal comparison (TENC) subjects. METHODS: TBSS compared diffusion measures between 20 adults with DSM-IV PTSD and 17 TENC, using a whole-brain voxel-wise approach...
March 15, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275700/peripheral-inflammatory-markers-indicate-microstructural-damage-within-periventricular-white-matter-hyperintensities-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-report
#14
Walter Swardfager, Di Yu, Joel Ramirez, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Gregory Szilagyi, Melissa F Holmes, Christopher J M Scott, Gustavo Scola, Pak C Chan, Jialun Chen, Parco Chan, Demetrios J Sahlas, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt, Ana C Andreazza, Jacqueline A Pettersen, Sandra E Black
INTRODUCTION: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) presumed to reflect cerebral small vessel disease and increased peripheral inflammatory markers are found commonly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their interrelationships remain unclear. METHODS: Inflammatory markers were assayed in 54 elderly participants (n = 16 with AD). Periventricular WMH were delineated from T1, T2/proton density, and fluid-attenuated magnetic resonance imaging using semiautomated fuzzy lesion extraction and coregistered with maps of fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of microstructural integrity assessed using diffusion tensor imaging...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267463/early-inpatient-calculation-of-laboratory-based-30-day-readmission-risk-scores-empowers-clinical-risk-modification-during-index-hospitalization
#15
Benjamin D Horne, Deborah Budge, Andrew L Masica, Lucy A Savitz, José Benuzillo, Gabriela Cantu, Alejandra Bradshaw, Raymond O McCubrey, Tami L Bair, Colleen A Roberts, Kismet D Rasmusson, Rami Alharethi, Abdallah G Kfoury, Brent C James, Donald L Lappé
Improving 30-day readmission continues to be problematic for most hospitals. This study reports the creation and validation of sex-specific inpatient (i) heart failure (HF) risk scores using electronic data from the beginning of inpatient care for effective and efficient prediction of 30-day readmission risk. METHODS: HF patients hospitalized at Intermountain Healthcare from 2005 to 2012 (derivation: n=6079; validation: n=2663) and Baylor Scott & White Health (North Region) from 2005 to 2013 (validation: n=5162) were studied...
March 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262413/checkmate-025-randomized-phase-3-study-outcomes-by-key-baseline-factors-and-prior-therapy-for-nivolumab-versus-everolimus-in-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma
#16
Bernard Escudier, Padmanee Sharma, David F McDermott, Saby George, Hans J Hammers, Sandhya Srinivas, Scott S Tykodi, Jeffrey A Sosman, Giuseppe Procopio, Elizabeth R Plimack, Daniel Castellano, Howard Gurney, Frede Donskov, Katriina Peltola, John Wagstaff, Thomas C Gauler, Takeshi Ueda, Huanyu Zhao, Ian M Waxman, Robert J Motzer
BACKGROUND: The randomized, phase 3 CheckMate 025 study of nivolumab (n=410) versus everolimus (n=411) in previously treated adults (75% male; 88% white) with advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) demonstrated significantly improved overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). OBJECTIVE: To investigate which baseline factors were associated with OS and ORR benefit with nivolumab versus everolimus. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Subgroup OS analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier methodology...
March 2, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258378/symptom-domain-groups-of-the-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-tools-independently-predict-hospitalizations-and-re-hospitalizations-in-cirrhosis
#17
Kavish R Patidar, Leroy R Thacker, James B Wade, Melanie B White, Edith A Gavis, Andrew Fagan, Richard K Sterling, Michael Fuchs, Mohammad S Siddiqui, Scott Matherly, Richard T Stravitz, Arun J Sanyal, Puneet Puri, Velimir A Luketic, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) tools can identify health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains that could differentially affect disease progression. Cirrhotics are highly prone to hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations, but the current clinical prognostic models may be insufficient, and thus studying the contribution of individual HRQOL domains could improve prognostication. AIM: Analyze the impact of individual HRQOL PROMIS domains in predicting time to all non-elective hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations in cirrhosis...
March 3, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257548/comparison-of-qtc-and-troponin-levels-in-st-elevation-mis-compared-with-non-st-elevation-mis
#18
Nathan Henrie, Bryan Harvell, Amy A Ernst, Steven J Weiss, Scott Oglesbee, Dusadee Sarangarm, Lorenzo Hernandez
OBJECTIVES: ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions (NSTEMIs) have differences that can be important to differentiate. Our primary hypothesis was that corrected QT (QTc) duration and troponin I levels were higher in STEMIs compared with NSTEMIs. The objective of our study was to compare STEMIs with NSTEMIs for QTc duration and troponin levels. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study of all STEMIs and a random sample of NSTEMIs during a 1-year period...
March 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253224/malignant-mesothelioma-mortality-united-states-1999-2015
#19
Jacek M Mazurek, Girija Syamlal, John M Wood, Scott A Hendricks, Ainsley Weston
Malignant mesothelioma is a neoplasm associated with occupational and environmental inhalation exposure to asbestos* fibers and other elongate mineral particles (EMPs) (1-3). Patients have a median survival of approximately 1 year from the time of diagnosis (1). The latency period from first causative exposure to malignant mesothelioma development typically ranges from 20 to 40 years but can be as long as 71 years (2,3). Hazardous occupational exposures to asbestos fibers and other EMPs have occurred in a variety of industrial operations, including mining and milling, manufacturing, shipbuilding and repair, and construction (3)...
March 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252466/defining-clinical-excellence-in-hospital-medicine-a-qualitative-study
#20
Susrutha Kotwal, Ivonne Peña, Eric Howell, Scott Wright
INTRODUCTION: There are now more than 50,000 hospitalists working in the United States. Limited empiric research has been performed to characterize clinical excellence in hospital medicine. We conducted a qualitative study to discover elements judged to be most pertinent to excellence in clinical care delivered by hospitalists. METHODS: The chiefs of hospital medicine at five hospitals were asked to identify their "clinically best" hospitalists. Data collection, in the form of one-on-one interviews, was directed by an interview guide...
January 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
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