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Social audit

Ryan J Martin, Molly Robinson, Jennifer Cremeens-Matthews, Beth H Chaney, Kristyn Wynn, Joseph G L Lee
While the association between current smoking and alcohol consumption is well known, the relationship between social smoking and alcohol consumption is less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between smoking status and two alcohol consumption measures in a sample of college student bar patrons. The data used in this study was collected in fall 2015. Study participants (N = 415) were college student bar patrons who agreed to complete an interview that assessed smoking status (i...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Jessica Jane Louise Kirkman, Briony Leo, Jamie Christopher Moore
BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse is a major social and public health issue in Australia, with an estimated cost to the community of Aus $30 billion per annum. Until recently, a major barrier in addressing this significant public health issue is the fact that the majority of individuals with alcohol use disorders and alcohol misuse are not receiving treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether alcohol consumption changes are associated with participation in Hello Sunday Morning's blog platform, an online forum discussing experiences in abstaining from alcohol...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Helen Swarbrick, Jacquie Rand
In August 2008, the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney, Australia, commenced a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program to manage the population of approximately 69 free-roaming unowned urban cats on its Kensington campus. The goals of the program included an ongoing audit of cats on campus, stabilization of cat numbers through TNR, and a subsequent reduction in cat numbers over time while maintaining the health of remaining campus cats. Continuation of the TNR program over nine years resulted in a current population, as of September 2017, of 15 cats, all desexed (78% reduction)...
May 17, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Alan K Davis, Brooke J Arterberry, Erin E Bonar, Stephen T Chermack, Frederic C Blow, Rebecca M Cunningham, Maureen A Walton
BACKGROUND: Reducing underage drinking is a public health priority given increased risk for injury and other consequences. Emergency department (ED) visits offer a potential "teachable moment" to initiate interventions among youth engaged in risky drinking. Given mixed findings for alcohol brief interventions (BIs), this paper examined baseline markers of BI response in order to inform future interventions. METHOD: We conducted secondary analyses of data from a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol BI delivered to youth in an ED...
May 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lee Hogarth, Lorna Hardy
RATIONALE: Alcohol dependence is characterised by persistent drinking despite health, social and economic costs. Behavioural economics has proposed two explanations for the persistence of alcohol use despite costs. Dependent individuals may (a) ascribe excessively high value to alcohol, such that costs associated with alcohol are exceeded, and/or (b) they may discount (neglect) the costs associated with alcohol. METHODS: To test these predictions, the current study recruited 127 student drinkers who reported varied alcohol use disorder symptom severity in the Alcohol Use Disorders Inventory Test (AUDIT; mean = 11...
May 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Marion E Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of integrating group Cognitive Remediation Therapy (gCRT) into an eating disorder day program in Auckland, New Zealand. METHOD: A consecutive series of 28 patients took part over an 8-month period in the context of a service audit. Main outcome measures were the Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire (DFlex) and qualitative feedback from patients. RESULTS: Significant shifts in self-report inefficient cognitive style were observed pre/post gCRT with large effect sizes (Cohen's dav ) for both cognitive rigidity and attention to detail outcomes...
May 2, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Christian Samsonsen, Harald Myklebust, Tåle Strindler, Geir Bråthen, Grethe Helde, Eylert Brodtkorb
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol use and seizures in acutely hospitalized patients. We wished to study the extent of the problem as well as the clinical characteristics of people with various forms of alcohol-related seizures, including their drinking pattern. METHOD: After admission, a semi-structured interview took place with 134 consecutive patients (epilepsy 92, single seizures 42). Alcohol use was assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and by the number of alcohol units consumed during 6 days prior to the seizure...
April 13, 2018: Epilepsy Research
V L Kovalenko, E L Kazachkov, A P Nadeev, A E Pasternak, I A Pasternak, M A Karpov, V A Zhukova, T G Chernova, E A Kazachkova, E E Voropaeva, N I Klesova
Perinatal mortality rate is an indicator that characterizes the quality of medical care, as well as the social and economic situation in the region. OBJECTIVE: to audit perinatal losses in large regional centers of the Russian Federation with a population of over 1 million inhabitants, such as Chelyabinsk and Novosibirsk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comprehensive postmortem examination of 309 cases of perinatal losses in 2016 was made, which was supplemented with an assessment of preventability according to the Scandinavian-Baltic classification...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Mariya Mukhtar-Yola, Adekunle Tolulope Otuneye, Amsa Baba Mairami, Yewande Wey, Vincent Nwatah, Lamidi Isah Audu
Background: Ninety percentage of children acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the form of Mother-to-child Transmission (MTCT). In the absence of interventions, transmission rates range from 15% to 45%. This can be reduced to below 5% with effective interventions. The last published national guideline (NG) on prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) was in 2010. Clinical audits are essential in improving the quality of care delivered to patients. Objectives: The study objectives were to determine the rate of MTCT of HIV in exposed infants at a follow-up clinic between 2011 and 2014 and to determine the level of adherence to 2010 NG on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, feeding options, antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis and the use of co-trimoxazole (CTZ)...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Anna Tynan, Lisa Deeth, Debra McKenzie, Carolyn Bourke, Shayne Stenhouse, Jacinta Pitt, Helen Linneman
PROBLEM: Residents of residential aged care facilities are at very high risk of developing complex oral diseases and dental problems. Key barriers exist in delivering oral health services to residential aged care facilities, particularly in regional and rural areas. DESIGN: A quality improvement study incorporating pre- and post chart audits and pre- and post consultation with key stakeholders, including staff and residents, expert opinion on cost estimates and field notes were used...
April 16, 2018: Australian Journal of Rural Health
Mathew Sandakabatu, Titus Nasi, Carol Titiulu, Trevor Duke
While maternal and perinatal mortality auditing has been strongly promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO), there has been very limited promotion or evaluation of child death auditing in low/middle-income settings. In 2017, a standardised child death review process was introduced in the paediatric department of the National Hospital in Honiara, Solomon Islands. We evaluated the process and outcomes of child death reviews. The child death auditing process was assessed through systematic observations made at each of the weekly meetings using the following standards for evaluation: (1) adapted WHO tools for paediatric auditing; (2) the five stages of the audit cycle; (3) published principles of paediatric audit; and (4) WHO and Solomon Islands national clinical standards of Hospital Care for Children...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Anna K Porter, Fang Wen, Amy H Herring, Daniel A Rodríguez, Lynne C Messer, Barbara A Laraia, Kelly R Evenson
Reliable and stable environmental audit instruments are needed to successfully identify the physical and social attributes that may influence physical activity. This study described the reliability and stability of the PIN3 environmental audit instrument in both urban and rural neighborhoods. Four randomly sampled road segments in and around a one-quarter mile buffer of participants' residences from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN3) study were rated twice, approximately 2 weeks apart. One year later, 253 of the year 1 sampled roads were re-audited...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Frank Iorfino, Daniel F Hermens, Shane Pm Cross, Natalia Zmicerevska, Alissa Nichles, Caro-Anne Badcock, Josine Groot, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders typically emerge during adolescence and young adulthood and put young people at risk for prolonged socioeconomic difficulties. This study describes the longitudinal course of social and occupational functioning of young people attending primary care-based, early intervention services. DESIGN: A longitudinal study of young people receiving mental healthcare. SETTING: Data were collected between January 2005 and August 2017 from a designated primary care-based mental health service...
March 27, 2018: BMJ Open
Casper J P Zhang, Anthony Barnett, Cindy H P Sit, Poh-Chin Lai, Janice M Johnston, Ruby S Y Lee, Ester Cerin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the associations between objectively assessed neighbourhood environmental attributes and depressive symptoms in Hong Kong Chinese older adults and the moderating effects of neighbourhood environmental attributes on the associations between living arrangements and depressive symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: 909 Hong Kong Chinese community dwellers aged 65+ years residing in preselected areas stratified by walkability and socioeconomic status...
March 25, 2018: BMJ Open
Riham Dessouky, Yin Xi, Kelly M Scott, Mohammed Khaleel, Kevin Gill, Stephanie Jones, Dalia N Khalifa, Hazim I Tantawy, Magdy A Aidaros, Avneesh Chhabra
BACKGROUND: / purpose: Low back and pelvic pain are among the most prevalent conditions worldwide, with major social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Magnetic Resonance Neurography (MRN) of lumbosacral plexus in the management and outcomes of these chronic pain patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic lumbosacral and pelvic pain referred for MRN over a year were included. Pre-and post-imaging clinical diagnosis and treatment, pain levels and location were recorded...
March 23, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Victor O Lasebikan, Olatunde Ayinde, Mayokun Odunleye, Babajide Adeyefa, Samson Adepoju, Shina Fakunle
BACKGROUND: There is a rapid shift in the social context of drinking, with a large proportion of regular drinkers favouring outdoor-open space drinking, such as motor-parks, by the road sides, the majority of which are unlicensed premises for drinking. METHOD: This study determined the prevalence and determinants of harmful or hazardous alcohol use and possible dependence, defined as a "likely alcohol use disorder" (AUD) in a community sample of 1119 patrons of open space drinking places in Ibadan, Nigeria, using the AUDIT...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Claire Nollett, Catrin Lewis, Neil Kitchiner, Neil Roberts, Katy Addison, Lucy Brookes-Howell, Sarah Cosgrove, Katherine Cullen, Anke Ehlers, Sarah Heke, Mark Kelson, Karina Lovell, Kim Madden, Kirsten McEwan, Rachel McNamara, Ceri Phillips, Timothy Pickles, Natalie Simon, Jonathan Bisson
BACKGROUND: There is good evidence that trauma-focused therapies for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder are effective. However, they are not always feasible to deliver due a shortage of trained therapists and demands on the patient. An online trauma-focused Guided Self-Help (GSH) programme which could overcome these barriers has shown promise in a pilot study. This study will be the first to evaluate GSH against standard face-to-face therapy to assess its suitability for use in the NHS. METHODS: The study is a large-scale multi-centre pragmatic randomised controlled non-inferiority trial, with assessors masked to treatment allocation...
March 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Penny Dodds, Katharine Martyn, Mary Brown
This work was part of a National Institute for Health Research participatory action research and practice development study, which focused on the use of a therapeutic, robotic baby seal (PARO, for personal assistive robot) in everyday practice in a single-site dementia unit in Sussex. From the beginning of January 2017 until the end of September 2017, the cleaning and cleanliness of PARO was monitored through a service audit process that focused on the cleaning, amount of use and testing of contamination of PARO being used in everyday clinical practice with individuals and in group sessions...
March 23, 2018: Nursing Older People
Alan Glasper
A lack of investment in adult social care has led to major staffing problems in care homes, according to a new report from the National Audit Office, as Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, University of Southampton, explains.
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Jonathan K Noel, Thomas F Babor, James J Grady
Aims: The current study was conducted to investigate how changes in the content of a social media ad, user engagement values associated with the ad and user-generated comments (UGCs) associated with the ad can influence the appeal (i.e. source appeal, informational appeal and emotional appeal) of a social media ad. Short summary: Facebook beer ads that violated the guidelines of a relevant marketing code were rated as more emotionally appealing compared to Facebook beer ads that did not violated the guidelines...
March 15, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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