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Social responsibility

Magdalena Ewa Król
We investigated the effect of auditory noise added to speech on patterns of looking at faces in 40 toddlers. We hypothesised that noise would increase the difficulty of processing speech, making children allocate more attention to the mouth of the speaker to gain visual speech cues from mouth movements. We also hypothesised that this shift would cause a decrease in fixation time to the eyes, potentially decreasing the ability to monitor gaze. We found that adding noise increased the number of fixations to the mouth area, at the price of a decreased number of fixations to the eyes...
2018: PloS One
Peng Bao, Hua-Wei Shen, Junming Huang, Haiqiang Chen
Micro-blogging systems have become one of the most important ways for information sharing. Network structure and users' interactions such as forwarding behaviors have aroused considerable research attention, while mention, as a key feature in micro-blogging platforms which can improve the visibility of a message and direct it to a particular user beyond the underlying social structure, is seldom studied in previous works. In this paper, we empirically study the mention effect in information diffusion, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website...
2018: PloS One
Rozalynd P McConnaughy, Steven P Wilson
The goal of this content analysis was to identify commonly used content and design features of academic health sciences library home pages. After developing a checklist, data were collected from 135 academic health sciences library home pages. The core components of these library home pages included a contact phone number, a contact email address, an Ask-a-Librarian feature, the physical address listed, a feedback/suggestions link, subject guides, a discovery tool or database-specific search box, multimedia, social media, a site search option, a responsive web design, and a copyright year or update date...
April 2018: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
Kyungeun Jang, Young Min Baek
Public health officials (PHOs) are responsible for providing trustworthy information during a public health crisis; however, there is little research on how the public behaves when their expectations for such information are violated. Drawing on media dependency theory and source credibility research as our primary theoretical framework, we tested how credibility of information from PHOs is associated with people's reliance on a particular communication channel in the context of the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
Jun Yin, Man Chen, Xiaoting Wang, Xiaowei Ding
The chasing action, in which an actor chases a target, is a fundamental activity for the evolutionary shaping of social abilities. Where previous research has emphasized the chaser's role, the current study explored whether the fleeing responsivity of a chased target influences the cognitive representation of the chasing action. We investigated this with a change-detection task, in which a set of chasing actions, either exhibiting or not exhibiting fleeing behavior, were memorized in sequence, and it was tested whether a memorized action reappeared after altering an object's appearance...
March 19, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
M Alice Shillingsburg, Sarah E Frampton, Sarah C Wymer, Brittany Bartlett
We used procedures established within the mands for information literature to teach two children with autism to mand for social information. Establishing operation trials were alternated with abolishing operation trials to verify the function of the responses as mands. Use of the acquired information was evaluated by examining responding to questions about their social partner. Both participants acquired mands for social information and showed generalization to novel social partners.
March 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Colin F Funaro, Katalin Böröczky, Edward L Vargo, Coby Schal
Chemical communication is fundamental to success in social insect colonies. Species-, colony-, and caste-specific blends of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and other chemicals have been well documented as pheromones, mediating important behavioral and physiological aspects of social insects. More specifically, royal pheromones used by queens (and kings in termites) enable workers to recognize and care for these vital individuals and maintain the reproductive division of labor. In termites, however, no royal-recognition pheromones have been identified to date...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lengshi Dai, Virginia Best, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham
Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss often have trouble understanding speech amid other voices. While poor spatial hearing is often implicated, direct evidence is weak; moreover, studies suggest that reduced audibility and degraded spectrotemporal coding may explain such problems. We hypothesized that poor spatial acuity leads to difficulty deploying selective attention, which normally filters out distracting sounds. In listeners with normal hearing, selective attention causes changes in the neural responses evoked by competing sounds, which can be used to quantify the effectiveness of attentional control...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tanja Jene, Nils C Gassen, Verena Opitz, Kristina Endres, Marianne B Müller, Michael A van der Kooij
Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to an acute stressor may provide novel insights into successful stress-coping strategies. Acute behavioral stress-effects may be restricted to a specific time window early after stress-induction. However, existing behavioral test batteries typically span multiple days or even weeks, limiting the feasibility for a broad behavioral analysis following acute stress. Here, we designed a novel comprehensive behavioral test battery in male mice that assesses multiple behavioral dimensions within a sufficiently brief time window to capture acute stress-effects and its temporal profile...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Xiaodong Li, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Azusa Kamikouchi
In birds and higher mammals, auditory experience during development is critical to discriminate sound patterns in adulthood. However, the neural and molecular nature of this acquired ability remains elusive. In fruit flies, acoustic perception has been thought to be innate. Here we report, surprisingly, that auditory experience of a species-specific courtship song in developing Drosophila shapes adult song perception and resultant sexual behavior. Preferences in the song-response behaviors of both males and females were tuned by social acoustic exposure during development...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Adanna Uloaku Nwameme, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Philip Baba Adongo
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jing Tian, Jiangping Xue, Xiaojuan Hu, Qinghua Han, Yanbo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Due to a lack of an appropriate disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument for chronic heart failure including its social support and treatment aspects in China, this study was performed to develop a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for patients with chronic heart failure and evaluate its reliability, validity, and feasibility. METHODS: According to the standard PROM guidelines established by the Food and Drug Administration, an item pool was formed by reviewing a large amount of relevant literature and interviewing patients with chronic heart failure about their main symptoms...
March 20, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Chu-Chu Qi, Qing-Jun Wang, Xue-Zhu Ma, Hai-Chao Chen, Li-Ping Gao, Jie Yin, Yu-Hong Jing
BACKGROUND: Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process...
March 19, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Dorit Kliemann, Hilary Richardson, Stefano Anzellotti, Dima Ayyash, Amanda J Haskins, John D E Gabrieli, Rebecca R Saxe
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) report difficulties extracting meaningful information from dynamic and complex social cues, like facial expressions. The nature and mechanisms of these difficulties remain unclear. Here we tested whether that difficulty can be traced to the pattern of activity in "social brain" regions, when viewing dynamic facial expressions. In two studies, adult participants (male and female) watched brief videos of a range of positive and negative facial expressions, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (Study 1: ASD n = 16, control n = 21; Study 2: ASD n = 22, control n = 30)...
February 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Laura Puhakka, Maija Lappalainen, Tuula Lönnqvist, Riina Niemensivu, Päivi Lindahl, Tea Nieminen, Raija Seuri, Irmeli Nupponen, Sunil Pati, Suresh Boppana, Harri Saxen
Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection and causes significant morbidity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of screening newborns for cCMV and to understand the cCMV disease burden in Finland. Methods: Infants born in Helsinki area hospitals were screened for CMV by testing their saliva with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The CMV-positive infants and matched controls were monitored to determine their neurodevelopmental, audiological, and ophthalmological outcomes at 18 months of age...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
L A Shafer, J R Walker, T Chhibba, M Ivekovic, H Singh, L E Targownik, L Peyrin-Biroulet, C Gower-Rousseau, H Sarter, C N Bernstein
Introduction: A new clinician-administered inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Disability Index (IBDDI) was recently developed and validated among a population in France. We aimed to validate the IBDDI in a North American setting and adapt for use as a self-report tool. Methods: Persons 18-65 years old from the population-based University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry were mailed a self-administered survey. This survey included the IBDDI and several scales that should correlate with a disability measure- the World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS) 2...
March 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Amy E Kalkbrenner, Gayle C Windham, Cheng Zheng, Rob McConnell, Nora L Lee, James J Schauer, Brian Thayer, Juhi Pandey, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported associations of perinatal exposure to air toxics, including some metals and volatile organic compounds, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to further explore associations of perinatal air toxics with ASD and associated quantitative traits in high-risk multiplex families. METHODS: We included participants of a U.S. family-based study [the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE)] who were born between 1994 and 2007 and had address information...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Marwan Diab, Yasser Abu Jamei, Ashraf Kagee, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health issues. METHODS: The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad public health spectrum of Gazan society...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Abeer A Nasir, Razan Salah, Abla Sayyed Ahmad, Samah Abu Hijleh, Sa'eed Abu Kattab, Alia Al Kurd, Rawan Al Sharif, Raed Amro, Ahmad Khatib, Hana' Mousa, Walaa Shamasnah, Khammisa Shqerat, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Hamm is an Arabic word that is used to express suffering. Idioms of distress are communicated differently in different contexts and cultures. Understanding idioms of distress and symptoms can help in diagnosis and lead to socioculturally sensitive health care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we did semi-structured interviews with men and women of all age groups. Questions focused on the definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm. Responses were analysed by reading and re-reading interview transcripts until themes and subthemes emerged...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Bo J A Haglund, Per Tillgren
Based on the storytelling tradition and analyses of conference material, this article provides an overview of the evolving Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) and its conferences over the last 20 years. The story goes from the planning of the first conference in Bergen, Norway, back in 1996 to the eighth conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, in 2016. There have been three phases of development. During the first phase, 1996-2007, the five first conferences were initiated and implemented by departments of public health in the Nordic countries...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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