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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341883/title-brain-region-specific-molecular-responses-to-maternal-separation-and-social-defeat-stress-in-mice
#1
Benjamin D Sachs, Ha L Tran, Emily Folse, Marc G Caron
The association between stress and mental illness has been well documented, but the molecular consequences of repeated exposure to stress have not been completely identified. The present study sought to elucidate the combinatorial effects of early life maternal separation stress and adult social defeat stress on alterations in signal transduction and gene expression that have been previously implicated in susceptibility to psychosocial stress. Molecular analyses were performed in the prelimbic/infralimbic cortex, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, three brain regions that have been suggested to play critical roles in determining stress responses...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341236/induced-earthquakes-from-long-term-gas-extraction-in-groningen-the-netherlands-statistical-analysis-and-prognosis-for-acceptable-risk-regulation
#2
Charles Vlek
Recently, growing earthquake activity in the northeastern Netherlands has aroused considerable concern among the 600,000 provincial inhabitants. There, at 3 km deep, the rich Groningen gas field extends over 900 km2 and still contains about 600 of the original 2,800 billion cubic meters (bcm). Particularly after 2001, earthquakes have increased in number, magnitude (M, on the logarithmic Richter scale), and damage to numerous buildings. The man-made nature of extraction-induced earthquakes challenges static notions of risk, complicates formal risk assessment, and questions familiar conceptions of acceptable risk...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340284/optical-imaging-during-toddlerhood-brain-responses-during-naturalistic-social-interactions
#3
Yoko Hakuno, Laura Pirazzoli, Anna Blasi, Mark H Johnson, Sarah Lloyd-Fox
Despite the importance of our ability to interact and communicate with others, the early development of the social brain network remains poorly understood. We examined brain activity in 12- to 14-month-old infants while they were interacting live with an adult in two different naturalistic social scenarios (i.e., reading a picture book versus singing nursery rhymes with gestures), as compared to baseline (i.e., showing infants a toy without eye contact or speech). We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) recorded over the right temporal lobe of infants to assess the role of the superior temporal sulcus-temporoparietal junction (STS-TPJ) region during naturalistic social interactions...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339805/first-description-of-behavior-and-immune-system-relationship-in-fish
#4
Karina Kirsten, Débora Fior, Luiz Carlos Kreutz, Leonardo José Gil Barcellos
Considering the intriguing relationship between immune system and behavior recently described in mammals, and the lack of information of this relationship in fish, here we describe for the first time the interaction between the immune system and social and exploratory behavior in zebrafish. Fish high responders to novelty (HRN) presented a proinflammatory profile, with increased IL-1β and reduced IL-10 expression compared to fish low responders to novelty (LRN). Likewise, fish less responsive to social stimuli have a reduced expression of INF-γ...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339511/the-role-of-obesity-in-exceptionally-slow-us-mortality-improvement
#5
Samuel H Preston, Yana C Vierboom, Andrew Stokes
Recent studies have described a reduction in the rate of improvement in American mortality. The pace of improvement is also slow by international standards. This paper attempts to identify the extent to which rising body mass index (BMI) is responsible for reductions in the rate of mortality improvement in the United States. The data for this study were obtained from subsequent cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994; NHANES continuous, 1999-2010) and from the NHANES linked mortality files, which include follow-up into death records through December 2011...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339091/an-energetic-view-of-stress-focus-on-mitochondria
#6
REVIEW
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen, Elissa Epel, Carmen Sandi
Energy is required to sustain life and enable stress adaptation. At the cellular level, energy is largely derived from mitochondria - unique multifunctional organelles with their own genome. Four main elements connect mitochondria to stress: 1) Energy is required at the molecular, (epi)genetic, cellular, organ, and systemic levels to sustain components of stress responses; 2) Glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones are produced and metabolized by mitochondria; 3) Reciprocally, mitochondria functionally respond to neuroendocrine and metabolic stress mediators; and 4) Experimentally manipulating mitochondrial functions alters physiological and behavioral responses to psychological stress...
January 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338922/alcohol-consumption-masculinity-and-alcohol-related-violence-and-anti-social-behaviour-in-sportspeople
#7
Kerry S O'Brien, Walter Forrest, Iain Greenlees, Daniel Rhind, Sophia Jowett, Ilana Pinsky, Albert Espelt, Marina Bosque-Prous, Anders Larrabee Sonderlund, Matteo Vergani, Muhammad Iqbal
OBJECTIVES: There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338804/public-health-response-to-a-measles-outbreak-on-a-university-campus-in-australia-2015
#8
J Smith, S Banu, M Young, D Francis, K Langfeldt, K Jarvinen
This report describes the effective public health response to a measles outbreak involving a university campus in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven cases in total were notified, mostly university students. The public health response included targeted measles vaccination clinics which were established on campus and focused on student groups most likely to have been exposed. The size of the university population, social interaction between students on and off campus, as well as limited vaccination records for the university community presented challenges for the control of this extremely infectious illness...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338719/preventing-malaria-in-the-peruvian-amazon-a-qualitative-study-in-iquitos-peru
#9
Ian Newell, Connie Wiskin, James Anthoney, Graciela Meza, Gilles de Wildt
BACKGROUND: In Peru, despite decades of concerted control efforts, malaria remains a significant public health burden. Peru has recently exhibited a dramatic rise in malaria incidence, impeding South America's progress towards malaria elimination. The Amazon basin, in particular the Loreto region of Peru, has been identified as a target for the implementation of intensified control strategies, aiming for elimination. No research has addressed why vector control strategies in Loreto have had limited impact in the past, despite vector control elsewhere being highly effective in reducing malaria transmission...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338708/patterns-of-illness-disclosure-among-indian-slum-dwellers-a-qualitative-study
#10
Moumita Das, Federica Angeli, Anja J S M Krumeich, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Slum dwellers display specific traits when it comes to disclosing their illnesses to professionals. The resulting actions lead to poor health-seeking behaviour and underutilisation of existing formal health facilities. The ways that slum people use to communicate their feelings about illness, the type of confidants that they choose, and the supportive and unsupportive social and cultural interactions to which they are exposed have not yet been studied in the Indian context, which constitutes an important knowledge gap for Indian policymakers and practitioners alike...
January 16, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338670/vitamin-a-and-vitamin-d-deficiencies-exacerbate-symptoms-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Min Guo, Jiang Zhu, Ting Yang, Xi Lai, Yuxi Lei, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) levels in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to determine whether co-deficiency of VA and VD exacerbates clinical symptoms in autistic children. METHODS: The Autism Behavior Checklist, Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were used to assess the symptoms of 332 children diagnosed as ASD. And the Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS) was used to evaluate neurodevelopment in children with ASD...
January 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338556/hong-kong-liberals-are-weird-analytic-thought-increases-support-for-liberal-policies
#12
Thomas Talhelm
This study tests whether liberals and conservatives within the same society think as if they were from different cultures. I tested this by measuring the cultural thought style of social liberals and conservatives in Hong Kong (Study 1). Liberals tended to think more analytically (more "WEIRD"), and conservatives tended to think more holistically (more common in East Asia). In Study 2, I trained people to think analytically or holistically before they read articles on political issues. Analytic thought caused people to form more liberal opinions, and holistic thought caused people to form more conservative opinions...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337582/perceiving-groups-the-people-perception-of-diversity-and-hierarchy
#13
L Taylor Phillips, Michael L Slepian, Brent L Hughes
The visual perception of individuals has received considerable attention (visual person perception), but little social psychological work has examined the processes underlying the visual perception of groups of people (visual people perception). Ensemble-coding is a visual mechanism that automatically extracts summary statistics (e.g., average size) of lower-level sets of stimuli (e.g., geometric figures), and also extends to the visual perception of groups of faces. Here, we consider whether ensemble-coding supports people perception, allowing individuals to form rapid, accurate impressions about groups of people...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337350/alterations-in-mglu5-receptor-expression-and-function-in-the-striatum-in-a-rat-depression-model
#14
Li-Min Mao, John Q Wang
Major depressive disorder is a common form of mental illness. Many brain regions are implicated in the pathophysiology and symptomatology of depression. Among key brain areas is the striatum that controls reward and mood and is involved in the development of core depression-like behavior in animal models of depression. While molecular mechanisms in this region underlying depression-related behavior are poorly understood, the glutamatergic input to the striatum is believed to play a role. In this study, we investigated changes in metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor expression and signaling in the striatum of adult rats in response to prolonged (10-12 weeks) social isolation, a pre-validated animal paradigm modeling depression in adulthood...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337001/antidepressant-treatment-duration-in-pediatric-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-how-long-is-long-enough
#15
Elizabeth E Hathaway, John T Walkup, Jeffrey R Strawn
Anxiety and depressive disorders are common in the pediatric primary care setting, and respond to both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment. However, there are limited data regarding the optimal treatment duration. This article systematically reviews guidelines and clinical trial data related to antidepressant treatment duration in pediatric patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The extant literature suggests 9-12 months of antidepressant treatment for youth with major depressive disorder...
January 11, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336918/current-prevention-and-control-of-health-care-associated-infections-in-long-term-care-facilities-for-the-elderly-in-japan
#16
Naoko Kariya, Naomi Sakon, Jun Komano, Kazunori Tomono, Hiroyasu Iso
Residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly are vulnerable to health care-associated infections. However, compared to medical institutions, long-term care facilities for the elderly lag behind in health care-associated infection control and prevention. We conducted a epidemiologic study to clarify the current status of infection control in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Japan. A questionnaire survey on the aspects of infection prevention and control was developed according to SHEA/APIC guidelines and was distributed to 617 long-term care facilities for the elderly in the province of Osaka during November 2016 and January 2017...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336684/a-systematic-search-and-review-of-adult-targeted-overweight-and-obesity-prevention-mass-media-campaigns-and-their-evaluation-2000-2017
#17
James Kite, Anne Grunseit, Erika Bohn-Goldbaum, Bill Bellew, Tom Carroll, Adrian Bauman
Mass media campaigns are a commonly used strategy in public health. However, no review has assessed whether the design and evaluation of overweight and obesity campaigns meets best practice recommendations. This study aimed to fill this gap. We systematically searched five databases for peer-reviewed articles describing adult-targeted obesity mass media campaigns published between 2000 and 2017, complemented by reference list searches and contact with authors and agencies responsible for the campaigns. We extracted data on campaign design, implementation, and evaluation from eligible publications and conducted a qualitative review of 29 publications reporting on 14 campaigns...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336345/-the-role-of-social-media-in-academic-training-in-urology-adequate-use
#18
Juan Gómez Rivas, Leonardo Tortolero Blanco, Moises Rodríguez Socarras, Miguel García Sanz, Diego M Carrión, Zhamshid Okhunov, Domenico Veneziano
Social media is characterized because all its services are participative. Users of 2.0 technologies can interact easily and openly with other people, share resources and communicate immediately and simultaneously. Research improves from participatory technologies by allowing groups to share reflections, methodologies, resources and results.The social media platform with greater diffusion and use in urology is possibly Twitter because it allows to realize what is known like "microblogging", the users generate comments and brief messages through the creation of "tweets"...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335771/risk-perception-of-heat-waves-and-its-spatial-variation-in-nanjing-china
#19
Lei Huang, Qianqi Yang, Jie Li, Jin Chen, Ruoying He, Can Zhang, Kai Chen, Steven Guanpeng Dong, Yang Liu
The intensity, frequency, and duration of heat waves are expected to increase with climate change. In this study, we found a significant difference of public perceived effects of heat waves and trust in government among urban, suburban, and rural districts. Rural residents had a significant higher effect perception than urbanites and also showed stronger willingness to have medical insurance or regular physical examinations. Meanwhile, suburban residents had the lowest trust perception in government among these three districts, which may be due to suburban districts' unique social structure and complex social issues...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335239/comparing-diet-and-exercise-monitoring-using-smartphone-app-and-paper-diary-a-two-phase-intervention-study
#20
Florence Jimoh, Elizabeth K Lund, Linda J Harvey, Catherine Frost, W James Lay, Mark A Roe, Rachel Berry, Paul M Finglas
BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that personalized approaches may be more effective in helping people establish healthier eating patterns and exercise more, and that this approach may be particularly effective in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of a smartphone app (FoodWiz2) in supporting healthy lifestyle choices in adolescence. METHODS: Participants (N=34: 11 male, 23 female) aged 16-19 years in full- or part-time education were recruited from sixth form colleges, schools, and other further education establishments in Norfolk and Suffolk, United Kingdom, between February and May 2015...
January 15, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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