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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324812/the-effects-of-ovarian-biopsy-and-blood-sampling-methods-on-salivary-cortisol-and-behaviour-in-sows
#1
Jinhyeon Yun, Stefan Björkman, Merja Pöytäkangas, Olli Peltoniemi
In reproductive physiology research, experimental animals are often subjected to stressful procedures, including blood sampling and biopsy. In this present study, presence of pain or distress induced by four different procedures was examined using a measurement of salivary cortisol levels and activity observations in sows. The treatments were: 1) PAL: The ovary was palpated through the rectum without snaring, 2) TUB: transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary was conducted without snaring, 3) SNA: a soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, 4) CAT: A soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, and an intravenous catheter was inserted through the ear vein of the sows...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324701/stress-reactivity-and-its-effects-on-subsequent-food-intake-in-depressed-and-healthy-women-with-and-without-adverse-childhood-experiences
#2
Katja Wingenfeld, Linn K Kuehl, Anita Boeker, Katharina Schultebraucks, Kristin Ritter, Julian Hellmann-Regen, Christian Otte, Carsten Spitzer
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity or metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In addition, ACE may be associated with an exaggerated endocrine response to stress, which, in turn, may lead to enhanced food intake resulting in obesity and metabolic problems. METHODS: We systematically examined the stress response and consecutive food intake in 32 women with MDD and ACE as determined by a clinical interview (Early Trauma Inventory), 52 women with MDD without ACE, 22 women with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD and 37 healthy women without either MDD or ACE...
March 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324700/attachment-predicts-cortisol-response-and-closeness-in-dyadic-social-interaction
#3
Sarah Ketay, Lindsey A Beck
The present study examined how the interplay of partners' attachment styles influences cortisol response, actual closeness, and desired closeness during friendship initiation. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at four timepoints throughout either a high or low closeness task that facilitated high or low levels of self-disclosure with a potential friend (i.e., another same-sex participant). Levels of actual closeness and desired closeness following the task were measured via inclusion of other in the self...
March 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324699/low-vigorous-physical-activity-is-associated-with-increased-adrenocortical-reactivity-to-psychosocial-stress-in-students-with-high-stress-perceptions
#4
Markus Gerber, Sebastian Ludyga, Manuel Mücke, Flora Colledge, Serge Brand, Uwe Pühse
OBJECTIVES: The pathways by which physical activity impacts on participants' health are still not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to go beyond existing research by combining methods from survey-based and experimental stress research, and by examining whether the potential of vigorous physical activity (VPA) to attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses is moderated by participants' subjective stress perception. METHODS: The sample consisted of 42 undergraduate students (M=21...
March 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323604/why-it-s-unjust-to-expect-location-specific-language-specific-or-population-specific-service-from-students-with-underrepresented-minority-or-low-income-backgrounds
#5
Barret Michalec, Maria Athina Tina Martimianakis, Jon C Tilburt, Frederic W Hafferty
In this case we meet Amanda, a medical student of Native and Latin American ethnicity who receives financial aid. Her friends are surprised by her interest in an elite residency program. They suggest, rather, that with her language skills, ethnic background, and interest in social justice, she has a responsibility to work with underserved patient populations. In our commentary, we consider issues raised by the case and explore Amanda's friends' underlying expectations and assumptions that perpetuate the very inequities that the resolution of the case purports to address...
March 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323553/examining-pediatric-care-for-newly-immigrated-families-perspectives-of-health-care-providers
#6
David Nicholas, Bonnie Fleming-Carroll, Michele Durrant, Jonathan Hellmann
Respect for the ethnicity and cultural background of families are important components of health care delivery. However, the needs of new immigrants in pediatric care systems remain under-addressed in the literature. This study utilized a qualitative approach of interpretive description to elicit the pediatric health care experiences and needs of new immigrants to Canada, from the perspective of health care providers who worked extensively with newcomers. Two focus groups of multidisciplinary health care providers were conducted in a tertiary-level pediatric hospital...
March 21, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323469/social-and-built-environmental-correlates-of-predicted-blood-lead-levels-in-the-flint-water-crisis
#7
Richard Casey Sadler, Jenny LaChance, Mona Hanna-Attisha
OBJECTIVES: To highlight contextual factors tied to increased blood lead level (BLL) risk following the lead-in-water contamination in Flint, Michigan. METHODS: Using geocoded BLL data collected in 2013 and 2015 and areal interpolation, we predicted BLLs at every residential parcel in the city. We then spatially joined social and built environmental variables to link the parcels with neighborhood-level factors that may influence BLLs. RESULTS: When we compared levels before and during the water crisis, we saw the highest estimates of predicted BLLs during the water crisis and the greatest changes in BLLs in neighborhoods with the longest water residence time in pipes (μ = 2...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320146/stroke-related-stigma-among-west-africans-patterns-and-predictors
#8
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Michelle Nichols, Suparna Qanungo, Abeba Teklehaimanot, Arti Singh, Nathaniel Mensah, Raelle Saulson, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Uvere Ezinne, Mayowa Owolabi, Carolyn Jenkins, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: Disability-adjusted life-years lost after stroke in Low & Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is almost seven times those lost in High-income countries. Although individuals living with chronic neurological and mental disorders are prone to stigma, there is a striking paucity of literature on stroke-related stigma particularly from LMICs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, severity, determinants and psycho-social consequences of stigma among LMIC stroke survivors...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320117/use-of-social-media-to-assess-the-effectiveness-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-dravet-syndrome-a-caregiver-s-perspective
#9
Rushna Ali, Mona Elsayed, Manpreet Kaur, Ellen Air, Naznin Mahmood, Jules Constantinou, Jason Schwalb
BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare genetic epilepsy syndrome which is particularly pharmacoresistant. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is commonly used in the treatment of DS as an adjunct to medical therapy. A meaningful assessment of post-surgical outcomes with VNS is difficult given the rarity of the condition. OBJECTIVE: In a novel approach, we used social media to contact patients with DS to gather data on post-surgical seizure reduction and overall satisfaction with VNS...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319688/attenuated-dhea-and-dhea-s-response-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-individuals-with-depressive-disorders
#10
Xiaoling Jiang, Wen Zhong, Haiyan An, Mingyu Fu, Yuanyuan Chen, Zhenggang Zhang, Zhongju Xiao
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a relationship between depression and basal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels has frequently been suggested, but responses of these adrenal steroids to psychosocial stress have not been examined in individuals with depressive disorders. In this study, we examined salivary DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in individuals with depressive disorders and in healthy controls to discover whether the responses of DHEA and DHEA-S to acute psychosocial stress could be a more sensitive marker of HPA dysfunction in depressive disorders...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319528/postburn-microstomia-prevention-using-an-appliance-providing-simultaneous-horizontal-and-vertical-adjustable-forces
#11
Gregory S Antonarakis, Sandra Fastlicht, Taras Masnyi, Bryan Tompson
Microstomia, an abnormally small oral orifice, is a complication of perioral facial burns. In this case, contraction of the circumoral tissues and hypotonia of the musculature is responsible for this microstomia, which can produce aesthetic and functional impairment with eating, swallowing, communication (speech and facial expressions), compromised dental care and maintenance due to limited oral access, social interactions, and psychological well-being. Conservative management involves providing physical resistance to scar contracture, with opposing horizontal and vertical circumoral forces by means of appliances that aim to stretch the commissures and fibrotic muscles...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319191/overt-orienting-of-spatial-attention-and-corticospinal-excitability-during-action-observation-are-unrelated
#12
Sonia Betti, Umberto Castiello, Silvia Guerra, Luisa Sartori
Observing moving body parts can automatically activate topographically corresponding motor representations in the primary motor cortex (M1), the so-called direct matching. Novel neurophysiological findings from social contexts are nonetheless proving that this process is not automatic as previously thought. The motor system can flexibly shift from imitative to incongruent motor preparation, when requested by a social gesture. In the present study we aim to bring an increase in the literature by assessing whether and how diverting overt spatial attention might affect motor preparation in contexts requiring interactive responses from the onlooker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318973/the-dual-nature-of-early-life-experience-on-somatosensory-processing-in-the-human-infant-brain
#13
Nathalie L Maitre, Alexandra P Key, Olena D Chorna, James C Slaughter, Pawel J Matusz, Mark T Wallace, Micah M Murray
Every year, 15 million preterm infants are born, and most spend their first weeks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) [1]. Although essential for the support and survival of these infants, NICU sensory environments are dramatically different from those in which full-term infants mature and thus likely impact the development of functional brain organization [2]. Yet the integrity of sensory systems determines effective perception and behavior [3, 4]. In neonates, touch is a cornerstone of interpersonal interactions and sensory-cognitive development [5-7]...
March 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317009/development-of-an-instrument-to-assess-social-functioning-in-dementia-the-social-functioning-in-dementia-scale-sf-dem
#14
Andrew Sommerlad, David Singleton, Rebecca Jones, Sube Banerjee, Gill Livingston
INTRODUCTION: Social functioning is a core domain in the life of people with dementia, but there is no accepted instrument to measure it. We aimed to develop the Social Functioning in Dementia (SF-DEM) scale and test its psychometric properties for assessing social function in people with dementia. METHODS: We interviewed people with mild dementia and family caregivers to develop patient and caregiver-rated SF-DEM versions and refined them through interviews with health care professionals...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316919/prevalence-of-dental-caries-based-on-personality-types-of-35-44-years-old-residents-in-davangere-city
#15
Puja C Yavagal, Hitashi Singla
AIM: To assess dental caries experience of different personality types of 35-44 years old residents in Davangere city. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in field setting. Based on Jenkins Activity Survey Questionnaire(11) used to assess the personality types, a personality questionnaire was designed consisting of 20 items. Questionnaire was used to assess and categorize personality types as Type A, Type B and Type AB. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 17...
January 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316753/a-resting-eeg-study-of-neocortical-hyperexcitability-and-altered-functional-connectivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
Jun Wang, Lauren E Ethridge, Matthew W Mosconi, Stormi P White, Devin K Binder, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Cortical hyperexcitability due to abnormal fast-spiking inhibitory interneuron function has been documented in fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of the fragile X syndrome which is the most common single gene cause of autism and intellectual disability. METHODS: We collected resting state dense-array electroencephalography data from 21 fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and 21 age-matched healthy participants. RESULTS: FXS patients exhibited greater gamma frequency band power, which was correlated with social and sensory processing difficulties...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316364/the-short-term-impacts-of-development-induced-displacement-on-wealth-and-subjective-well-being-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#17
Heather Randell
Displacement due to development projects such as dams, mines, and urban infrastructure often leads to livelihood decline among affected communities. The challenge, therefore, lies in implementing projects that achieve national or regional development goals while also generating positive social and economic outcomes for displaced populations. This paper uses a longitudinal, mixed-methods design to understand the short-term changes in wealth and subjective well-being of households displaced due to construction of the Belo Monte Dam in the Brazilian Amazon...
November 2016: World Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316161/-to-further-strengthen-the-construction-of-emergency-medical-treatment-system-of-massive-burn
#18
C Y Jia
Although clinical medicine of our country has made great progress in recent years, the rescue of massive burn casualties is still facing enormous challenges. No matter it is the top level design, system configuration, plan preparation, training, education, or the operation process, the medical resource allocation, and the treatment efficiency, are far behind the demand of social development. Therefore, further strengthen the construction of emergency medical treatment system of massive burn is the unshirkable responsibility of burn medical workers in our country...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316029/impulsivity-and-stress-response-in-pathological-gamblers-during-the-trier-social-stress-test
#19
G Maniaci, A E Goudriaan, C Cannizzaro, R J van Holst
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315898/modifiable-risk-factors-and-interventions-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-within-the-first-1-000-days
#20
Anne M Dattilo
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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