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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535340/optical-binding-of-nanowires
#1
Stephen H Simpson, Pavel Zemanek, Onofrio M Marago, Philip H Jones, Simon Hanna
Multiple scattering of light induces structured interactions, or optical binding forces, between collections of small particles. This has been extensively studied in the case of micro-spheres. However, binding forces are strongly shape dependent: here, we turn our attention to dielectric nanowires. Using a novel numerical model we uncover rich behaviour. The extreme geometry of the nanowires produces a sequence of stationary and dynamic states. In linearly polarized light, thermally stable ladder-like structures emerge...
May 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533266/non-linearity-of-the-collagen-triple-helix-in-solution-and-implications-for-collagen-function
#2
Kenneth T Walker, Ruodan Nan, David W Wright, Jayesh Gor, Anthony C Bishop, George I Makhatadze, Barbara Brodsky, Stephen J Perkins
Collagen adopts a characteristic supercoiled triple helical conformation which requires a repeating (Xaa-Yaa-Gly)n sequence. Despite the abundance of collagen, a combined experimental and atomistic modelling approach has not so far quantitated the degree of flexibility seen experimentally in the solution structures of collagen triple helices. To address this question, we report an experimental study on the flexibility of varying lengths of collagen triple helical peptides, composed of six, eight, ten and twelve repeats of the most stable Pro-Hyp-Gly (POG) units...
May 22, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531219/pyldm-an-open-source-package-for-lifetime-density-analysis-of-time-resolved-spectroscopic-data
#3
Gabriel F Dorlhiac, Clyde Fare, Jasper J van Thor
Ultrafast spectroscopy offers temporal resolution for probing processes in the femto- and picosecond regimes. This has allowed for investigation of energy and charge transfer in numerous photoactive compounds and complexes. However, analysis of the resultant data can be complicated, particularly in more complex biological systems, such as photosystems. Historically, the dual approach of global analysis and target modelling has been used to elucidate kinetic descriptions of the system, and the identity of transient species respectively...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528137/fuzzy-dynamic-output-feedback-h%C3%A2-control-for-continuous-time-t-s-fuzzy-systems-under-imperfect-premise-matching
#4
Tao Zhao, Songyi Dian
This paper addresses a fuzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ control design problem for continuous-time nonlinear systems via T-S fuzzy model. The stability of the fuzzy closed-loop system which is formed by a T-S fuzzy model and a fuProd. Type: FTPzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ controller connected in a closed loop is investigated with Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed fuzzy controller does not share the same membership functions and number of rules with T-S fuzzy systems, which can enhance design flexibility...
May 17, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526790/post-epizootic-persistence-of-asymptomatic-mycoplasma-conjunctivae-infection-in-iberian-ibex
#5
Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Oscar Cabezón, José Enrique Granados, Joachim Frey, Emmanuel Serrano, Roser Velarde, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Gregorio Mentaberre, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Paulino Fandos, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
The susceptibility of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected for the first time in the Iberian ibexes coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August 35...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523139/an-overview-of-the-use-of-artificial-neural-networks-in-lung-cancer-research
#6
EDITORIAL
Luca Bertolaccini, Piergiorgio Solli, Alessandro Pardolesi, Antonello Pasini
The artificial neural networks (ANNs) are statistical models where the mathematical structure reproduces the biological organisation of neural cells simulating the learning dynamics of the brain. Although definitions of the term ANN could vary, the term usually refers to a neural network used for non-linear statistical data modelling. The neural models applied today in various fields of medicine, such as oncology, do not aim to be biologically realistic in detail but just efficient models for nonlinear regression or classification...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521764/barrier-dysfunction-or-drainage-reduction-differentiating-causes-of-csf-protein-increase
#7
Mahdi Asgari, Diane A de Zélicourt, Vartan Kurtcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein analysis is an important element in the diagnostic chain for various central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Among multiple existing approaches to interpreting measured protein levels, the Reiber diagram is particularly robust with respect to physiologic inter-individual variability, as it uses multiple subject-specific anchoring values. Beyond reliable identification of abnormal protein levels, the Reiber diagram has the potential to elucidate their pathophysiologic origin...
May 18, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521106/first-principles-models-for-biological-light-harvesting-phycobiliprotein-complexes-from-cryptophyte-algae
#8
Mi Kyung Lee, Ksenia B Bravaya, David F Coker
There have been numerous efforts, both experimental and theoretical, that have attempted to parameterize model Hamiltonians to describe excited state energy transfer in photosynthetic light harvesting systems. The Frenkel exciton model, with its set of electronically coupled two level chromophores that are each linearly coupled to dissipative baths of harmonic oscillators, has become the workhorse of this field. The challenges to parameterizing such Hamiltonians have been their uniqueness, and physical interpretation...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515774/complexity-and-algorithms-for-copy-number-evolution-problems
#9
Mohammed El-Kebir, Benjamin J Raphael, Ron Shamir, Roded Sharan, Simone Zaccaria, Meirav Zehavi, Ron Zeira
BACKGROUND: Cancer is an evolutionary process characterized by the accumulation of somatic mutations in a population of cells that form a tumor. One frequent type of mutations is copy number aberrations, which alter the number of copies of genomic regions. The number of copies of each position along a chromosome constitutes the chromosome's copy-number profile. Understanding how such profiles evolve in cancer can assist in both diagnosis and prognosis. RESULTS: We model the evolution of a tumor by segmental deletions and amplifications, and gauge distance from profile [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] by the minimum number of events needed to transform [Formula: see text] into [Formula: see text]...
2017: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515005/dynamics-of-a-true-moving-bed-separation-process-linear-model-identification-and-advanced-process-control
#10
Idelfonso B R Nogueira, Ana M Ribeiro, Márcio A F Martins, Alírio E Rodrigues, Hannu Koivisto, José M Loureiro
The control of Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) units is challenging due to their complex dynamic behaviour and the difficulty of measuring their main properties. Furthermore, for the SMB units, the transfer function identification when the unit is operating at its optimal point is not easy to be done through the usual way. This work presents the development of a novel strategy to identify transfer functions of TMB/SMB and its application on classical linear model predictive controllers (MPC). However, for the process in study, due its unique dynamics, only the identification of the linear model is not enough to solve its control problem...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513172/a-quantum-chemical-interpretation-of-two-dimensional-electronic-spectroscopy-of-light-harvesting-complexes
#11
Francesco Segatta, Lorenzo Cupellini, Sandro Jurinovich, Shaul Mukamel, Maurizio Dapor, Simone Taioli, Marco Garavelli, Benedetta Mennucci
Nonlinear electronic spectroscopies represent one of the most powerful techniques to study complex multichromophoric architectures. For these systems, in fact, linear spectra are too congested to be used to disentangle the many coupled vibro-electronic processes which are activated. By using a 2D approach, instead, a clear picture can be achieved but only when the recorded spectra are combined with a proper interpretative model. So far, this has been almost always achieved through parameterized exciton Hamiltonians that necessarily introduce biases and/or arbitrary assumptions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512702/an-intracardiac-soft-robotic-device-for-augmentation-of-blood-ejection-from-the-failing-right-ventricle
#12
Markus A Horvath, Isaac Wamala, Eric Rytkin, Elizabeth Doyle, Christopher J Payne, Thomas Thalhofer, Ignacio Berra, Anna Solovyeva, Mossab Saeed, Sara Hendren, Ellen T Roche, Pedro J Del Nido, Conor J Walsh, Nikolay V Vasilyev
We introduce an implantable intracardiac soft robotic right ventricular ejection device (RVED) for dynamic approximation of the right ventricular (RV) free wall and the interventricular septum (IVS) in synchrony with the cardiac cycle to augment blood ejection in right heart failure (RHF). The RVED is designed for safe and effective intracardiac operation and consists of an anchoring system deployed across the IVS, an RV free wall anchor, and a pneumatic artificial muscle linear actuator that spans the RV chamber between the two anchors...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511839/the-implication-of-the-osteolysis-threshold-and-interfacial-gaps-on-periprosthetic-osteolysis-in-cementless-total-hip-replacement
#13
Hamidreza Alidousti, Neil W Bressloff
Osteolysis around joint replacements may develop due to migration of wear particles from the joint space into gaps between the interface bone and the implant where they can accumulate in high concentrations to cause tissue damage. Osteolysis may appear in various postoperative times and morphological shapes which can be generalized into linear and focal. However, there are no clear explanations on the causes of such variations. Patients' degree of sensitivity to polyethylene particles (osteolysis thresholds), the local particle concentration and the access route provided by the interface gaps have been described as determining factors...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511121/influence-of-different-frequencies-of-axial-cyclic-loading-on-time-domain-vibration-response-of-the-lumbar-spine-a-finite-element-study
#14
Wei Fan, Li-Xin Guo
Very few studies have quantitatively analyzed influence of the loading frequency on time-domain vibration response of the whole lumbar spine in the presence of a physiologic compressive preload. In this study, a three-dimensional non-linear finite element model of ligamentous L1-S1 segment was developed to predict time-domain dynamic response of the whole lumbar spine to axial cyclic loading with different frequencies. A compressive follower preload of 400 N was applied to the model to simulate the physiologic compressive load...
May 10, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510539/statistical-physics-approaches-to-subnetwork-dynamics-in-biochemical-systems
#15
Barbara Bravi, Peter Sollich
We apply a Gaussian variational approximation to model reduction in large biochemical networks of unary and binary reactions. We focus on a small subset of variables (subnetwork) of interest, e.g. because they are accessible experimentally, embedded in a larger network (bulk). The key goal is to write dynamical equations reduced to the subnetwork but still retaining the effects of the bulk. As a result, the subnetwork-reduced dynamics contains a memory term and an extrinsic noise term with non-trivial temporal correlations...
May 16, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508271/optimization-of-temporal-sampling-for-82-rubidium-pet-myocardial-blood-flow-quantification
#16
Benjamin C Lee, Jonathan B Moody, Richard L Weinberg, James R Corbett, Edward P Ficaro, Venkatesh L Murthy
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal temporal sampling of left ventricular (LV) blood pool and tissue time-activity curves (TACs) may introduce bias and increased variability in estimates of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and flow reserve (MFR) from dynamic PET myocardial perfusion images. We aimed to optimize temporal sampling for estimation of MBF and MFR. METHODS: Twenty-four normal volunteers and 32 patients underwent dynamic stress/rest rubidium-82 chloride ((82)Rb) PET imaging...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508044/data-driven-discovery-of-partial-differential-equations
#17
Samuel H Rudy, Steven L Brunton, Joshua L Proctor, J Nathan Kutz
We propose a sparse regression method capable of discovering the governing partial differential equation(s) of a given system by time series measurements in the spatial domain. The regression framework relies on sparsity-promoting techniques to select the nonlinear and partial derivative terms of the governing equations that most accurately represent the data, bypassing a combinatorially large search through all possible candidate models. The method balances model complexity and regression accuracy by selecting a parsimonious model via Pareto analysis...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507458/effect-of-tumor-amplitude-and-frequency-on-4d-modeling-of-vero4drt-system
#18
Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Masahiro Hayata, Shintaro Tsuda, Kiyoshi Yamada, Yasushi Nagata
BACKGROUND: An important issue in indirect dynamic tumor tracking with the Vero4DRT system is the accuracy of the model predictions of the internal target position based on surrogate infrared (IR) marker measurement. We investigated the predictive uncertainty of 4D modeling using an external IR marker, focusing on the effect of the target and surrogate amplitudes and periods. METHODS: A programmable respiratory motion table was used to simulate breathing induced organ motion...
July 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507290/effects-of-the-non-parabolic-kinetic-energy-on-non-equilibrium-polariton-condensates
#19
F Pinsker, X Ruan, T J Alexander
In the study of non-equilibrium polariton condensates it is usually assumed that the dispersion relation of polaritons is parabolic in nature. We show that considering the true non-parabolic kinetic energy of polaritons leads to significant changes in the behaviour of the condensate due to the curvature of the dispersion relation and the possibility of transfer of energy to high wavenumber components in the condensate spatial profile. We present explicit solutions for plane waves and linear excitations, and identify the differences in the theoretical predictions between the parabolic and non-parabolic mean-field models, showing the possibility of symmetry breaking in the latter...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507125/effective-control-of-complex-turbulent-dynamical-systems-through-statistical-functionals
#20
Andrew J Majda, Di Qi
Turbulent dynamical systems characterized by both a high-dimensional phase space and a large number of instabilities are ubiquitous among complex systems in science and engineering, including climate, material, and neural science. Control of these complex systems is a grand challenge, for example, in mitigating the effects of climate change or safe design of technology with fully developed shear turbulence. Control of flows in the transition to turbulence, where there is a small dimension of instabilities about a basic mean state, is an important and successful discipline...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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