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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334081/bio-inspired-all-optical-artificial-neuromast-for-2d-flow-sensing
#1
Ben J Wolf, Jonathan A S Morton, William Bill N MacPherson, Sietse M van Netten
We present the design, fabrication and testing of a novel all-optical 2D flow velocity sensor, inspired by a fish lateral line neuromast. This artificial neuromast consists of optical fibres inscribed with Bragg gratings supporting a fluid force recipient sphere. Its dynamic response is modelled based on the Stokes solution for unsteady flow around a sphere and found to agree with experimental results. Tuneable mechanical resonance is predicted, allowing a deconvolution scheme to accurately retrieve fluid flow speed and direction from sensor readings...
January 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332992/experiment-design-for-early-molecular-events-in-hiv-infection
#2
Aditya Jagarapu, LaMont Cannon, Ryan Zurakowski
The recent introduction of integrase inhibitors to the HIV antiviral repertoire permits us to create in vitro experiments that reliably terminate HIV infection at the point of chromosomal integration. This allows us to isolate the dynamics of a single round of infection, without needing to account for the influence of multiple overlapping rounds of infection. By measuring the various nucleic acid concentrations in a population of infected target cells at multiple time points, we can infer the rates of these molecular events with great accuracy, which allows us to compare the rates between target cells with different functional phenotypes...
May 2017: Proceedings of the ... American Control Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331988/airflow-limitation-in-people-living-with-hiv-and-matched-uninfected-controls
#3
Andreas Ronit, Jens Lundgren, Shoaib Afzal, Thomas Benfield, Ashley Roen, Amanda Mocroft, Jan Gerstoft, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jørgen Vestbo, Susanne D Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Whether HIV influences pulmonary function remains controversial. We assessed dynamic pulmonary function in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and uninfected controls. METHODS: A total of 1098 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV infection study and 12 161 age-matched and sex-matched controls from the Copenhagen General Population Study were included. Lung function was assessed using FEV1 and FVC, while airflow limitation was defined by the lower limit of normal (LLN) of FEV1/FVC and by FEV1/FVC<0...
January 13, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331699/simultaneous-social-causation-and-social-drift-longitudinal-analysis-of-depression-and-poverty-in-south-africa
#4
Crick Lund, Annibale Cois
BACKGROUND: Two theories have been proposed to explain the observed association between depression and poverty, namely social causation and social drift. Little is known regarding the relative importance of social causation and social drift in low and middle-income countries, where poverty is more severe and where most of the world's depressed individuals live. METHODS: We analysed nationally representative longitudinal data from the National Income Dynamics Study in South Africa and simultaneously tested social causation and social drift hypotheses using structural equation modelling across three waves...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331201/impact-of-polymer-geometry-on-the-interactions-of-protein-peg-conjugates
#5
Jonathan Zarzar, Whitney Shatz, Nikhil Peer, Rosalynn Taing, Brian McGarry, Yun Liu, Daniel G Greene, Isidro E Zarraga
The conjugation of high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) to an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is an attractive strategy for the modification of biophysical and biodistribution properties of the API. Indeed, several therapeutic proteins conjugated to PEG have been safely administered in the clinic. While there have been studies on the configuration of these conjugates in solution, investigations on the impact of PEG geometry on protein-PEG conjugate interactions is limited. In this study, we use dynamic light scattering (DLS), rheology, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the biophysical solution and interaction behavior of a 50kDa Fab protein attached to either a linear or tetrameric (branched) 40kDa PEG molecule...
November 8, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328631/controllable-interfacial-coupling-effects-on-the-magnetic-dynamic-properties-of-perpendicular-co-ni-5-cu-tbco-composite-thin-films
#6
Minghong Tang, Bingcheng Zhao, Weihua Zhu, Zhendong Zhu, Qingyuan Jin, Zongzhi Zhang
Dynamic magnetic properties in perpendicularly exchange-coupled [Co/Ni]5/Cu(tCu=0-2 nm)/TbCo structures show strong dependences on the interfacial AFM strength Jex controlled by the Cu interlayer thickness. The precession frequency f and effective damping constant αeff of [Co/Ni]5 multilayer differs distinctly for parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) magnetization orientation states. For samples with a thin tCu, f of AP state is apparently higher while αeff is lower than in P state, owing to the unidirectional exchange bias effect (HEB) from the TbCo layer...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328509/high-refuge-availability-on-coral-reefs-increases-the-vulnerability-of-reef-associated-predators-to-overexploitation
#7
Alice Rogers, Julia L Blanchard, Steven P Newman, Charlie S Dryden, Peter J Mumby
Refuge availability and fishing alter predator-prey interactions on coral reefs, but our understanding of how they interact to drive food web dynamics, community structure and vulnerability of different trophic groups is unclear. Here, we apply a size-based ecosystem model of coral reefs, parameterized with empirical measures of structural complexity, to predict fish biomass, productivity and community structure in reef ecosystems under a broad range of refuge availability and fishing regimes. In unfished ecosystems, the expected positive correlation between reef structural complexity and biomass emerges, but a non-linear effect of predation refuges is observed for the productivity of predatory fish...
January 12, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325902/which-data-should-be-tracked-in-forward-dynamic-optimisation-to-best-predict-muscle-forces-in-a-pathological-co-contraction-case
#8
Colombe Bélaise, Benjamin Michaud, Fabien Dal Maso, Katja Mombaur, Mickaël Begon
The choice of the cost-function for predicting muscle forces during a movement remains a challenge, especially in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Forward dynamics-based optimisations mainly track joint kinematics or torques, combined with a least-excitation criterion. Tracking marker trajectories and/or electromyography (EMG) has rarely been proposed. Our objective was to determine the best tracking objective-function to accurately predict the upper-limb muscle forces. A musculoskeletal model was created and EMG was simulated to obtain a reference movement - a shoulder abduction...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324707/evaluation-of-controlled-release-urea-on-the-dynamics-of-nitrate-ammonium-and-its-nitrogen-release-in-black-soils-of-northeast-china
#9
Xin Tong, Xueqin He, Hongwei Duan, Lujia Han, Guangqun Huang
Controlled release urea (CRU) is considered to enhance crop yields while alleviating negative environmental problems caused by the hazardous gas emissions that are associated with high concentrations of ammonium (NH₄⁺) and nitrate (NO₃-) in black soils. Short-term effects of sulfur-coated urea (SCU) and polyurethane-coated urea (PCU), compared with conventional urea, on NO₃- and NH₄⁺ in black soils were studied through the buried bag experiment conducted in an artificial climate chamber. We also investigated nitrogen (N) release kinetics of CRU and correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO₃- and NH₄⁺...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324408/assessing-dynamic-balance-performance-during-exergaming-based-on-speed-and-curvature-of-body-movements
#10
Venustiano Soancatl Aguilar, Jasper J van de Gronde, Claudine J C Lamoth, Natasha M Maurits, Jos B T M Roerdink
Improving balance performance among the elderly is of utmost importance because of the increasing number of injuries and fatalities caused by fall incidences. Digital games controlled by body movements (exergames) have been proposed as a way to improve balance among older people. However, the assessment of balance performance in real-time during exergaming remains a challenging task. This assessment could be used to provide instantaneous feedback and automatically adjust the exergame difficulty. Such features could potentially increase the motivation of the player, thus augmenting the effectiveness of exergames...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323297/an-extreme-magneto-ionic-environment-associated-with-the-fast-radio-burst-source-frb-121102
#11
D Michilli, A Seymour, J W T Hessels, L G Spitler, V Gajjar, A M Archibald, G C Bower, S Chatterjee, J M Cordes, K Gourdji, G H Heald, V M Kaspi, C J Law, C Sobey, E A K Adams, C G Bassa, S Bogdanov, C Brinkman, P Demorest, F Fernandez, G Hellbourg, T J W Lazio, R S Lynch, N Maddox, B Marcote, M A McLaughlin, Z Paragi, S M Ransom, P Scholz, A P V Siemion, S P Tendulkar, P Van Rooy, R S Wharton, D Whitlow
Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration, extragalactic radio flashes of unknown physical origin. The only known repeating fast radio burst source-FRB 121102-has been localized to a star-forming region in a dwarf galaxy at redshift 0.193 and is spatially coincident with a compact, persistent radio source. The origin of the bursts, the nature of the persistent source and the properties of the local environment are still unclear. Here we report observations of FRB 121102 that show almost 100 per cent linearly polarized emission at a very high and variable Faraday rotation measure in the source frame (varying from +1...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320686/dynamic-model-for-characterizing-contractile-behaviors-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-cardiomyocyte
#12
Chuang Zhang, Wenxue Wang, Wenhui He, Ning Xi, Yuechao Wang, Lianqing Liu
Studies on the contractile dynamics of heart cells have attracted broad attention for the development of both heart disease therapies and cardiomyocyte-actuated micro-robotics. In this study, a linear dynamic model of a single cardiomyocyte cell was proposed at the subcellular scale to characterize the contractile behaviors of heart cells, with system parameters representing the mechanical properties of the subcellular components of living cardiomyocytes. The system parameters of the dynamic model were identified with the cellular beating pattern measured by a scanning ion conductance microscope...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318729/validation-of-modelflow-estimates-of-cardiac-output-in-hemodialysis-patients
#13
Clare MacEwen, Sheera Sutherland, Jonathan Daly, Christopher Pugh, Lionel Tarassenko
Volume-clamp technology (e.g. Finometer) has become a popular method of collecting continuous, non-invasive, hemodynamic information during hemodialysis. There is minimal data validating the technique in this patient group. A gold standard cardiac output measurement can be obtained using ultrasound dilution in patients with arterio-venous fistulae. Continuous cardiac output was measured in 124 hemodialysis sessions in 27 patients using a volume-clamp device (Finometer PRO). Ultrasound dilution measurement was first taken at baseline (Transonic HD03), then used to calibrate the Finometer...
January 10, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317079/biotensegrity-and-myofascial-chains-a-global-approach-to-an-integrated-kinetic-chain
#14
S L Dischiavi, A A Wright, E J Hegedus, C M Bleakley
Human movement is a complex orchestration of events involving many different body systems. Understanding how these systems interact during musculoskeletal movements can directly inform a variety of research fields including: injury etiology, injury prevention and therapeutic exercise prescription. Traditionally scientists have examined human movement through a reductionist lens whereby movements are broken down and observed in isolation. The process of reductionism fails to capture the interconnected complexities and the dynamic interactions found within complex systems such as human movement...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316967/ecological-distribution-and-population-dynamics-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-mosquito-vectors-diptera-culicidae-in-senegal
#15
Biram Biteye, Assane G Fall, Mamadou Ciss, Momar T Seck, Andrea Apolloni, Moussa Fall, Annelise Tran, Geoffrey Gimonneau
BACKGROUND: Many zoonotic infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged over the last two decades. There has been a significant increase in vector-borne diseases due to climate variations that lead to environmental changes favoring the development and adaptation of vectors. This study was carried out to improve knowledge of the ecology of mosquito vectors involved in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Senegal. METHODS: An entomological survey was conducted in three Senegalese agro-systems, Senegal River Delta (SRD), Senegal River Valley (SRV) and Ferlo, during the rainy season (July to November) of 2014 and 2015...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316467/adsorption-dynamics-and-mechanism-of-aqueous-sulfachloropyridazine-and-analogues-using-the-root-powder-of-recyclable-long-root-eichhornia-crassipes
#16
Lin Liu, Shuangqing Hu, Genxiang Shen, Usman Farooq, Wei Zhang, Sen Lin, Kuangfei Lin
In this study, we reclaimed the root powder of long-root Eichhornia crassipes (L.R.E.C.) as a biosorbent to remove aqueous sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) and other sulfonamides. The adsorption processes were investigated dependent on multiple measurements, including FT-IR and XPS analysis. The results confirmed that the basic amine group of neutral SCP molecules and the carboxyl hydroxyl on the surface of the root powder played the leading role in adsorption processes. Additionally, the experiments of ionic strength effect validated the involvement of electrostatic interaction in adsorption...
January 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315960/proton-change-of-parotid-glands-after-gustatory-stimulation-examined-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Yi-Jui Liu, Yi-Hsiung Lee, Hing-Chiu Chang, Hui-Chu Chiu, Ta-Wei Chiu, Kang Hsu, Cheng-Ming Pen, Hsian-He Hsu, Chun-Jung Juan
The aim of this study was to investigate proton changes of the parotid gland after gustatory stimulation by semi-quantitative parameters and an empirical mathematical model (EMM) using high-temporal-resolution, double-echo, echo-planar imaging (EPI). Approved by a local institutional review board, this study examined 20 parotid glands from 10 healthy volunteers (male:female = 6: 4; age ± standard deviation =35.1 ± 14.1 years) with written informed consent obtained. All participants underwent 1.5-T, double-echo EPI with gustatory stimulation...
January 8, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315342/self-organization-and-stability-of-magnetosome-chains-a-simulation-study
#18
Bahareh Kiani, Damien Faivre, Stefan Klumpp
Magnetotactic bacteria orient in magnetic fields with the help of their magnetosome chain, a linear structure of membrane enclosed magnetic nanoparticles (magnetosomes) anchored to a cytoskeletal filament. Here, we use simulations to study the assembly and the stability of magnetosome chains. We introduce a computational model describing the attachment of the magnetosomes to the filament and their magnetic interactions. We show that the filamentous backbone is crucial for the robust assembly of the magnetic particles into a linear chain, which in turn is key for the functionality of the chain in cellular orientation and magnetically directed swimming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315256/a-novel-attitude-determination-system-aided-by-polarization-sensor
#19
Wei Zhi, Jinkui Chu, Jinshan Li, Yinlong Wang
This paper aims to develop a novel attitude determination system aided by polarization sensor. An improved heading angle function is derived using the perpendicular relationship between directions of E-vector of linearly polarized light and solar vector in the atmospheric polarization distribution model. The Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with quaternion differential equation as a dynamic model is applied to fuse the data from sensors. The covariance functions of filter process and measurement noises are deduced in detail...
January 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314418/cerebral-blood-volume-mapping-with-ferumoxytol-in-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-perfusion-mri-comparison-to-standard-of-care
#20
Csanad G Varallyay, Eric Nesbit, Andrea Horvath, Peter Varallyay, Rongwei Fu, Seymur Gahramanov, Leslie L Muldoon, Xin Li, William D Rooney, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping with a dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion technique has become a clinical tool in diagnosing and follow-up of brain tumors. Ferumoxytol, a long-circulating iron oxide nanoparticle, has been tested for CBV mapping, but the optimal dose has not been established. PURPOSE: To compare ferumoxytol DSC of two different doses to standard of care gadoteridol by analyzing time-intensity curves and CBV maps in normal-appearing brain regions...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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