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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809846/the-use-of-trace-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-to-assess-hippocampal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#1
Tuan D Tran, Aenia Amin, Keith G Jones, Ellen M Sheffer, Lidia Ortega, Keith Dolman
Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727687/hippocampus-dependent-memory-and-allele-specific-gene-expression-in-adult-offspring-of-alcohol-consuming-dams-after-neonatal-treatment-with-thyroxin-or-metformin
#2
E Tunc-Ozcan, S L Wert, P H Lim, A Ferreira, E E Redei
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2-11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment. We administered vehicle, thyroxine (T4) or metformin to neonatal rats post FAE and rats were tested in the hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning paradigm in adulthood...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#3
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model. METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4...
September 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659754/nadph-oxidase-isoform-2-nox2-is-involved-in-drug-addiction-vulnerability-in-progeny-developmentally-exposed-to-ethanol
#4
Marcela L Contreras, Erwin de la Fuente-Ortega, Sofía Vargas-Roberts, Daniela C Muñoz, Carolina A Goic, Paola A Haeger
Ethanol exposure increases oxidative stress in developing organs, including the brain. Antioxidant treatment during maternal ethanol ingestion improves behavioral deficits in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the impact of general antioxidant treatment in their adult offspring and the Specific Reactive Species (ROS)-dependent mechanism, are not fully understood. We hypothesized that pre and early postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE) modifies redox homeostasis, in particular NOX2 function during reward signaling in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, which reinforces the effects of alcohol...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656313/dopamine-attenuates-ethanol-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-the-developing-rat-retina-via-the-camp-pka-pathway
#5
Junde Han, Lingqi Gao, Jing Dong, Yingtian Wang, Mazhong Zhang, Jijian Zheng
Apoptosis has been identified as the primary cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), and the development of methods to prevent and treat FASD have been based on the mechanisms of alcohol-induced apoptosis. The present study aimed to explore the effects of dopamine on alcohol‑induced neuronal apoptosis using whole‑mount cultures of rat retinas (postnatal day 7). Retinas were initially incubated with ethanol (100, 200 or 500 mM), and in subsequent analyses retinas were co‑incubated with ethanol (200 mM) and dopamine (10 µM)...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600000/sex-specific-effects-of-developmental-alcohol-exposure-on-cocaine-induced-place-preference-in-adulthood
#6
Victoria A Macht, Sandra J Kelly, Justin T Gass
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is associated with high rates of drug addiction in adulthood. One possible basis for increased drug use in this population is altered sensitivity to drug-associated contexts. This experiment utilized a rat model of FASD to examine behavioral and neural changes in the processing of drug cues in adulthood. Alcohol was given by intragastric intubation to pregnant rats throughout gestation and to rat pups during the early postnatal period (ET group). Controls consisted of a non-treated group (NC) and a pair-fed group given the intubation procedure without alcohol (IC)...
August 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433422/postnatal-choline-supplementation-selectively-attenuates-hippocampal-microrna-alterations-associated-with-developmental-alcohol-exposure
#7
Sridevi Balaraman, Nirelia M Idrus, Rajesh C Miranda, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation...
May 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340966/recognition-memory-is-selectively-impaired-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-binge-like-doses-of-ethanol-during-early-postnatal-life
#8
Nicole M MacIlvane, Joseph M Pochiro, Nicole R Hurwitz, Molly J Goodfellow, Derick H Lindquist
Exposure to alcohol in utero can induce a variety of physical and mental impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study explores the persistent cognitive consequences of ethanol administration in rat pups over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, modeling human third trimester consumption. Between PD65-70, ethanol-exposed (5E) and control rats were evaluated in two variants of recognition memory, the spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task, using 20 and 240 min sample-to-test delays, and the associative object-in-context (OIC) task, using a 20 min delay...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#9
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888019/ifenprodil-infusion-in-agranular-insular-cortex-alters-social-behavior-and-vocalizations-in-rats-exposed-to-moderate-levels-of-ethanol-during-prenatal-development
#10
Clark W Bird, Daniel Barto, Christy M Magcalas, Carlos I Rodriguez, Tia Donaldson, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage, Derek A Hamilton
Moderate exposure to alcohol during development leads to subtle neurobiological and behavioral effects classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Alterations in social behaviors are a frequently observed consequence of maternal drinking, as children with FASDs display inappropriate aggressive behaviors and altered responses to social cues. Rodent models of FASDs mimic the behavioral alterations seen in humans, with rats exposed to ethanol during development displaying increased aggressive behaviors, decreased social investigation, and altered play behavior...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597545/impact-of-exercise-and-a-complex-environment-on-hippocampal-dendritic-morphology-bdnf-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-in-male-rat-pups-neonatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#11
K E Boschen, S E McKeown, T L Roth, A Y Klintsova
Alcohol exposure in utero can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrums Disorders (FASD). Measures of hippocampal neuroplasticity, including long-term potentiation, synaptic and dendritic organization, and adult neurogenesis, are consistently disrupted in rodent models of FASD. The current study investigated whether third trimester-equivalent binge-like alcohol exposure (AE) [postnatal days (PD) 4-9] affects dendritic morphology of immature dentate gyrus granule cells, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene expression and DNA methylation in hippocampal tissue in adult male rats...
June 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318824/effects-of-moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-during-early-gestation-in-rats-on-inflammation-across-the-maternal-fetal-immune-interface-and-later-life-immune-function-in-the-offspring
#12
Laurne S Terasaki, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During early brain development, microglial activation can negatively impact long-term neuroimmune and cognitive outcomes. It is well-known that significant alcohol exposure during early gestation results in a number of cognitive deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Additionally, microglia are activated following high levels of alcohol exposure in rodent models of FASD. We sought to examine whether moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (70 mg/dL blood alcohol concentration) activates microglia in the fetal rat brain, and whether moderate fetal alcohol exposure has long-term negative consequences for immune function and cognitive function in the rat...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263429/evidence-for-an-immune-signature-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-female-rats
#13
Tamara S Bodnar, Lesley A Hill, Joanne Weinberg
Evidence for immune/neuroimmune disturbances as a possible root cause of a range of disorders, including neurodevelopmental disorders, is growing. Although prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) impacts immune function, few studies to date have examined immune function in relation to long-term negative health outcomes following PAE, and most have focused on males. To fill this gap, we utilized a rat model to examine the effects of PAE on immune/neuroimmune function during early-life [postnatal day 1 (P1), P8, and P22] in PAE and control females...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162054/modeling-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-validating-an-ex-vivo-primary-hippocampal-cell-culture-system
#14
Elif Tunc-Ozcan, Adriana B Ferreira, Eva E Redei
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the leading nongenetic cause of mental retardation. There are no treatments for FASD to date. Preclinical in vivo and in vitro studies could help in identifying novel drug targets as for other diseases. Here, we describe an ex vivo model that combines the physiological advantages of prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure in vivo with the uniformity of primary fetal hippocampal culture to characterize the effects of prenatal EtOH. The insulin signaling pathways are known to be involved in hippocampal functions...
June 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090562/thyroxine-administration-prevents-matrilineal-intergenerational-consequences-of-in-utero-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#15
Elif Tunc-Ozcan, Kathryn M Harper, Evan N Graf, Eva E Redei
The neurodevelopmental fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Conferring the deficits to the next generation would increase overall FASD disease burden and prevention of this transmission could be highly significant. Prior studies showed the reversal of these behavioral deficits by low dose thyroxine (T4) supplementation to the ethanol-consuming mothers. Here we aim to identify whether prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in the second-generation (F2) progeny, and whether T4 administration to the ethanol-consuming dam can prevent it...
June 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996510/neonatal-binge-alcohol-exposure-increases-microglial-activation-in-the-developing-rat-hippocampus
#16
K E Boschen, M J Ruggiero, A Y Klintsova
Aberrant activation of the developing immune system can have long-term negative consequences on cognition and behavior. Teratogens, such as alcohol, activate microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, which could contribute to the lifelong deficits in learning and memory observed in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. The current study investigates the microglial response of the brain 24 h following neonatal alcohol exposure (postnatal days (PDs) 4-9, 5.25 g/kg/day)...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26632335/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-impairs-temporal-ordering-behaviours-in-young-adult-rats
#17
Anna R Patten, Scott Sawchuk, Ryan C Wortman, Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes significant deficits in functional (i.e., synaptic) plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA) hippocampal sub-regions of young adult male rats. Previous research has shown that in the DG, these deficits are not apparent in age-matched PNEE females. This study aimed to expand these findings and determine if PNEE induces deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviours in both male and female young adult rats (PND 60). The metric change behavioural test examines DG-dependent deficits by determining whether an animal can detect a metric change between two identical objects...
February 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26399568/maternal-iron-deficiency-worsens-the-associative-learning-deficits-and-hippocampal-and-cerebellar-losses-in-a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#18
Shane M Huebner, Tuan D Tran, Echoleah S Rufer, Peter M Crump, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Gestational alcohol exposure causes lifelong physical and neurocognitive deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Micronutrient deficiencies are common in pregnancies of alcohol-abusing women. Here we show the most common micronutrient deficiency of pregnancy-iron deficiency without anemia-significantly worsens neurocognitive outcomes following perinatal alcohol exposure. METHODS: Pregnant rats were fed iron-deficient (ID) or iron-sufficient diets from gestational day 13 to postnatal day (P) 7...
November 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26380981/exposure-to-ethanol-during-neurodevelopment-modifies-crucial-offspring-rat-brain-enzyme-activities-in-a-region-specific-manner
#19
Vasileios Stolakis, Charis Liapi, Apostolos Zarros, Konstantina Kalopita, Vassilios Memtsas, John Botis, Anastasia Tsagianni, Despoina Kimpizi, Alexios Varatsos, Stylianos Tsakiris
The experimental simulation of conditions falling within "the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder" (FASD) requires the maternal exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during crucial neurodevelopmental periods; EtOH has been linked to a number of neurotoxic effects on the fetus, which are dependent upon the extent and the magnitude of the maternal exposure to EtOH and for which very little is known with regard to the exact mechanism(s) involved. The current study has examined the effects of moderate maternal exposure to EtOH (10 % v/v in the drinking water) throughout gestation, or gestation and lactation, on crucial 21-day-old offspring Wistar rat brain parameters, such as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and two adenosine triphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase), in major offspring CNS regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons)...
December 2015: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322248/sustained-impairments-in-brain-insulin-igf-signaling-in-adolescent-rats-subjected-to-binge-alcohol-exposures-during-development
#20
Alexandra Ewenczyk, Jason Ziplow, Ming Tong, Tran Le, Suzanne M de la Monte
BACKGROUND: Chronic or binge ethanol exposures during development can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) which consists of an array of neurobehavioral deficits, together with structural, molecular, biochemical, and neurotransmitter abnormalities in the brain. Previous studies showed that perinatal neurodevelopmental defects in FASD are associated with inhibition of brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. However, it is not known whether sustained abnormalities in adolescent brain structure and function are mediated by the same phenomena...
March 2012: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology
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