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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#1
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888019/ifenprodil-infusion-in-agranular-insular-cortex-alters-social-behavior-and-vocalizations-in-rats-exposed-to-moderate-levels-of-ethanol-during-prenatal-development
#2
Clark W Bird, Daniel Barto, Christy M Magcalas, Carlos I Rodriguez, Tia Donaldson, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage, Derek A Hamilton
Moderate exposure to alcohol during development leads to subtle neurobiological and behavioral effects classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Alterations in social behaviors are a frequently observed consequence of maternal drinking, as children with FASDs display inappropriate aggressive behaviors and altered responses to social cues. Rodent models of FASDs mimic the behavioral alterations seen in humans, with rats exposed to ethanol during development displaying increased aggressive behaviors, decreased social investigation, and altered play behavior...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597545/impact-of-exercise-and-a-complex-environment-on-hippocampal-dendritic-morphology-bdnf-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-in-male-rat-pups-neonatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#3
K E Boschen, S E McKeown, T L Roth, A Y Klintsova
Alcohol exposure in utero can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrums Disorders (FASD). Measures of hippocampal neuroplasticity, including long-term potentiation, synaptic and dendritic organization, and adult neurogenesis, are consistently disrupted in rodent models of FASD. The current study investigated whether third trimester-equivalent binge-like alcohol exposure (AE) [postnatal days (PD) 4-9] affects dendritic morphology of immature dentate gyrus granule cells, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene expression and DNA methylation in hippocampal tissue in adult male rats...
September 6, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318824/effects-of-moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-during-early-gestation-in-rats-on-inflammation-across-the-maternal-fetal-immune-interface-and-later-life-immune-function-in-the-offspring
#4
Laurne S Terasaki, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During early brain development, microglial activation can negatively impact long-term neuroimmune and cognitive outcomes. It is well-known that significant alcohol exposure during early gestation results in a number of cognitive deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Additionally, microglia are activated following high levels of alcohol exposure in rodent models of FASD. We sought to examine whether moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (70 mg/dL blood alcohol concentration) activates microglia in the fetal rat brain, and whether moderate fetal alcohol exposure has long-term negative consequences for immune function and cognitive function in the rat...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263429/evidence-for-an-immune-signature-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-female-rats
#5
Tamara S Bodnar, Lesley A Hill, Joanne Weinberg
Evidence for immune/neuroimmune disturbances as a possible root cause of a range of disorders, including neurodevelopmental disorders, is growing. Although prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) impacts immune function, few studies to date have examined immune function in relation to long-term negative health outcomes following PAE, and most have focused on males. To fill this gap, we utilized a rat model to examine the effects of PAE on immune/neuroimmune function during early-life [postnatal day 1 (P1), P8, and P22] in PAE and control females...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162054/modeling-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-validating-an-ex-vivo-primary-hippocampal-cell-culture-system
#6
Elif Tunc-Ozcan, Adriana B Ferreira, Eva E Redei
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the leading nongenetic cause of mental retardation. There are no treatments for FASD to date. Preclinical in vivo and in vitro studies could help in identifying novel drug targets as for other diseases. Here, we describe an ex vivo model that combines the physiological advantages of prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure in vivo with the uniformity of primary fetal hippocampal culture to characterize the effects of prenatal EtOH. The insulin signaling pathways are known to be involved in hippocampal functions...
June 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090562/thyroxine-administration-prevents-matrilineal-intergenerational-consequences-of-in-utero-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#7
Elif Tunc-Ozcan, Kathryn M Harper, Evan N Graf, Eva E Redei
The neurodevelopmental fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Conferring the deficits to the next generation would increase overall FASD disease burden and prevention of this transmission could be highly significant. Prior studies showed the reversal of these behavioral deficits by low dose thyroxine (T4) supplementation to the ethanol-consuming mothers. Here we aim to identify whether prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in the second-generation (F2) progeny, and whether T4 administration to the ethanol-consuming dam can prevent it...
June 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996510/neonatal-binge-alcohol-exposure-increases-microglial-activation-in-the-developing-rat-hippocampus
#8
K E Boschen, M J Ruggiero, A Y Klintsova
Aberrant activation of the developing immune system can have long-term negative consequences on cognition and behavior. Teratogens, such as alcohol, activate microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, which could contribute to the lifelong deficits in learning and memory observed in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. The current study investigates the microglial response of the brain 24 h following neonatal alcohol exposure (postnatal days (PDs) 4-9, 5.25 g/kg/day)...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26632335/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-impairs-temporal-ordering-behaviours-in-young-adult-rats
#9
Anna R Patten, Scott Sawchuk, Ryan C Wortman, Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes significant deficits in functional (i.e., synaptic) plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA) hippocampal sub-regions of young adult male rats. Previous research has shown that in the DG, these deficits are not apparent in age-matched PNEE females. This study aimed to expand these findings and determine if PNEE induces deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviours in both male and female young adult rats (PND 60). The metric change behavioural test examines DG-dependent deficits by determining whether an animal can detect a metric change between two identical objects...
February 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26399568/maternal-iron-deficiency-worsens-the-associative-learning-deficits-and-hippocampal-and-cerebellar-losses-in-a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#10
Shane M Huebner, Tuan D Tran, Echoleah S Rufer, Peter M Crump, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Gestational alcohol exposure causes lifelong physical and neurocognitive deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Micronutrient deficiencies are common in pregnancies of alcohol-abusing women. Here we show the most common micronutrient deficiency of pregnancy-iron deficiency without anemia-significantly worsens neurocognitive outcomes following perinatal alcohol exposure. METHODS: Pregnant rats were fed iron-deficient (ID) or iron-sufficient diets from gestational day 13 to postnatal day (P) 7...
November 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26380981/exposure-to-ethanol-during-neurodevelopment-modifies-crucial-offspring-rat-brain-enzyme-activities-in-a-region-specific-manner
#11
Vasileios Stolakis, Charis Liapi, Apostolos Zarros, Konstantina Kalopita, Vassilios Memtsas, John Botis, Anastasia Tsagianni, Despoina Kimpizi, Alexios Varatsos, Stylianos Tsakiris
The experimental simulation of conditions falling within "the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder" (FASD) requires the maternal exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during crucial neurodevelopmental periods; EtOH has been linked to a number of neurotoxic effects on the fetus, which are dependent upon the extent and the magnitude of the maternal exposure to EtOH and for which very little is known with regard to the exact mechanism(s) involved. The current study has examined the effects of moderate maternal exposure to EtOH (10 % v/v in the drinking water) throughout gestation, or gestation and lactation, on crucial 21-day-old offspring Wistar rat brain parameters, such as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and two adenosine triphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase), in major offspring CNS regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons)...
December 2015: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322248/sustained-impairments-in-brain-insulin-igf-signaling-in-adolescent-rats-subjected-to-binge-alcohol-exposures-during-development
#12
Alexandra Ewenczyk, Jason Ziplow, Ming Tong, Tran Le, Suzanne M de la Monte
BACKGROUND: Chronic or binge ethanol exposures during development can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) which consists of an array of neurobehavioral deficits, together with structural, molecular, biochemical, and neurotransmitter abnormalities in the brain. Previous studies showed that perinatal neurodevelopmental defects in FASD are associated with inhibition of brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. However, it is not known whether sustained abnormalities in adolescent brain structure and function are mediated by the same phenomena...
March 2012: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26305322/impaired-ilk-function-is-associated-with-deficits-in-hippocampal-based-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-fasd-rat-model
#13
D Bhattacharya, E P Dunaway, S Bhattacharya, J Bloemer, M Buabeid, M Escobar, V Suppiramaniam, M Dhanasekaran
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide range of anatomical and behavioral problems in children who are exposed to alcohol during the prenatal period. There is no effective treatment for FASD, because of lack of complete characterization of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. Alcohol has been previously characterized to affect integrins and growth factor signaling receptors. Integrin Linked Kinase (ILK) is an effector of integrin and growth-factor signaling which regulates various signaling processes...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26284742/third-trimester-equivalent-ethanol-exposure-increases-anxiety-like-behavior-and-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#14
Brian C Baculis, Marvin R Diaz, C Fernando Valenzuela
Ethanol consumption during pregnancy produces a wide range of morphological and behavioral alterations known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Among the behavioral deficits associated with FASD is an increased probability of developing anxiety disorders. Studies with animal models of FASD have demonstrated that ethanol exposure during the equivalent to the 1(st) and 2(nd) trimesters of human pregnancy increases anxiety-like behavior. Here, we examined the impact on this type of behavior of exposure to high doses of ethanol in vapor inhalation chambers during the rat equivalent to the human 3rd trimester of pregnancy (i...
October 2015: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26085462/choline-ameliorates-deficits-in-balance-caused-by-acute-neonatal-ethanol-exposure
#15
Cynthia F Bearer, Kristen A Wellmann, Ningfeng Tang, Min He, Sandra M Mooney
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is estimated to occur in 1 % of all live births. The developing cerebellum is vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol. People with FASD have cerebellar hypoplasia and developmental deficits associated with cerebellar injury. Choline is an essential nutrient, but many diets in the USA are choline deficient. In rats, choline given with or following alcohol exposure reduces many alcohol-induced neurobehavioral deficits but not those associated with cerebellar function...
August 2015: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25967699/voluntary-exercise-partially-reverses-neonatal-alcohol-induced-deficits-in-mpfc-layer-ii-iii-dendritic-morphology-of-male-adolescent-rats
#16
G F Hamilton, K J Criss, A Y Klintsova
Developmental alcohol exposure in humans can produce a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments in executive functioning later in life suggest long-term damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In rodent neonates, moderate to high levels of alcohol exposure decreased frontal lobe brain size and altered medial PFC pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology. Previous research in our lab demonstrated that neonatal alcohol exposure decreased basilar dendritic complexity but did not affect spine density in Layer II/III pyramidal neurons in 26- to 30-day-old rats...
August 2015: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25837482/the-effects-of-postnatal-alcohol-exposure-and-galantamine-on-the-context-pre-exposure-facilitation-effect-and-acetylcholine-efflux-using-in-vivo-microdialysis
#17
Amy E Perkins, Jim R Fadel, Sandra J Kelly
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by damage to multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, which is involved in learning and memory. The acetylcholine neurotransmitter system provides major input to the hippocampus and is a possible target of developmental alcohol exposure. Alcohol (3.0 g/kg/day) was administered via intubation to male rat pups (postnatal day [PD] 2-10; ethanol-treated [ET]). Controls received a sham intubation (IC) or no treatment (NC). Acetylcholine efflux was measured using in vivo microdialysis (PD 32-35)...
May 2015: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25707383/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-and-adolescent-stress-increase-sensitivity-to-stress-and-gonadal-hormone-influences-on-cognition-in-adult-female-rats
#18
Wendy L Comeau, Kristen Lee, Katie Anderson, Joanne Weinberg
Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition...
September 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25651620/-potential-therapy-of-intravenous-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-for-psychiatric-disorder-a-strategy-for-facilitation-of-neural-network-and-behavioral-recovery
#19
Tomohiro Shirasaka, Shigeki Kurosawa
Recent clinical neuroimaging studies have revealed a possible relationship between morphological brain changes and the manifestation of psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and alcoholism. Although its biological mechanism is still unclear, the emerging evidence suggests that the alteration of neurogenesis is the key factor for the morphological brain changes of these psychiatric disorders. In our previous work, we analyzed the mechanism of neural network disruption by ethanol using cultured cells, and found a suppressive effect of ethanol on neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation...
October 2014: Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25549080/moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-and-quantification-of-social-behavior-in-adult-rats
#20
Derek A Hamilton, Christy M Magcalas, Daniel Barto, Clark W Bird, Carlos I Rodriguez, Brandi C Fink, Sergio M Pellis, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage
Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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