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Václav Masopust, David Netuka, Vladimír Beneš, Martin Májovský, Tomáš Belšán, Ondřej Bradáč, Daniel Hořínek, Mikuláš Kosák, Václav Hána, Michal Kršek
INTRODUCTION: We continuously look for new techniques to improve the radicality of resection and to eliminate the negative effects of surgery. One of the methods that has been implemented in the perioperative management of Cushing's disease was the combination of three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences: SE, SPGR and fSPGR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 41 patients (11 males, 30 females) diagnosed with Cushing's disease. A 3D tumour model with a navigation console was developed using each SPGR, fSPGR and SE sequence...
November 2, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Pamela C Rosato, Lalit K Beura, David Masopust
Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) constitute a recently identified T cell lineage that is responsible for frontline defense against viral infections. In contrast to central and effector memory T cells, which constitutively recirculate between tissues and blood, TRM reside permanently within tissues. As the main surveyors of non-lymphoid tissues, TRM are positioned to rapidly respond upon reinfection at barrier sites. During a viral reinfection, TRM trigger the local tissue environment to activate and recruit immune cells and establish an antiviral state...
December 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Sathi Wijeyesinghe, David Masopust
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Nature Immunology
L K Beura, P C Rosato, D Masopust
Recent studies have established resident memory T cells (TRM ) as the dominant memory lymphocyte population surveying most nonlymphoid tissues. Unlike other memory T cell lineages, TRM do not recirculate through blood and are permanently confined to their tissue of residence. TRM orchestrate local immune responses and have been shown to accelerate local pathogen control in many experimental infection models. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in TRM differentiation, maintenance, and their protective function...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Martin Valis, Jiri Masopust, Oldrich Vysata, Jakub Hort, Rafael Dolezal, Jiri Tomek, Jan Misik, Kamil Kuca, Jana Zdarova Karasova
Although some studies have described the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil in the peripheral compartment, studies focused on drug transport across the blood-brain barrier are still very rare. To our knowledge, the fluctuation in the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of donepezil after administration of the drug has not been described in the literature so far. We recruited 16 patients regularly taking a standard therapeutic dose of donepezil (10 mg per day). All patients (Caucasian race) were treated for at least three months with a stable dose of 10 mg per day prior to sample collection...
January 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Shengbin Li, Joy M Folkvord, Eva G Rakasz, Hadia M Abdelaal, Reece K Wagstaff, Katalin J Kovacs, Hyeon O Kim, Ryoko Sawahata, Samantha MaWhinney, David Masopust, Elizabeth Connick, Pamela J Skinner
: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells are typically largely excluded from lymphoid B cell follicles, where HIV- and SIV-producing cells are most highly concentrated, indicating that B cell follicles are somewhat of an immunoprivileged site. To gain insights into virus-specific follicular CD8(+) T cells, we determined the location and phenotype of follicular SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in situ, the local relationship of these cells to Foxp3(+) cells, and the effects of CD8 depletion on levels of follicular SIV-producing cells in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Vaclav Masopust, David Netuka, Daniel Horinek, Mikulas Kosak, Vaclav Hana, Michal Krsek
INTRODUCTION: To increase radicality and avoid surgical complications new treatment options are under investigation. One of the promising possibilities is to assess early morning cortisol levels on the first and second postoperative day. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 34 patients (9 males, 25 females) diagnosed with Cushing's disease. Blood samples to determine cortisol level were taken always at 06:00 and sent to the lab. The samples were taken on the first and second postoperative day...
July 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Martin Májovský, Václav Masopust, David Netuka, Vladimír Beneš
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition with an increasing incidence. Standard treatment of CSDHs is surgical evacuation. The objective of this study is to present a modification of standard burr-hole hematoma evacuation using a flexible endoscope and to assess the advantages and risks. METHODS: Prospectively, 34 consecutive patients diagnosed with CSDH were included in the study. Epidemiological, clinical and radiographical data were collected and reviewed...
October 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
David Netuka, Martin Májovský, Václav Masopust, Tomáš Belšán, Josef Marek, Michal Kršek, Václav Hána, Jana Ježková, Václav Hána, Vladimír Beneš
BACKGROUND: The effect of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on the extent of sellar region tumors treated endonasally has been described in previous research. However, the effects of iMRI on endocrinologic outcome of growth hormone-secreting adenomas have been studied in only a few small cohort studies. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were primary transsphenoidal surgery for growth hormone-secreting adenoma from January 2009 to December 2014, a minimum follow-up of 1 year, complete endocrinologic data, at least 1 iMRI, and at least 2 postoperative magnetic resonance images...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
Tiffany A Reese, Kevin Bi, Amal Kambal, Ali Filali-Mouhim, Lalit K Beura, Matheus C Bürger, Bali Pulendran, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Stephen C Jameson, David Masopust, W Nicholas Haining, Herbert W Virgin
Immune responses differ between laboratory mice and humans. Chronic infection with viruses and parasites are common in humans, but are absent in laboratory mice, and thus represent potential contributors to inter-species differences in immunity. To test this, we sequentially infected laboratory mice with herpesviruses, influenza, and an intestinal helminth and compared their blood immune signatures to mock-infected mice before and after vaccination against yellow fever virus (YFV-17D). Sequential infection altered pre- and post-vaccination gene expression, cytokines, and antibodies in blood...
May 11, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Lalit K Beura, Sara E Hamilton, Kevin Bi, Jason M Schenkel, Oludare A Odumade, Kerry A Casey, Emily A Thompson, Kathryn A Fraser, Pamela C Rosato, Ali Filali-Mouhim, Rafick P Sekaly, Marc K Jenkins, Vaiva Vezys, W Nicholas Haining, Stephen C Jameson, David Masopust
Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside...
April 28, 2016: Nature
Jason M Schenkel, Kathryn A Fraser, Kerry A Casey, Lalit K Beura, Kristen E Pauken, Vaiva Vezys, David Masopust
IL-15 regulates central and effector memory CD8 T cell (TCM and TEM, respectively) homeostatic proliferation, maintenance, and longevity. Consequently, IL-15 availability hypothetically defines the carrying capacity for total memory CD8 T cells within the host. In conflict with this hypothesis, previous observations demonstrated that boosting generates preternaturally abundant TEM that increases the total quantity of memory CD8 T cells in mice. In this article, we provide a potential mechanistic explanation by reporting that boosted circulating TEM do not require IL-15 for maintenance...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Javed Mohammed, Lalit K Beura, Aleh Bobr, Brian Astry, Brian Chicoine, Sakeen W Kashem, Nathan E Welty, Botond Z Igyártó, Sathi Wijeyesinghe, Emily A Thompson, Catherine Matte, Laurent Bartholin, Alesia Kaplan, Dean Sheppard, Alina G Bridges, Warren D Shlomchik, David Masopust, Daniel H Kaplan
Cells of the immune system that reside in barrier epithelia provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Langerhans cells (LCs) and CD8(+) tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) require active transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) for epidermal residence. Here we found that integrins αvβ6 and αvβ8 were expressed in non-overlapping patterns by keratinocytes (KCs) and maintained the epidermal residence of LCs and TRM cells by activating latent TGF-β. Similarly, the residence of dendritic cells and TRM cells in the small intestine epithelium also required αvβ6...
April 2016: Nature Immunology
Brian D Hondowicz, Dowon An, Jason M Schenkel, Karen S Kim, Holly R Steach, Akshay T Krishnamurty, Gladys J Keitany, Esteban N Garza, Kathryn A Fraser, James J Moon, William A Altemeier, David Masopust, Marion Pepper
Exposure to inhaled allergens generates T helper 2 (Th2) CD4(+) T cells that contribute to episodes of inflammation associated with asthma. Little is known about allergen-specific Th2 memory cells and their contribution to airway inflammation. We generated reagents to understand how endogenous CD4(+) T cells specific for a house dust mite (HDM) allergen form and function. After allergen exposure, HDM-specific memory cells persisted as central memory cells in the lymphoid organs and tissue-resident memory cells in the lung...
January 19, 2016: Immunity
Monika Drastikova, Martin Beranek, Filip Gabalec, David Netuka, Vaclav Masopust, Tomas Cesak, Josef Marek, Vladimir Palicka, Jan Cap
AIMS: Pituitary adenomas (PA) are non-invasive benign tumors with a high autopsy prevalence. They are classified according to the type of hormone secreted (prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin, folitropin, or luteinizing hormone). Clinically non-functioning adenomas (CNFA) lacking the typical hypersecretion of hormones make up a significant portion of PA. The aim of the study was to determine the complete expression profiles of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-SSTR5), dopamine receptors type 2 (D2R), and estrogen receptors (ER1) in various types of PA...
June 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
R A Drummond, I M Dambuza, S Vautier, J A Taylor, D M Reid, C C Bain, D M Underhill, D Masopust, D H Kaplan, G D Brown
Dectin-1 is an innate antifungal C-type lectin receptor necessary for protective antifungal immunity. We recently discovered that Dectin-1 is involved in controlling fungal infections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but how this C-type lectin receptor mediates these activities is unknown. Here, we show that Dectin-1 is essential for driving fungal-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses in the GI tract. Loss of Dectin-1 resulted in abrogated dendritic cell responses in the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and defective T-cell co-stimulation, causing substantial increases in CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis and reductions in the cellularity of GI-associated lymphoid tissues...
March 2016: Mucosal Immunology
M Májovský, D Netuka, V Masopust, V Beneš
INTRODUCTION: Clivus is a central structure of the skull base located in the vicinity of the brainstem and vital brain vessels. Clival fractures are usually caused by a high-energy trauma. Cerebrospinal fluid leak is one of the most common complications. CASE REPORT: A middle-aged male sustained a mild head trauma, followed by a nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak. CT scan revealed the massive pneumocephalus and the fracture of the clivus in the posterior wall of the sphenoidal sinus...
July 2015: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Frederick J Kohlhapp, Joseph R Broucek, Tasha Hughes, Erica J Huelsmann, Jevgenijs Lusciks, Janet P Zayas, Hubert Dolubizno, Vidyaratna A Fleetwood, Alisa Grin, Graham E Hill, Joseph L Poshepny, Arman Nabatiyan, Carl E Ruby, Joshua D Snook, Jai S Rudra, Jason M Schenkel, David Masopust, Andrew Zloza, Howard L Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is one of the few types of cancer with an increasing annual incidence. While a number of immunotherapies for melanoma have been associated with significant clinical benefit, including high-dose IL-2 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockade, clinical response to either of these single agents has been limited to 11-20% of treated patients. Therefore, in this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that the combination of IL-2 and CTLA-4 blockade could mediate a more profound therapeutic response...
2015: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Elizabeth M Steinert, Jason M Schenkel, Kathryn A Fraser, Lalit K Beura, Luke S Manlove, Botond Z Igyártó, Peter J Southern, David Masopust
Memory CD8 T cells protect against intracellular pathogens by scanning host cell surfaces; thus, infection detection rates depend on memory cell number and distribution. Population analyses rely on cell isolation from whole organs, and interpretation is predicated on presumptions of near complete cell recovery. Paradigmatically, memory is parsed into central, effector, and resident subsets, ostensibly defined by immunosurveillance patterns but in practice identified by phenotypic markers. Because isolation methods ultimately inform models of memory T cell differentiation, protection, and vaccine translation, we tested their validity via parabiosis and quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of a mouse memory CD8 T cell population...
May 7, 2015: Cell
Jan Masopust, Jiří Charvát, Dana Mokrá, Ondřej Hloch, Jan Háša
Our report describes the case of patient with hypersensitive reaction regularly arising early after initiation of haemodialysis. This characteristic reaction with pletoric face coloration, bronchospasm, increase of blood pressure, anxiety and decrease of blood oxygen saturation at the consequence and central cyanosis was regularly present without dependence on type of dialysis membrane, drug premedication or prophylactic flushing haemodialysis system by isotonic natrium chloride solution. Low platelet value and trouble-free haemodialysis realized without heparin showed real cause of patients problem...
March 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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