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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067995/induction-of-vaginal-resident-hiv-specific-cd8-t-cells-with-mucosal-prime-boost-immunization
#1
H-X Tan, A K Wheatley, R Esterbauer, S Jegaskanda, J J Glass, D Masopust, R De Rose, S J Kent
Tissue-resident memory (TRM) CD8 T cells survey a range of non-lymphoid mucosal tissues where they rapidly mediate clearance of viral infections at the entry portals. Vaccines that establish CD8 TRM cells in the cervicovaginal mucosa hold promise for effective immunity against sexually transmitted HIV. We demonstrate that HIV-specific CD8 TRM cells can be established in the murine vaginal mucosa using a combined intranasal and intravaginal mucosal immunization with recombinant influenza-HIV vectors. Using in situ tetramer immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that this mucosally administered prime-boost immunization also resulted in the durable seeding of CD8 T cells in the frontline vaginal epithelial compartment as opposed to the vaginal submucosa...
October 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760163/stable-engraftment-of-human-microbiota-into-mice-with-a-single-oral-gavage-following-antibiotic-conditioning
#2
Christopher Staley, Thomas Kaiser, Lalit K Beura, Matthew J Hamilton, Alexa R Weingarden, Aleh Bobr, Johnthomas Kang, David Masopust, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts
BACKGROUND: Human microbiota-associated (HMA) animal models relying on germ-free recipient mice are being used to study the relationship between intestinal microbiota and human disease. However, transfer of microbiota into germ-free animals also triggers global developmental changes in the recipient intestine, which can mask disease-specific attributes of the donor material. Therefore, a simple model of replacing microbiota into a developmentally mature intestinal environment remains highly desirable...
August 1, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696328/of-mice-dirty-mice-and-men-using-mice-to-understand-human-immunology
#3
REVIEW
David Masopust, Christine P Sivula, Stephen C Jameson
Mouse models have enabled breakthroughs in our understanding of the immune system, but it has become increasingly popular to emphasize their shortcomings when translating observations to humans. This review provides a brief summary of mouse natural history, husbandry, and the pros and cons of pursuing basic research in mice versus humans. Opportunities are discussed for extending the predictive translational value of mouse research, with an emphasis on exploitation of a "dirty" mouse model that better mimics the diverse infectious history that is typical of most humans...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361896/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-live-off-the-fat-of-the-land
#4
J Michael Stolley, David Masopust
The consumption of exogenous free fatty acids by tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells is critical for their long-term survival and antiviral function, and appears to be a conserved feature of Trm cells in both mouse and man, a recent paper published in Nature demonstrates.
July 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348039/what-is-the-predictive-value-of-animal-models-for-vaccine-efficacy-in-humans-reevaluating-the-potential-of-mouse-models-for-the-human-immune-system
#5
Stephen C Jameson, David Masopust
Much of what we understand about immunology, including the response to vaccines, come from studies in mice because they provide many practical advantages compared with research in higher mammals and humans. Nevertheless, modalities for preventing or treating disease do not always translate from mouse to humans, which has led to increasing scrutiny of the continued merits of mouse research. Here, we summarize the pros and cons of current laboratory mouse models for immunology research and discuss whether overreliance on nonphysiological, ultra-hygienic animal husbandry approaches has limited the ultimate translation potential of mouse-derived data to humans...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988033/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-histology-correlation-in-cushing-s-disease
#6
Václav Masopust, David Netuka, Vladimír Beneš, Martin Májovský, Tomáš Belšán, Ondřej Bradáč, Daniel Hořínek, Mikuláš Kosák, Václav Hána, Michal Kršek
INTRODUCTION: We continuously look for new techniques to improve the radicality of resection and to eliminate the negative effects of surgery. One of the methods that has been implemented in the perioperative management of Cushing's disease was the combination of three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences: SE, SPGR and fSPGR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 41 patients (11 males, 30 females) diagnosed with Cushing's disease. A 3D tumour model with a navigation console was developed using each SPGR, fSPGR and SE sequence...
January 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987416/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-and-viral-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Pamela C Rosato, Lalit K Beura, David Masopust
Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) constitute a recently identified T cell lineage that is responsible for frontline defense against viral infections. In contrast to central and effector memory T cells, which constitutively recirculate between tissues and blood, TRM reside permanently within tissues. As the main surveyors of non-lymphoid tissues, TRM are positioned to rapidly respond upon reinfection at barrier sites. During a viral reinfection, TRM trigger the local tissue environment to activate and recruit immune cells and establish an antiviral state...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849200/resident-memory-t-cells-are-a-notch-above-the-rest
#8
Sathi Wijeyesinghe, David Masopust
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804207/implications-of-resident-memory-t-cells-for-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
L K Beura, P C Rosato, D Masopust
Recent studies have established resident memory T cells (TRM ) as the dominant memory lymphocyte population surveying most nonlymphoid tissues. Unlike other memory T cell lineages, TRM do not recirculate through blood and are permanently confined to their tissue of residence. TRM orchestrate local immune responses and have been shown to accelerate local pathogen control in many experimental infection models. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in TRM differentiation, maintenance, and their protective function...
May 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718143/concentration-of-donepezil-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-ad-patients-evaluation-of-dosage-sufficiency-in-standard-treatment-strategy
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Martin Valis, Jiri Masopust, Oldrich Vysata, Jakub Hort, Rafael Dolezal, Jiri Tomek, Jan Misik, Kamil Kuca, Jana Zdarova Karasova
Although some studies have described the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil in the peripheral compartment, studies focused on drug transport across the blood-brain barrier are still very rare. To our knowledge, the fluctuation in the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of donepezil after administration of the drug has not been described in the literature so far. We recruited 16 patients regularly taking a standard therapeutic dose of donepezil (10 mg per day). All patients (Caucasian race) were treated for at least three months with a stable dose of 10 mg per day prior to sample collection...
January 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707919/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-producing-cells-in-follicles-are-partially-suppressed-by-cd8-cells-in-vivo
#11
Shengbin Li, Joy M Folkvord, Eva G Rakasz, Hadia M Abdelaal, Reece K Wagstaff, Katalin J Kovacs, Hyeon O Kim, Ryoko Sawahata, Samantha MaWhinney, David Masopust, Elizabeth Connick, Pamela J Skinner
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells are typically largely excluded from lymphoid B cell follicles, where HIV- and SIV-producing cells are most highly concentrated, indicating that B cell follicles are somewhat of an immunoprivileged site. To gain insights into virus-specific follicular CD8(+) T cells, we determined the location and phenotype of follicular SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in situ, the local relationship of these cells to Foxp3(+) cells, and the effects of CD8 depletion on levels of follicular SIV-producing cells in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618608/the-role-of-early-cortisol-level-in-the-assessment-of-the-radicality-of-resection-in-central-cushing-s-disease
#12
Vaclav Masopust, David Netuka, Daniel Horinek, Mikulas Kosak, Vaclav Hana, Michal Krsek
INTRODUCTION: To increase radicality and avoid surgical complications new treatment options are under investigation. One of the promising possibilities is to assess early morning cortisol levels on the first and second postoperative day. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 34 patients (9 males, 25 females) diagnosed with Cushing's disease. Blood samples to determine cortisol level were taken always at 06:00 and sent to the lab. The samples were taken on the first and second postoperative day...
July 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473394/flexible-endoscope-assisted-evacuation-of-chronic-subdural-hematomas
#13
Martin Májovský, Václav Masopust, David Netuka, Vladimír Beneš
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition with an increasing incidence. Standard treatment of CSDHs is surgical evacuation. The objective of this study is to present a modification of standard burr-hole hematoma evacuation using a flexible endoscope and to assess the advantages and risks. METHODS: Prospectively, 34 consecutive patients diagnosed with CSDH were included in the study. Epidemiological, clinical and radiographical data were collected and reviewed...
October 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150652/intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-during-endoscopic-transsphenoidal-surgery-of-growth-hormone-secreting-pituitary-adenomas
#14
David Netuka, Martin Májovský, Václav Masopust, Tomáš Belšán, Josef Marek, Michal Kršek, Václav Hána, Jana Ježková, Václav Hána, Vladimír Beneš
BACKGROUND: The effect of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on the extent of sellar region tumors treated endonasally has been described in previous research. However, the effects of iMRI on endocrinologic outcome of growth hormone-secreting adenomas have been studied in only a few small cohort studies. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were primary transsphenoidal surgery for growth hormone-secreting adenoma from January 2009 to December 2014, a minimum follow-up of 1 year, complete endocrinologic data, at least 1 iMRI, and at least 2 postoperative magnetic resonance images...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107939/sequential-infection-with-common-pathogens-promotes-human-like-immune-gene-expression-and-altered-vaccine-response
#15
Tiffany A Reese, Kevin Bi, Amal Kambal, Ali Filali-Mouhim, Lalit K Beura, Matheus C Bürger, Bali Pulendran, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Stephen C Jameson, David Masopust, W Nicholas Haining, Herbert W Virgin
Immune responses differ between laboratory mice and humans. Chronic infection with viruses and parasites are common in humans, but are absent in laboratory mice, and thus represent potential contributors to inter-species differences in immunity. To test this, we sequentially infected laboratory mice with herpesviruses, influenza, and an intestinal helminth and compared their blood immune signatures to mock-infected mice before and after vaccination against yellow fever virus (YFV-17D). Sequential infection altered pre- and post-vaccination gene expression, cytokines, and antibodies in blood...
May 11, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27096360/normalizing-the-environment-recapitulates-adult-human-immune-traits-in-laboratory-mice
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lalit K Beura, Sara E Hamilton, Kevin Bi, Jason M Schenkel, Oludare A Odumade, Kerry A Casey, Emily A Thompson, Kathryn A Fraser, Pamela C Rosato, Ali Filali-Mouhim, Rafick P Sekaly, Marc K Jenkins, Vaiva Vezys, W Nicholas Haining, Stephen C Jameson, David Masopust
Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside...
April 28, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001957/il-15-independent-maintenance-of-tissue-resident-and-boosted-effector-memory-cd8-t-cells
#17
Jason M Schenkel, Kathryn A Fraser, Kerry A Casey, Lalit K Beura, Kristen E Pauken, Vaiva Vezys, David Masopust
IL-15 regulates central and effector memory CD8 T cell (TCM and TEM, respectively) homeostatic proliferation, maintenance, and longevity. Consequently, IL-15 availability hypothetically defines the carrying capacity for total memory CD8 T cells within the host. In conflict with this hypothesis, previous observations demonstrated that boosting generates preternaturally abundant TEM that increases the total quantity of memory CD8 T cells in mice. In this article, we provide a potential mechanistic explanation by reporting that boosted circulating TEM do not require IL-15 for maintenance...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901152/stromal-cells-control-the-epithelial-residence-of-dcs-and-memory-t-cells-by-regulated-activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE
#18
Javed Mohammed, Lalit K Beura, Aleh Bobr, Brian Astry, Brian Chicoine, Sakeen W Kashem, Nathan E Welty, Botond Z Igyártó, Sathi Wijeyesinghe, Emily A Thompson, Catherine Matte, Laurent Bartholin, Alesia Kaplan, Dean Sheppard, Alina G Bridges, Warren D Shlomchik, David Masopust, Daniel H Kaplan
Cells of the immune system that reside in barrier epithelia provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Langerhans cells (LCs) and CD8(+) tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) require active transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) for epidermal residence. Here we found that integrins αvβ6 and αvβ8 were expressed in non-overlapping patterns by keratinocytes (KCs) and maintained the epidermal residence of LCs and TRM cells by activating latent TGF-β. Similarly, the residence of dendritic cells and TRM cells in the small intestine epithelium also required αvβ6...
April 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26750312/interleukin-2-dependent-allergen-specific-tissue-resident-memory-cells-drive-asthma
#19
Brian D Hondowicz, Dowon An, Jason M Schenkel, Karen S Kim, Holly R Steach, Akshay T Krishnamurty, Gladys J Keitany, Esteban N Garza, Kathryn A Fraser, James J Moon, William A Altemeier, David Masopust, Marion Pepper
Exposure to inhaled allergens generates T helper 2 (Th2) CD4(+) T cells that contribute to episodes of inflammation associated with asthma. Little is known about allergen-specific Th2 memory cells and their contribution to airway inflammation. We generated reagents to understand how endogenous CD4(+) T cells specific for a house dust mite (HDM) allergen form and function. After allergen exposure, HDM-specific memory cells persisted as central memory cells in the lymphoid organs and tissue-resident memory cells in the lung...
January 19, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26607296/expression-profiles-of-somatostatin-dopamine-and-estrogen-receptors-in-pituitary-adenomas-determined-by-means-of-synthetic-multilocus-calibrators
#20
Monika Drastikova, Martin Beranek, Filip Gabalec, David Netuka, Vaclav Masopust, Tomas Cesak, Josef Marek, Vladimir Palicka, Jan Cap
AIMS: Pituitary adenomas (PA) are non-invasive benign tumors with a high autopsy prevalence. They are classified according to the type of hormone secreted (prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin, folitropin, or luteinizing hormone). Clinically non-functioning adenomas (CNFA) lacking the typical hypersecretion of hormones make up a significant portion of PA. The aim of the study was to determine the complete expression profiles of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-SSTR5), dopamine receptors type 2 (D2R), and estrogen receptors (ER1) in various types of PA...
June 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
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