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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221262/recent-advances-in-computed-tomographic-technology-cardiopulmonary-imaging-applications
#1
Azadeh Tabari, Roberto Lo Gullo, Venkatesh Murugan, Alexi Otrakji, Subba Digumarthy, Mannudeep Kalra
Cardiothoracic diseases result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Chest computed tomography (CT) has been an imaging modality of choice for assessing a host of chest diseases, and technologic advances have enabled the emergence of coronary CT angiography as a robust noninvasive test for cardiac imaging. Technologic developments in CT have also enabled the application of dual-energy CT scanning for assessing pulmonary vascular and neoplastic processes. Concerns over increasing radiation dose from CT scanning are being addressed with introduction of more dose-efficient wide-area detector arrays and iterative reconstruction techniques...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216515/particular-morphology-of-inferior-pulmonary-veins-and-difficulty-of-cryoballoon-ablation-in-patients-with-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Ryobun Yasuoka, Takashi Kurita, Yasuhito Kotake, Naotaka Hashiguchi, Koichiro Motoki, Kazuhiro Kobuke, Yoshitaka Iwanaga, Shunichi Miyazaki
BACKGROUND: The CRYO-Japan PMS study indicated that cryoballoon ablation (Cryo-Abl) has a lower acute success rate of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for the right and left inferior PVs (RIPV and LIPV, respectively) than for the superior PVs. This study aimed to determine if the orientation and position of the inferior PVs are related to the difficulty of acute success of PVI.Methods and Results:We investigated 30 consecutive patients who underwent Cryo-Abl. A "difficult PV" was defined as the requirement for >2 cooling applications and/or touch-up ablation to achieve PVI...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216491/-correlation-between-31-t-c-polymorphisms-of-%C3%A2-interleukin-1%C3%AE-gene-and-kawasaki-disease
#3
Deng Zou, Elzaher Ahmed Mohamed, Jie Jiang, Lang Tian, Jia Chen, Zhuoying Li, Zuocheng Yang
To explore the correlation between the -31T/C polymorphisms of IL-1β gene and thesusceptibility of Kawasaki disease (KD).
 Methods: The polymorphism at -31C/T site of IL-1β gene was genotyped with the method of polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 100 KD patients (KD group) and 100 healthy children (control group). The differences in genotype distribution and allele frequency between the KD group and the control group were analyzed by χ2 test.
 Results: There were significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies for IL-1β gene polymorphism at -31C/T site between the KD group and the control group (all P<0...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216252/calcification-of-the-splenic-iliac-and-breast-arteries-and-risk-of-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality
#4
Eva J E Hendriks, Joline W J Beulens, Pim A de Jong, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Wei-Ning Sun, C Michael Wright, Michael H Criqui, Matthew A Allison, Joachim H Ix
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CVD risks associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and aortic calcification (AC) are well known, but less is known about other calcified arteries. We aimed to assess the associations of arterial calcification in the breast, splenic, and internal and external iliac arteries with CVD risk factors and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study nested in a cohort of 5196 individuals who self-referred or were referred by a health care provider for whole body computed tomography (CT), including a random subcohort (n = 395) and total and CVD mortality cases (n = 298 and n = 90), who died during a median follow-up of 9...
January 30, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214228/coronary-artery-stent-evaluation-with-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-at-coronary-ct-angiography
#5
Fuminari Tatsugami, Toru Higaki, Hiroaki Sakane, Wataru Fukumoto, Yoko Kaichi, Makoto Iida, Yasutaka Baba, Masao Kiguchi, Yasuki Kihara, So Tsushima, Kazuo Awai
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the image quality of coronary artery stent scans on computed tomography images reconstructed with forward projected model-based iterative reconstruction solution (FIRST) and adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coronary computed tomography angiography scans of 23 patients with 32 coronary stents were used. The images were reconstructed with AIDR 3D and FIRST. We generated computed tomography attenuation profiles across the stents and measured the width of the edge rise distance and the edge rise slope (ERS)...
February 14, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214139/accuracy-of-computed-tomography-angiography-to-identify-thin-cap-fibroatheroma-detected-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#6
Nobuo Tomizawa, Kodai Yamamoto, Shinichi Inoh, Takeshi Nojo, Sunao Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is assumed to cause acute coronary syndromes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of different models for diagnosing TCFA using parameters derived by CT, validated against optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine plaques in 106 patients were analyzed using data acquired by 64-row CT with a reconstruction thickness of 0.67 mm and an increment of 0.33 mm. TCFA was defined by OCT as a plaque with lipid content in ≥2 quadrants and the thinnest part of the fibrous cap measuring ≤65 μm...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210769/preprocedural-risk-assessment-prior-to-ppvi-with-cmr-and-cardiac-ct
#7
Ladonna Malone, Brian Fonseca, Thomas Fagan, Jane Gralla, Neil Wilson, Micheal DiMaria, Uyen Truong, Lorna P Browne
Percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention (PPVI) is a less invasive and less costly approach to pulmonary valve replacement compared with the surgical alternative. Potential complications of PPVI include coronary compression and pulmonary arterial injury/rupture. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphological risk factors for PPVI complication with cardiac MRI and cardiac CTA. A retrospective review of 88 PPVI procedures was performed. 44 patients had preprocedural cardiac MRIs or CTAs available for review...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209366/quantifying-aortic-valve-calcification-using-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#8
Abdulrahman M Alqahtani, Kevin E Boczar, Vinay Kansal, Kwan Chan, Girish Dwivedi, Benjamin J W Chow
INTRODUCTION: Aortic valve calcification (AVC) has been associated with major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. We sought to develop and validate a method to quantify AVC using coronary CT angiography (CTA). METHODS: Of 59 patients who underwent both non-contrast and contrast enhanced coronary CTA, 25 patients served as the derivation cohort and 34 patients served as the validation cohort. For non-contrast enhanced CT, quantification of AVC was performed using the Agatston method for coronary artery calcification (CAC)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207527/zhibitai-and-low-dose-atorvastatin-reduce-blood-lipids-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#9
Yuhong Zhao, Ran Peng, Wang Zhao, Qiong Liu, Yuan Guo, Shuiping Zhao, Danyan Xu
BACKGROUND: Atorvastatin decreases blood lipids but is associated with side effects. Zhibitai is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat blood lipid disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect, antiinflammatory effect, and adverse events of zhibitai combined to atorvastatin in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHDs). METHODS: Patients with CHD (n = 150) were randomized to: zhibitai 480 mg + atorvastatin 10 mg (ZA10 group), atorvastatin 20 mg (A20 group), and atorvastatin 40 mg (A40 group)...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205113/cardiac-pet-ct-with-rb-82-optimization-of-image-acquisition-and-reconstruction-parameters
#10
P Chilra, S Gnesin, G Allenbach, M Monteiro, J O Prior, L Vieira, J A Pires Jorge
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to characterize the influence of time-of-flight (TOF) and point spread function (PSF) recovery corrections, as well as ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction parameters, in (82)Rb PET/CT quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Rest and stress list-mode dynamic (82)Rb PET acquisition data from 10 patients without myocardial flow defects and 10 patients with myocardial blood flow defects were reconstructed retrospectively...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203068/ectopic-fat-accumulation-in-patients-with-copd-an-eclipse-substudy
#11
Mickaël Martin, Natalie Almeras, Jean-Pierre Després, Harvey O Coxson, George R Washko, Isabelle Vivodtzev, Emiel Fm Wouters, Erica Rutten, Michelle C Williams, John T Murchison, William MacNee, Don D Sin, François Maltais
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202246/analysis-of-myocardial-perfusion-parameters-in-an-ex-vivo-porcine-heart-model-using-third-generation-dual-source-ct
#12
Gert Jan Pelgrim, Taylor M Duguay, J Marco A Stijnen, Akos Varga-Szemes, Sjoerd Van Tuijl, U Joseph Schoepf, Matthijs Oudkerk, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between fractional flow reserve (FFR)-determined coronary artery stenosis severity and myocardial perfusion parameters derived from dynamic myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in an ex-vivo porcine heart model. METHODS: Six porcine hearts were perfused according to Langendorff. Circulatory parameters such as arterial blood flow (ABF) (L/min), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (mmHg) and heart rate (bpm) were monitored. Using an inflatable cuff and monitored via a pressure wire, coronary artery stenoses of different FFR grades were created (no stenosis, FFR = 0...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28200212/head-to-head-comparison-of-adaptive-statistical-and-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-algorithms-for-submillisievert-coronary-ct-angiography
#13
Dominik C Benz, Tobias A Fuchs, Christoph Gräni, Annina A Studer Bruengger, Olivier F Clerc, Fran Mikulicic, Michael Messerli, Julia Stehli, Mathias Possner, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Oliver Gaemperli, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199411/cortical-porosity-not-superior-to-conventional-densitometry-in-identifying-hemodialysis-patients-with-fragility-fracture
#14
Bernhard Bielesz, Janina M Patsch, Lukas Fischer, Marija Bojic, Wolfgang Winnicki, Michael Weber, Daniel Cejka
Hemodialysis (HD) patients face increased fracture risk, which is further associated with elevated risk of hospitalization and mortality. High-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has advanced our understanding of bone disease in chronic kidney disease by characterizing distinct changes in both the cortical and trabecular compartments. Increased cortical porosity (Ct.Po) has been shown to be associated with fracture in patients with osteopenia or in postmenopausal diabetic women. We tested whether the degree of Ct...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196758/evaluation-of-image-quality-of-coronary-artery-plaque-with-rapid-kvp-switching-dual-energy-ct
#15
Yasutoshi Ohta, Shinichiro Kitao, Tomomi Watanabe, Junichi Kishimoto, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Toshihide Ogawa
We evaluated the virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) energy levels that maximize image quality of each coronary plaque component in dual-energy computed tomography angiography in 495 coronary segments (45 for each energy level). Maximal signal-to-noise ratios were different for plaque, lumen, fat, and surrounding tissue (p<0.05). Maximal contrast-to-noise ratios were observed at 70keV for calcified plaque (CP), non-calcified plaque (NCP), and fat in comparison with the lumen (p<0.05), and 70keV and 120keV for NCP in comparison with fat (p=0...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194700/perioperative-management-for-iatrogenic-aortocoronary-dissection-during-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#16
Takashi Shuto, Hirofumi Anai, Jun Hirota, Tomoyuki Wada, Satoshi Takebayashi, Shinji Miyamoto
Aortocoronary dissection is a rare but serious complication. We report the case of a 72-year-old female with angina. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed for right coronary artery disease. Manipulation of the guiding catheter led to aortocoronary dissection. A drug-eluting stent was immediately implanted in the right coronary ostium to seal the entry of the dissection. Computed tomography (CT) showed ascending aortic dissection. The patient was observed without surgery. CT performed the following day and showed the contrast in the false lumen which had disappeared...
February 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193446/usefulness-of-calcium-scoring-as-a-screening-examination-in-patients-with-a-history-of-kawasaki-disease
#17
Andrew M Kahn, Matthew J Budoff, Lori B Daniels, Jun Oyamada, John B Gordon, Jane C Burns
Subsets of patients with a remote history of Kawasaki disease (KD) have coronary artery aneurysms with associated risks of late morbidity. In a pilot study, we previously showed that computed tomography (CT) coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring detects late CAC in patients with aneurysms and a remote history of KD. We performed CT calcium volume scoring in 166 subjects (median age 19.5 years) with a remote history of KD (median interval from KD to CT 15.1 years). Coronary arteries were classified as normal (n = 100), transiently dilated (n = 23), persistently dilated (n = 10), remodeled aneurysm (n = 9), or aneurysm (n = 24) based on echocardiography...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190514/transluminal-attenuation-gradient-and-corrected-models-in-coronary-ct-angiography-for-determining-stenosis-severity-a-primary-study-using-dual-source-ct
#18
K Peng, N Xu, L Zhang, F Xiao, N Indima, J Zhang, Y Shen, W Peng, G Tang
AIM: To compare the incremental value of transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), TAG with corrected contrast opacification (TAG-CCO), and TAG with exclusion of calcified coronary segments (TAG-ExC) in determining the stenosis severity of coronary arteries using coronary angiography (CAG) as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifteen patients who underwent computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and confirmed by coronary angiography (CAG) were included in the retrospective analysis...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183285/early-detection-of-myocardial-infarction-following-blunt-chest-trauma-by-computed-tomography-a-case-report
#19
Thung-Lip Lee, Chin-Feng Hsuan, Chen-Hsiang Shih, Huai-Wen Liang, Hsing-Shan Tsai, Wei-Kung Tseng, Kwan-Lih Hsu
BACKGROUND: Blunt cardiac trauma encompasses a wide range of clinical entities, including myocardial contusion, cardiac rupture, valve avulsion, pericardial injuries, arrhythmia, and even myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery dissection after blunt chest trauma is rare and may be life threatening. Differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from cardiac contusion at this setting is not easy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we demonstrated a case of blunt chest trauma, with computed tomography detected myocardium enhancement defect early at emergency department...
February 10, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183271/association-in-a-chinese-population-of-a-genetic-variation-in-the-early-b-cell-factor-1-gene-with-coronary-artery-disease
#20
Yafei Li, Zhiyong Xie, Lei Chen, Jianjun Yan, Yao Ma, Liansheng Wang, Zhong Chen
BACKGROUND: Early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) is a transcription factor expressed primarily during early B cell development. Previous studies have shown EBF1 regulates blood glucose and lipid metabolism in mice with diabetes and central adiposity. Recently, a genetic variation (rs36071027) located in an EBF1 gene intron was associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. However, whether this polymorphism is actually linked with coronary artery disease (CAD) and its severity remains unclear...
February 10, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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